Breathing Paint Fumes – What’s at Risk and How to Eliminate Paint Fumes From Your Air

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 Paint is a relatively easy and inexpensive way to give a room or home a quick makeover. But what do you risk health wise by inhaling paint fumes and how can you eliminate them?

 

What you risk depends on the paint that was used. Oil paint or any paint that contains volatile organic chemicals has elements in it that evaporate easily into the air. Examples are solvents, thinners that maintain an even consistency, and drying agents that help the paint dry faster. These are often the ingredients that off gas and can make paint fumes so harmful.

 

You may first notice a headache, watery or burning eyes or nose, dry throat, light headedness, dizziness, or nausea. This is your body’s way of saying get me out of here and away from these paint fumes! Generally these symptoms will disappear if you are only exposed to the fumes for a very short time. But often paint will off gas fumes for weeks, forcing you and all who live in the newly painted space to continue to inhale these fumes over a long period of time.

 

Young children are particularly vulnerable to these fumes because their respiration is comparatively fast, and their bodies are smaller which means their bodies are subjected to much more of the paint fumes than a healthy adult. Pregnant mothers also risk harm to the developing fetus, and continued exposure can interfere with normal growth and development. Older adults are also more at risk many times because of pre-existing conditions such as heart problems, respiratory conditions such as asthma or bronchitis, and/or an immune system that is in some way compromised.

 

There are paints available now that contain low and even no volatile organic chemicals. They are more expensive, but certainly worth the extra money for the health advantages they provide. But if you’ve moved into an apartment or newly constructed home, you may not have control over the paint that was used, and unless you act, you and your family may in fact be forced to just live in this unhealthy environment.

 

A high efficiency particle arresting (abbreviated as HEPA) air purifier that has a filter that specifically targets and removes these fumes can clear the air and make the air quality in your home healthy again. How does it do this? It is designed to run 24 hours a day to continuously removing these paint fumes from your air as soon as they off gas.

 

By opting for a HEPA air purifier you also get the added advantage of a cleaner that can remove other household particulates that may have resulted from new construction or a home makeover. This filter by definition is designed to remove normal household pollutants such as household dust, dust mites, mold and mildew spores, pollen, pet dander, bacteria and viruses all as small as .3 microns.

 

The best of these air cleaners contain 4 filters built into one easy-to-change canister, each with a different purpose making it a powerful yet compact and very efficient solution to removing paint fumes from your air.

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Source by Debbie Davis

Cheating Spouse – Tip Off a Friend With an Anonymous Message

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There are a lot of different types of secrets in the world, but the worst kinds are those that are held to protect the feelings, emotions and hearts of the people we love. It’s painful to witness the growing relationship of close friends begin to spiral downward but it’s worse when you discover that one is cheating on the other. The difficulty of the situation tends to be compounded by the fact that you’re likely friends with both people involved.

So how do you tell your friend that they have a cheating spouse?

There’s a lot of fear and worry that comes along with this. When this kind of information lands in your lap you’re likely to cycle through a lot of different questions while mulling over the staggering situation without losing your own head in the dizzying spin:

  • Will my friend believe me?
  • Will he/she get angry with me?
  • What about the one who is cheating, will he/she get angry with me?
  • Should I try to talk some sense into the friend that’s cheating?
  • Should I just leave it alone since it’s not my business?
  • Can I trust the cheating friend with anything anymore
  • Am I certain that he/she is really cheating? What if I’m wrong – I don’t want to wreck their home
  • What if I lose my friendship with both of them if I say something?
  • What if I do nothing and then they find out later that I knew?
  • What will my other friends/family think of me if I get involved?

Yeah, that’s a long list and the questions can just continue on from there. Letting a friend know that they have a cheating spouse is choppy waters to say the least. It’s more like white rapids with a good chance of getting dumped out of the boat.

How do you tell someone you care about then that they are married to a cheating spouse?

The common theme in the questions above, if you look closely, is how talking about the issue will reflect back on the person reporting on the activity. No matter how you personally get involved (or choose not to) it’s still on you. The only true way to avoid getting caught in the middle – where’s there’s a chance someone will try to kill the messenger – is to send an anonymous message or anonymous letter with information pertaining to the cheating spouse.

If you don’t want to blow the whistle directly to the victim, you can also use an anonymous messaging service to let the cheater know that someone else knows – that they hurting their spouse and the other people who care about them.

Sometimes all it takes is the right words to let someone else know that people are watching out for them, that people care. That can be enough to correct the problem.

The worst thing anyone can choose to do is nothing at all. Edmund Burke said it best when he stated “All that is necessary for Evil to triumph is for good men to do nothing”.

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Source by Derek Cromwell

How to Dress a Mannequin in 10 Easy Steps

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In the world of Retail Clothing, dressing mannequins and displays are an integral part of promoting Clothing Ranges and accessories. Dressing a garment on a mannequin and setting it within a display has proven to increase sales by up to 70% in some instances – so great idea for promoting poor selling lines! But the sales lift cannot just be put down to better visibility within the store ie dressed on a mannequin – it also has a lot to do with the lifestyle that they create, the way they make the customer feel, think and act when they see the garments displayed on mannequins. Sometimes it can be seen as an endorsement to the shopper that if the store has selected these garments for display then they must be credible, stylish or on trend – so i'll have one too!

When dressed on a mannequin the garment is presented immaculately (ironed without a crease in sight!) And draped on a perfect figured mannequin – then it suddenly becomes something more than just visibility and seeing more of the garment – its about prompting the suggestion to the customer: 'that looks great on those models, i want one of those'.

The average customer is physically shopping when they are in a store, however few of them are actually engaged in shopping mentality – their minds are on a whole lot of other things, such as thinking about what they need to get in for dinner, remembering to pay a bil … etc etc. Most are browsers simply because most are not mentally shopping. For this reason it is the power of display that makes them stop in their tracks and think – wow that looks fantastic !. A dressed mannequin or a display will always catch the customers eye before any garment on a hanger.

Now that we have established the importance of Mannequins and bustforms or tailors dummies, here is ten top tips to a successful display.

Top Tip – Always dress mannequins from bottom to top and the finishing off should always be from top to bottom.

1 – Carefully select garments and outfits to be displayed. It is important that the dressings co-ordinate especially if there is more than one mannequin in the display. Accessories that compliment the selected garments can also add 'finishing off' and 'attention to detail' to a display. Take time to select the outfits because what might seem like a small error of garment choice whilst dressing the mannequin in the back area will be a huge noticeable error out on display.

Note for point 1: Always select the garment size that perfectly fits your mannequin. Do not use oversized garments as these will give an inaccurate image of fit, drape and styling.

2 – Iron or steam thoroughly all garments and outfits to be included in the display. If ironing remember to iron on reverse side of all garments as a sheen will be left on the facing side making your garment look cheap and distressed under display lighting. Displays will amplify the good but also the bad.

3 – Ensure that the mannequin to be dressed has been separated into its separate components at the arms, legs and torso. Always begin with the legs and feet area. Fit the socks and shoes that have been chosen to compliment the outfit put them on the mannequin first before attempting to dress with clothing. The last garment to be dressed should always be the one that is most visible in the display (eg jacket or top, dress etc) – dressing it last will ensure minimal creasing during dressing.

Note for point 3: This will mean that you may have to turn the legs upside down so the feet area are closest to you for dressing. Then flip it back on its feet again to add torso and continue dressing.

4 – Dressing from the bottom to the top, the next item should be the 'bottoms' – skirt, dress or trousers. Note for trousers these should be slotted over both feet just before putting on the shoes – the turned upright again and torso secured. For a skirt or dress the torso would have to be secured back on top of the legs / hip section first before draping the skirt or dress over the head of the mannequin.

5 – To enable smooth dressing of the top section (most visible section) it is necessary to first insert and secure one of the mannequins arms into the shoulder socket on the torso (make sure its the correct arm! Right on the right side left on the left side). After securing one of the arms, open the blouse, shirt etc and slip it onto the secured arm – letting the excess fabric drape from the shoulder whilst you secure the other arm in place.

Note for point 5: If the garment will not open – such as a t-shirt, then it should be popped over the torso before any of the arms are inserted and secured. Once over the head, slip the mannequin arms up the short sleeve if width of arm allows, and secure to shoulder socket. Otherwise slip the arm through the neck and along to the shoulder to secure in the shoulder socket.

6 – The other arm should be slipped down the sleeve (insert from the neck line down the length of the sleeve hand facing downwards. Then once fully inside the sleeve the arm can be secured.

7 – Once the top garments are on and all components in place, the main 'dressing can begin. But first check to ensure that the full mannequin is firm & secure to the base (usually through a hole in the calf or foot for the sprigot to fit in). Once full dressed and styled the mannequin should be handled very little to avoid creasing so positioning accurate beforehand is advantageous.

8 – Dressing and styling should start at the top and work down to the feet. Starting with the neckline and collars, ensure that they are straight and that buttons are lined up symmetrically on each side. For styling purposes collars can be flipped up, or just a single collar flicked up at the ends. If the neckline is straight or styled this will instantly give a good impression.

9 – Continuing down the dressing to the waistline and hips. The styling of the garment will depend on its length and whether it has a fitted waistline or not.

10 – Finishing off and attention to detail are the things that are done lastly but are the most crucial part of the dressing. If the finishing off isn't sharp then the impression is gives to the viewer is untidiness and sloppiness, therefore spending a little more time on the finishing off could reap rewards.

Finishing off starts with standing back from the dressing and identifying areas that are unsightly or untidy – such as: unexpected creasing on items, necklines off center, inside seams on arms facing out instead of in towards the body, accessories not straight or don't match or maybe more required.

Ultimately dressing a mannequin is just like dressing yourself! You wouldn't go to work with one collar in and one collar out or your buttons not in line etc. This how to guide and tips is simple yet crucial to the perception the customer will have on your display, brand and ranging – if displayed well and dressing is sharp this will increase the perceived value of the item and the customer may be willing to pay more for it!

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Source by Lesley Haggarty

Modern Abstract Painting For You To Understand, Digest, and Fall In Love With

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The term ‘abstract’ seems so very modern, yet its history goes back to the earlier parts of the 20th century. When we say ‘modern’, we mean the leaning away from representational painting and didactic paintings that occurred with the impressionists and surged onto other movements, such as Dadaism. So let us see what ‘modern’ is and how it applies to modern abstract paintings.

How up to the minute are you? Are you part of the wired generation, those people who are on Twitter and Facebook, those folks who Google themselves every ten minutes to see what the rest of the world is saying about them? Do you ever take a break? If you do, then you most likely think of ‘modern’ happenings occurring no later than the past ten years or so. If you are willing to stretch your mind just a bit more, you will feel comfortable with this statement: For reasons of simplicity, let us consider the ‘modern’ art movement as it existed no more than fifty years ago. ‘Late modern,’ a few people call it, or even ‘post-modern.’

By 1960, abstract expressionism had broken off from the avant-garde and even become a little formal itself, as the means of creating modern abstract paintings became well-known. Pollock’s abstract expressionist methods, for instance, of using very large canvases and spontaneously hurling or dripping paint onto them, moved into the realm of the familiar. Modern art is distinguished from traditional figurative painting by numerous factors: the willingness to experiment with different paints and other materials, the rejection of naturalistic color, clearly visible brushstrokes, and requiring the viewer to work harder at interpreting the art, because of the subject matter rarely hewing to the easily discerned objects such as a hill or a flower.

The first item in our list, the willingness to experiment with different paints and other materials, fits in nicely with modern abstract paintings, mainly because of the rise of acrylic paints. Drying quickly, produced and sold more cheaply than oil paints and requiring minimal cleanup, acrylic paints are the mainstay of the modern artist. Even the artist who switches to oils at a later stage of his work may begin with acrylic paint, or he may choose acrylics for the length of his career. Many factors may play into this, among them the relative lack of odor of acrylics when compared to oil paints.

The second criterion, the rejection of natural color, may be related to the modern sensibility of spontaneous rejection of any true-to-life subject matter in favor of dreamy or fantastic subjects. For instance, on another planet, who could know if the trees there produced violet leaves and flowers that produced sparks? There is a great deal of freedom in modern art, and the visible brushstrokes speak of honesty and a relationship with the viewer that is much more informal than in the past. The viewer is expected to come to the showing of a piece with a certain amount of foreknowledge. Modern abstract paintings reach the audience that they were intended for, a group of people who boldly bring their own interpretations to the gallery. They do not expect anything other than a fully-realized relationship with the artist and a thorough understanding of his work. Modern abstract artists accept the challenge.

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Source by Peter Dranitsin

Why Buy Contemporary Art?

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Some people are scared of contemporary art. They look at a painting, sculpture, or installation, and they don’t know what it means. Sometimes, they don’t even know what it’s about. Since the unknown is scary, they become afraid of the contemporary art itself.

However, there are many reasons to buy art to showcase in your home or office, and very few reasons to be scared of it. Once you understand the contemporary art movement, you’ll be able to avoid fear and instead enjoy this medium of expression.

Find a Piece that Fits Your Space in your home or office

When you choose to buy art, you’ll have the opportunity to find the piece that best fits your space and your lifestyle before you make your purchase. Contemporary art comes in all colors, forms, and is made out of all sort of materials. Whether you’re looking for a painting, a sculpture, a collage, or something else, you’ll be able to find a contemporary artist who makes what you need.

In addition, contemporary art deals with all sorts of subjects. Sometimes, you’ll have to research a work to find out what it’s about. However, it’s often pretty clear what the artist is trying to say. If you find a piece that says something you agree with, then you can buy a piece the not only matches your decor but your ideals as well.

Get to Know Local Artists

Buying contemporary art is a great way to learn about and even get to know a local, Australian artist. Many of the people who make contemporary art might even live in your city or town, but you may not hear about them unless you go looking for new art for your walls.

Once you start your search, though, you may find yourself welcomed into a community of artists who want to tell you about their work. Most artists are happy to talk to customers, and will explain whatever you want to know about their work, their process, and more. You might even find one of these people becoming a friend.

If you’re looking for a piece that complements your space, suits your personality, and that comes from an artist you can get to know, look no further than Australian art. Find a gallery near you, or look at one online. Be picky, and don’t buy any contemporary art until you find exactly what you’re looking for.

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Source by Perry Pearson

Origami: The Japanese Renowned Form of Paper Craft

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Papercraft is the craft of transforming a single piece of paper into an aesthetically pleasing, three-dimensional piece. This creation of several forms and shapes with a paper by folding, opening, and bending of a flat sheet of paper is a Japanese art form called Origami. The term ‘Origami’ means ‘folded paper’. The fact is that the origin of Origami is unknown. However, it can be traced back to the ancient times in Japan when formal documents were intricately folded. It is thought that it was during the Edo period that spans between 1603-1867 were when Origami gained root as a leisure activity. The technique has been handed down from one generation to the other. Parents imparted the skill to their children and they also did likewise explaining why the art form is prospering.

There are two main classifications of Origami. They are the Traditional Origami and the Creative Origami. The traditional origami deals with the use of paper creating simple forms, shapes and animals such as frogs, boats, balloons, insects, and plants. On the other hand, the creative origami involves the creation of very complex and elaborate designs with paper such as buildings, cars, airplanes, dinosaurs, etc. Many professional fields such as architecture and engineering have applied the principles of origami in producing prototype models of their architectural structures and automobiles before building the actual products. Health providers and clinical psychologists have used origami as an art activity for the elderly, handicapped and mentally deranged persons as an effective rehabilitation tool.

To produce an origami piece, the artist needs to remember these essential points:

1. The paper to be used for producing the piece should be square.

2. No adhesive or cutting is needed in origami.

3. The paper to be used may be colourful to increase the aesthetic appeal of the final work.

4. The artist should put these two essential qualities to play thus tolerance and patience.

5. The artist must strictly follow the rules that govern the folding of the paper such as:

a. Corners and edges of the paper should match precisely.

b. The folds created must be tight.

c. In creating a triangle, hold the two diagonal corners together firmly and exactly between your thumb and first finger and then fold the base with your other hand.

d. Some shapes require that the paper be folded and unfolded producing a crease in preparation of the next step. The paper is at times curled, pleated, rolled over, pinched, pushed in, blown open, or turned over to create the shapes.

Virtually all types of paper can be used for producing items in origami. These include newspapers, wrapping paper, bond papers, etc. It should be noted that the attractiveness and beauty of the final work is not dependent only on the folding technique but also the type of paper used. The popular Japanese handmade paper used for origami is called Washi. Other tools and materials that can be used for origami or general paper craft include knives, scissors, metal rule, brushes, punches, bone folder, pencil, spray diffuser, adhesives, eyelets, threads etc.

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Source by Dickson Adom

3 Ways You Can Take Advantage of Embroidery Digitizing Services

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Embroidery digitizing services make it easy to create great looking caps, shirts and other items for your business. Whether you want to create some great looking promotional items or create customized shirts and other items for your employees to wear using embroidery digitizing services can help. Getting help from an embroidery digitizing service is an affordable way to be sure that the embroidered products you create look great no matter what the product is. You can take almost any logo or image and turn it into a polished looking embroidered design. Check out these advantages to using an embroidery digitizing service:

1. You Get Professional Advice

Many businesses don’t have highly trained graphic artists who specialize in digital design on staff. But an embroidery digitizing company does. When you use an embroidery digitizing service to turn your logo or other artwork into a stitch design you will get the help of a very skilled digital artist who will work with you to make sure that your original design is turned into a professional looking embroidered piece. A digital artist can evaluate the original art and assess whether the design needs to be changed in any way so that it translates well to embroidery.

2. You Get a Quick Turnaround

Creating a stichable piece of art from a custom logo shouldn’t take a long time. But if you have an untrained employee trying to create a graphics file in house it will probably take a lot of time and not look great. Your employee has a job to do that doesn’t include creating embroidery guides. So let the experts at an embroidery digitizing company take your art and create a stitch file for you. That’s all they do and they can do it quickly. Then you can just take the graphic to an embroidery company or use it in your embroidery machine.

3. You Get Access to Specialized Software

Do you have an in-house copy of WILCOM software that is used to create embroidery art guides? Most businesses don’t. But top rated embroidery digitization companies do, and they are trained to use it. Let the expert artists and digital designers who know how to use industry specific software create the art that you need to embroider hats and other promotional items. Paying a small fee for a graphics file is a small price to pay for getting an expertly set up stitch guide and the expertise of digital artists.

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Source by Mary Kate

Japenese Anime – The Explosion

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Although Japanese Anime seemingly sprang on the scene from nowhere, it has actually been around formany years.

Japanese anime has an fairly ancient history, infact. Anime itself began if through manga which began to surface in Japan in the 19th Century. The first manga, and the ideology behind the manga of today was first conceived by a Japanese artist named Hokusai. The Hokusai manga was a collection of sketches, and as time went on, more and more artists took Hokusai’s idea and amplified it. Soon a new style of drawing emerged – the style moved away from the ‘sketchings’ and moved into thick lines and clear colours.

The storylines however, remained as fantasy as ever – manga at this point frequently involved space ships, mythical creatures, superheroes, gods, dragons, and other such fantasy things.

Early in the 1990’s manga began its expansion into western culture. Its distribution spread gradually at first, with very few if any manga style comics being available in western countries. But soon after this, the world of anime and japanimation was set to see a huge explosion.

Eventually manga was adopted by now ‘big name’ companies such as Bandai, and the ‘farout’ ideas that came with traditional manga was introduced to mainstream western society. It is a fact that in 1993, the manga and anime industry was worth a mere few thousand dollars, and that 10 years later the industry went from this poorly figure, to being worth just over 100 million dollars.

The reason for this vast increase in revenue was due to anime and manga being formally adopted by western society. Popular TV shows like Power Rangers (I’m sure we’ve ALL heard of them at some point) were massively successful. Power Rangers is a perfect example of how the the ideology of anime spread throughout the western society – the show itself aired all over Europe, Canada, America, and Japan.

Granted, shows like Power Rangers weren’t anime in the traditional sense, but there is quite obviously a link between the things presented in these TV programmes and those that are still found in traditional anime.

Since then we have seen many more traditonal (actually animated) anime worm its way into the western world. Essentially the non-animated anime paved the way for the traditional type to come in and make a small fortune. Ever heard of Dragon ball? How about Gundam or Hamtaro? If you haven’t, where have you been these past few years 🙂

Animated shows such as those above are practically household names in the west now, which just goes to show the sheer explosion the anime industry produced. In 20 years the anime industry in the west has grown from only being worth thousands, to being worth multi-multi-millions.

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Source by David Reed

His Most Famous Painting (The Raising of the Cross) – Paul Rubens

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Peter Paul Rubens (born June 28, 1577) was one of the most charismatic and influential Flemish painters of the 'Renaissance' period. His bold interpretation of the mythological stories and their dramatic rendition on the canvas made him a pioneer in the 'European' style of painting. Peter had adopted the 'Baroque' style of painting, exuberating struggle and drama. He personified allegorical characters and rendered them on canvas, depicting their trauma, emotional struggle, and their sheer bravery, as is best evident in his "The Raising of the Cross" or "The Elevation of the Cross," which depicted the last stages of Jesus Christ during his crucifixion. Paul Rubens created this painting after his return to Flanders from Italy. Created during 1610-11, "The Elevation of the Cross" is a triptych panel painting. A triptych is divided into three sections, with each one symbolizing a story.

In "The Raising of the Cross" however, Rubens highlighted only one storyline, that regarding the 'Crucifixion of Jesus Christ.' The middle section of "The Raising of The Cross" is much dramatic and tensed, as it shows nine executioners raising the body of the Christ. Rubens' influence of other Italian 'Renaissance' painters, such as Tintoretto and Michelangelo is evident in the painting. There is a dynamic usage of colors and the executioners are shown with seminude muscular bodies. The most distinct feature of this panel painting was the way Christ was lifted in a diagonal manner, which manifests Caravaggio's influence on Peter Paul. Caravaggio's painting titled 'Entombment' was similar in nature as the high and the fall of the subject was of prime importance. The other two sections display the emotional pandemonium that occurred when Christ was crucified. One section displays the mournful Virgin Mary, John the Evangelist, and the followers of Christ. The despondent environment revolving around the death of Christ is palpable in this section of Paul's painting. The other section displays the royal monarchs in their grandiose nobility who witness the Crucifixion of Christ with much sinister pleasure. This section also portrays the Crucifixion of other two Jewish thieves. The outer sections of the triptych depict saints, such as Saints Amand, Walpurgis, Eligius, and Catherine of Alexandria.

French Rulers confiscated Peter's 15 'x 11' painting in 1794 and fled with it to Paris. After the fall of the great ruler Napoleon, the painting was returned to the Cathedral of Our Lady, Antwerp, where it resides until date. Rubens demonstrated his artistic brilliance with an excellent capture of drama, mournful silence, and rich nobility that revolved around the death of Christ. Throughout "The Raising of the Cross," Paul Rubens definitely capitalized his knowledge of 'Renaissance' painting with much ingenuity and innovation. This triptych, relating the tale of the magnanimity of Jesus Christ, is considered a brilliant exemplary of the 'European' artistry.

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Source by Annette Labedzki

Teens, Jobs and School: The Pros and Cons

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Most teens realize at a fairly young age the old adage that "money equals power." Money equals designer clothes, a car and insurance, and in many cases, a certain amount of freedom. And in order to get money, many teens get part-time jobs.

While the benefits and / or drawbacks of teens and part-time jobs have been researched, studied and debated since at least 1979, the teens, jobs and affects on schoolwork verdict is still out. According to the US Department of Labor, 50 percent of American teenagers hold informal jobs, such as babysitting or yard work, by age 12. And by age 15, nearly two-thirds of American teens have had some kind of employment. And many researchers, including those on government panels like the National Commission on Youth praise part-time work and say it contributes to the transition from youth to adulthood.

Parents and educators alike have, for decades, said that part-time jobs teach children how to be responsible and manage money. But Temple University researcher Laurence Steinberg found that only 11 percent of students report saving most of their money for college, and only three percent contribute to household living expenses. "The bulk of teen's money goes to clothing, cars, entertainment, and in some cases, drugs and alcohol," according to results of a study published in Harvard Education Letter in 1998.

Steinberg says, "Students who work longer hours report diminished engagement in schooling, lowered school performance, increased psychological distress, higher drug and alcohol use, higher rates of delinquency and greater autonomy from parental control." A 1997 study by David Stern, director of the National Research Center for Vocational Education at the University of California, Berkeley, proves Steinberg's viewpoint. In research conducted over 20 years, students who worked more than 15 hours per week had lower grades, did less homework, had higher dropout rates and were less likely to go to college than students who worked under 15 hours per week.

But Jerald Bachman at the University of Michigan's Monitoring the Future Project, warns not to jump to cause and effect conclusions. "I would argue that most of the problems that correlate with working long hours are more fundamentally caused," he says. "That may contribute the to spiral, but I think the spiral is well underway at the time they elect to work the long hours."

Though the drawbacks to a busy, part-time job are many, so are the benefits. A teenager's job can teach work skills that school does not, and it can instill in the teen new confidence, sense of responsibility and independence. Earning money will enable your teen to buy things and to manage money. An after-school job can also provide adult supervision, especially if you work longer hours than those in a typical school day. And the right job may provide networking possibilities and set your child on a rewarding lifetime career path.

But before your child gets a job, there are some things you should know. According to the Pennsylvania Department of Labor and Industry, "Minors under 14 years of age may not be employed or permitted to work in any occupation, except children employed on farms or in domestic service in private homes." Children under the age of 14 can also work on farms, be golf caddies, newspaper carriers or juvenile performers in the entertainment industry. But special permits may need to be required.

Also according to many state labor laws, teens aged 14 and 15 are not permitted to work more than four hours per day during the school year and not before 7 am or after 7 pm (During the summer, the amount of hours of work per day can be increased to eight.) Children under the age of 16 are prohibited, by Pennsylvania law, for example, from working in bowling centers (unless as snack bar attendants, scorers or control desk clerks), building heavy work, highway work, anywhere liquor is sold or dispensed, manufacturing, on scaffolds or ladders and window cleaning.

For 16 and 17 year olds, the some state laws say, "minors are not to work before 6 am or after midnight on school days and 1 am on Fridays and Saturdays." Also, not more than eight hours per day and 28 hours per school week. (During the summer, the only restrictions on 16 and 17 year olds, is that they can work no more than eight hours per day or 44 hours per week.) Young adults under the age of 18 are prohibited from working in billiard rooms; doing electrical work; operating elevators; performing crane and hoisting operations; excavating; operating machinery that does woodworking, bakery mixing, cleaning, oiling or punch pressing; roofing; welding; and doing demolition.

Your teen securing a job is a big step on the road to maturity. Be sure to discuss the pros and the cons with him or her. You may also want to agree to a job on a trial basis, such as "you can work x number of hours a week this grading period and then we will decide if you can keep working, based on your grades." Maintaining good grades, continuing extra curricular activities and keeping a social life will be important to your child's psychological health and development. Also, prepare a budget with your child, setting limits on spending and enforcing a percentage-of-paycheck-into-savings policy. Good money management skills, acquired when young, will last a lifetime. Part-time jobs can be a wonderful experience, with the right supervision and parental guidance.

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Source by Jill L. Ferguson

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