History and Clothing in Ancient Japan

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Japanese history includes alternating periods of isolation and revolutionary influences from the rest of the world. As early as the Jomon period from about 14000BC to 300 BC, Japan had a hunter-gatherer lifestyle; wooden stilt houses, pit dwelling, and agriculture. Weaving was still unknown and the ancient Japanese clothing consisted of fur. However, some of the world’s oldest pottery is found in Japan, along with daggers, jade, combs made form shell and clay figures.

The period thereafter to 250 BC saw the influx of new practices like weaving, rice sowing, iron and bronze making influenced by china and Korea. Chinese travelers describe the men ‘with braided hair, tattooing and women with large, single-piece clothing.’ Initially ancient Japanese clothing consisted of single piece clothing. The ancient and classical Japan begins from the middle of the 3rd century to 710. An advanced agricultural and militaristic culture defines this period. By 645, Japan rapidly adopted Chinese practices and reorganized its penal code.

The peak period of ancient Japan and its imperial court is from 794 to 1185. Art, poetry, literature and trade expeditions continued with vigor. Warlords and powerful regional families ruled ancient Japan from 1185 to 1333 and the emperor was just a figure head. By the Japanese Middle Ages, Portugal had introduced firearms by a chance landing of their ship at Japanese coast; samurai charging ranks were cut down; trade with Netherlands, England and Spain had opened up new avenues. Several missionaries had entered Japan as well.

Distinct features of the lifestyle, ancient Japanese clothing and women is difficult to decipher for the simple reason that it is super-imposed by the Chinese culture. Ancient Japan readily adopted other cultures and practices and most of its own culture is lost among these adaptations.

Ancient Japanese clothing was mostly unisex, with differences being in colors, length and sleeves. A Kimono tied with an Obi or a sash around the waist was the general clothing and with the advent of western clothing are now mostly worn at home or special occasions. Women’s obi in ancient Japanese clothing would mostly be elaborate and decorative. Some would be as long as 4meters and tied as a flower or a butterfly. Though a Yukata means a ‘bath clothing’, these were often worn in the summers as morning and evening gowns. Ancient Japanese clothing consisted of mena and women wearing Haori or narrow paneled jacket for special occasions such as marriages and feasts. These are worn over a kimono and tied with strings at the breast level.

The most interesting piece of ancient Japanese clothing is the ju-ni-hitoe or the ‘twelve layers’ adorned by ladies at the imperial court. It is multi-layered and very heavy and worn on a daily basis for centuries! The only change would be the thickness of the fabric and the number of layers depending on the season. Princesses still wear these on weddings.

Since the Japanese people don’t wear footwear inside their homes, tabi is still worn. These are split -toe socks woven out of non-stretch materials with thick soles. Clogs have been worn for centuries in ancient Japan and were known as Geta. These were made of wood with two straps and were unisexual. Zori was footwear made of softer materials like straw and fabric with a flat sole.

Ancient Japanese clothes, culture and footwear are slowly regaining their popularity with the western world. There is an honest curiosity in knowing more, wearing kimonos or using silk fabrics with beautiful floral prints from the ‘land of the rising sun’.

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Source by Christopher Schwebius

How to Draw a Woman Without Clothes

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Drawing a cloth-less woman has been a favourite subject. Pencil drawing is a basic source. Taking the help of this source, an artist would build a pencil portrait. The final painting could be in water colour, oil colour or acrylic; but the pencil art is basic necessity. While drawing with graphite pencil or charcoal, an artist would consider certain aspects to make his or her artwork aesthetically sound.

Anatomy: While drawing a human figure, the most important factor to be kept in mind is the anatomy. As an artist you should take care about the anatomy of a woman who has a symmetrical physical appearance. Your drawing should look well-grounded and not very imaginative. Keeping careful attention in shading and lining work, you can do it very well.

Those artists who still learn drawing of figures can take a leaf out of the books of great painters. It may happen that while drawing a woman in her natural beauty, especially from the front side, the artist might be allured to make his or her drawing much sensual. He or she would be tempted making it physically attractive. But a real artist would always try maintaining aesthetic balance of beauty and art.

The Posture: After knowing about anatomy, the factor of posture becomes important. While drawing a female figure wearing no clothes, an artist should request the model woman to sit in a specific posture. Posture of the model is very crucial. Every artist would try showing beauty of a female body from front side. It is because that would make the whole drawing more sensual. Though the drawing of curvy parts of body of a lady sitting without cover of clothes would be a sensual depiction, her mood could be shown as settled in modesty. That would make the artwork looking more serious.

In such type of drawings, an experienced artist would carefully show the light falling on her subtle parts of body. It can be done with precise shading work. The shading done for the limbs like hands and shoulders should be extremely adept and accurate. That would create a feel of realistic appearance in the eyes of viewers.

An artist can position the body of a model in more artistic manner. If one leg is put on another, that could make the drawing extra sensual. Such a position of thighs and legs would create a sense of good proportion and feeling of ease. Moreover the viewers would respond to such an artwork with more curiosity.

For reading similar articles with beautiful images, visit he following links.

DRAWING WOMEN CLOTH-LESS

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Source by Naval Langa

How to Choose a Right Tattoo Machine

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All craftspeople are only as good as the tools they use. It doesn’t matter if they are carpenters or tattoo artists. Tattooing is an art and is mostly dependent on the skills of the artist and the equipment that he is using. The type of equipment will determine the quality of tattoo too.

Tattoo machines are the most important tool required in the process of tattooing. Every tattoo artist knows the importance of a good tattoo machine and always needs quality tattoo machines for quality work. But mostly people are always confused about which tattoo equipment supplier is the best and which tattoo machines is the best suitable one for them.There are a lot of choices available in the market if you are looking to acquire a tattoo machine.So if you are trying to find out which machines would best suit your requirements and where you can find them at affordable prices, some of the tips below can help.

The one thing you have to know before acquiring is the sort of materials a good tattoo machine is made of. They must be made from top quality metal. This could keep them from breaking during tattooing. Tattoo guns are historically made of conductive materials like iron, brass or copper. Look for tattoo guns made from these powerful kinds of metal to be certain you are getting one that may be a top quality.

Another thing you must know about choosing a tattoo gun is what specific need will you have, such as shading, soft shading, solid coloring tribal black solid work, lining. Just like a painter who has many different brushes for different purposes, so should a top professional tattoo artist have different tattoo machines with different settings for different purposes, true top artist know the value of having different real good tattoo machines. Mistakes should be avoid, because it is a long road to the top and looking for short cuts is just a waste of your time. What beginners do, specially at the beginning when funds are an issue, when money is short in the pockets, they look to buy a Hybrid tattoo machine who will do all the jobs, this is a pitfall, because you will loose your money and your time, and the quality of your work will not improve by the same token.

Because a liner machine as a specific set up, such as gap, springs length and tension and speed that will be specially tuned to line. Because a shader as a specific set up, such as gap, springs length and tension and speed that will be specially tuned to shade. And both machine are different, though they look alike they are not, they have 2 different functions, if you try to shade with a liner, you will most probably damage the skin because the machine will be running to fast “doing burger”, and damage the machine because of the needles configuration being to big for the liner the machine coils will overheat, and the contact screw will were out faster, you will end up with an erotic running machine.

It hard to explain to somebody how the ocean looks likes and feels like, unless you are there physically, the you can see it and experience it. My advise is, if your aim is to become a true honest involved tattoo artist, try to understand this do not take short cut and go for the best, in the end you will be the winner and your work will speak for itself, ” Your quality work comes at a price”.

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Source by Paulo Cruzes

How Much Will It Cost To Paint a Room?

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There are some calculations you can do to help you how to figure out what it will cost to paint a room. Every room is different and every contractor has a different way of figuring out what he will quote you to paint a room. Because of that prices can have quite a bit of spread between multiple quotes. As a professional painter I will help you in figuring out the cost of painting different rooms.

First thing all contractors must know is how long will the job take. A normal sized bedroom should take 1 day unless there is a lot of preparation and repairs. The rooms we will discuss in this article will be bedrooms, foyers, great rooms and dining rooms.

So lets dive in and get a feel for what you may be dishing out for cash to paint your room. The first of rooms to discuss will be Bedrooms. There are various sized bedrooms and there can be paint-able windows and there can be closets with multiple doors, there can be decorative moldings, there can be vaulted ceilings. Lets start with a basic room of 12 foot by 12 foot the prices we will discuss here can go up to 15 foot by 15 foot, we will then add to the quote for any extras that can raise the price.

The basic room takes 1 day to paint. Now just how much should a paint contractor get paid for 1 day of work and what variables can make the price go up or down for just the basic room. Where you live will determine what a contractor may need for a days work. Say we are in New York City, then obviously the cost will be higher. On the low end we will say 200 for a days work and on the high end 500 dollars for a days work. Most folks fit into 300 to 400 a day for labor. This is just a gauge though. Lets put a quote together.

And Guys and Gals – come on and empty the room you will pay some extra if a lot has to be moved – you will not know you did though, because the quote will not specify a cost for moving things. Please have respect and gather all small stuff and small furniture like night tables and get them out of the room. Remove window treatments and pictures.

Paint costs are around 30 to 50 dollars a gallon.

Bedroom 12 x 15 ft.

This room has a couple of nail pops and two small cracks that need to be patched ( this is average and does not really affect price)

Walls painted with two coats

Ceiling painted with two coats

Trim, baseboard, 1 entry door and two closet doors, two windows painted with two coats

Paint for this room will be

1 gallon of ceiling paint

3 gallons of wall paint

1 gallon of trim paint

Paint 40 dollars a gallon

Labor cost………. 350 dollars

Material cost……. 160 dollars

Total…………… 550 dollars

Now lets add variables That add to cost

If you live in an affluent area add 100 to 200 dollars to the cost.

If there is much more in repairs add 100 to 300 more dollars.

If there is wallpaper to remove add 300 dollars

If that wallpaper is difficult to come off and messes the wall up add another 100 dollars ( A word on wallpaper. If you attempt to remove wallpaper yourself if it does not come right off with no damage – go for it

If it does not STOP NOW Before it costs you dearly especially if your walls will need to be skim coated to fix it!)

If there is crown moldings add 50 to 100 dollars depending on what kind of crown (like dentil molding).

If there is a chair rail add 50 dollars

If there is other decorative moldings add 100 to 500 dollars ( this is very rare )

If you want to use two different colors on the walls like an accent wall or on color on top of a chair rail and another below add 50 dollars plus the cost of another gallon of paint.

If you are using deep colors add 50 dollars – They can be difficult to work with and may need extra coats

If you have windows that have the crosses that need to be painted add 25 dollars a window.

Add 25 dollars a door for extra doors.

Add 15 dollars for extra windows and if they have the crosses in them add 25 more

If you have a closet add 100 to 500 dollars ( depends on closet – walk-ins can get elaborate)

Add 100 to 500 for a sitting room.

Add 25 dollars a pillar if there are pillars.

Add 50 to 100 dollars for chauffeured, vaulted or tray ceilings.

Now lets add variables that can subtract from cost

Re-coat same color to freshen up as long as the walls are not that bad thus needing only 1 coat – less 50 dollars (setting up is the hard part a second coat is easy to do when your all set up already. It is possible you can reduce a gallon of paint

so less 40 dollars more.)

All one color, ceiling and walls – less 50 dollars

No trim and doors or windows – less 50 dollars

No ceiling – Less 50 dollars

I think you should now be able to get a good idea on how much the cost to paint a room will be with the above calculations. Make sure to get at least three estimates and do not just go with the lowest price.

Now I will just rattle off some prices of other rooms.

A dining room – same as a bedroom

A foyer – same as a bedroom – variables here are adding stairwell, halls, coat closets, ceiling height, moldings, repairs, windows, doors

A high foyer – 800 to 1500

A Great Room – 600 to 1500 and above for elaborate stuff such as moldings, windows, pillars etc.

A Kitchen – 300 to 800 dollars

A Bathroom – 200 to 800 dollars if it is like a master bathroom with high ceilings etc.

A Master Bedroom – Larger sized room 500 to 800 high ceilings 800 to 1500 and add for any other bedroom variables above.

A Powder room – 100 to 300 dollars

This is labor only cost, the material has not been added. But for every gallon you get anywhere from 300 sq ft to 400 sq ft.

Example – 10 x 10 ft room…. Ceiling 100 sq ft but two coats so it is 200 sq ft- you need 1 gallon. Walls are 100 sq ft each for 400 sq ft with two coats that is 800 sq ft and that is a possible two gallons but maybe 3. Contractor will ad the third gallon. 1 gallon for trim. 5 total gallons.

These should help you gauge what it may cost to paint a room. Also if the square footage of the house is 3000 sq ft then you can expect to pay around 2 dollars a sq ft so it would be 6000 dollars. But again it depends upon variables and where you live. I hope this has been helpful!

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Source by Jeremy Berger

Commercial Construction Tips – Facts About Construction Projects

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Commercial construction is often an arbiter of changing economic conditions. Construction projects mean both an improving economy and a way to improve the economy of a given area. Read on to learn more interesting facts about it.

This type of construction helps public sector agencies as well as private firms. Big new schools in areas where people are moving give students a chance to learn in state of the art facilities. New office buildings bring jobs to the area, and the upward spiral continues. Not only do the buildings benefit the users, but the building process itself gives workers a solid job for several months, and the expenditures from the construction project go directly into the local economy.

The United States is second in the world in terms of this construction, regardless of where the company doing the building is headquartered. As much as 10% of all commercial construction takes place in the US, and New York is the city with the most commercial construction going on – $8.5 billion (that’s billion with a B) in 2013. A lot of the construction was for residential buildings. Following New York were Houston and Dallas. Those two cities spent $10 billion in 2013 on commercial projects.

One of the biggest trends in commercial construction is green building. Experts from the Environmental Protection Agency expect that by 2017 as much as 48% of new building will be done with green building materials. To put that in financial terms, it could mean as much as $145 billion dollars.

By 2018, 84% of residential construction companies plan to have at least some of their construction projects classified as green. To get an idea of just what kind of impact this has on the overall economy, consider that residential projects total as much as 5% of the current gross domestic product of the US. As more and more firms add green building to their plans, it might mean that as much as 18% of GDP will be based around green construction.

Big commercial office buildings are going green, too. LEED certification is becoming the main standard, and builders are up to 41% green as of 2012. Just how rapidly is this growing? Consider that only 2% of commercial construction, non-residential, projects were green in 2005. It’s no surprise that states like Hawaii and California are leading the way in LEED projects.

It’s not just the US that is interested in green construction, though. LEED certifications around the world are becoming more common. A study released earlier this year showed that as many as 69,000 LEED projects are going on globally in 150 different countries.

This construction is as important to the global economy as it has ever been, and the increases in such projects over the last few years signal a positive change after the worldwide recession of 2008-09 and the soft recovery that followed. With even more green projects being planned than ever before, commercial construction projects will also be kinder to the planet, meaning everyone will benefit for years to come.

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Source by Bill Len

Cartoon Drawing Tips: How to Add Depth and Life to Your Drawing

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You are a cartoon fan who loves to draw, and show off your master pieces to your friends, parents and teachers. And you are appreciated by them for your work. But at times you yourself be engulfed by a feeling of inadequacy a feeling that the drawings that you create lack life of their own. True what you make is good in terms of details but still for some reason unknown to you it looks flat.

If the above lines describe your situation do not be frustrated. Let me tell you that you are not alone there are many beginners who face this problem. But fortunately you are different, you are reading this article, and it shows you are brain storming to take some action to address the problem. I would ask you to keep on reading, you are about to discover a number of simple things that when applied to your drawing will make it more lifelike.

Many times beginners highly concerned with getting the basic form right ignore this area. They spend considerable amount of time to be good at drawing hands, practice for hours to learn about various shapes of human nose.

Do not get me wrong I am not out here to say these exercises are not required or to suggest that you can draw beautiful figures without being good with these skills. Only thing I am trying to stress upon here is along with these details some more softer aspects are also important to make the characters and whole composition life like.

So equal importance needs to be given to the softer skills and these will help to add depth to your drawing. Here in this article I talk about the soft skills that will make your drawing stand out in the crowd.

1. Do judicious use of shadows in your drawing.

Please keep in mind adding shadows to your drawing need not be difficult. Because you won’t be adding perfect real life shadows in your drawing instead what you will be adding is indicative shadows, this is basically to serve two main purposes.

a. It will convey the weight of your fingers,

without this your characters will appear to be floating on thin air. Just imagine how unbelievable that will make your work to look at.

b. Using shadow in your drawing you can convey the time of the day and mood of your composition.

If it is midday [or the mood of the composition is bright] the shadows will be deeper whereas in the evening or the mood is not so euphoric shadow will be lighter.

2. Ensure that your characters are wearing garments that are in line with current fashion unless of course you are trying to portray historic characters. If you do this your viewers will relate to the character in better way subconsciously. While selecting color and patterns of the clothing make sure those are compatible with the mood of the composition. Bottom line is the more you align your characters with your viewers imagination the more acceptance you will receive.

If you are trying to represent a historic period in your drawing then make sure your knowledge of the period you are trying capture is sufficient for the work. Even if you are creating a comic strip you will require to do your research diligently and sufficiently. Just think of Asterix and how detailed those funny characters are in terms of garments, hairstyles build of the characters etc.

3. Don’t underestimate the power of action lines: action lines are lines that are used mostly in cartoon drawings to convey motion of the characters. When telling a story with your drawing the task at hand would demand drawing figures that are jumping, running or engaging in different kinds of interesting activities. And there is no better way to represent and make this actions believable than using action lines. Carefully used action lines can infuse life in your action heroes.

4. When you are not clear how to express an emotion through your characters body language. Go in front of a mirror and hold and process the thought that your character is supposed to have in your own mind and closely observe your body language and facial expression. Then create the character using the image that you just saw in the mirror.

5. Props are also important, unless the style of props and their organization go smoothly with the story your character might look like fish out of water. But on the contrary if the props are compatible it will enhance the believability of you creation hugely.

6. Use line thickness to your advantage: Do not create your whole drawing with lines that are all of uniform thickness, especially when you are creating outdoor scene. Use thinner lines to represent distant objects, and thicker lines are to be used for objects that are close to the viewer. Also do not forget to make distant objects smaller than equally sized objects that are close to the viewer. Following this two guidelines will automatically add a sense of depth to your composition.

7. Learn to draw animals: When talking about making good drawing people normally remain oblivious to the fact unless we attain a certain level of proficiency in drawing animals especially common animals like cats, horses and dogs we will have hard time in making a drawing that really will be a pleasure to look at. So here I would suggest to give some thought and time for enhancing this skill.

Take this as an wide open opportunity because many artists invest so much time to perfect their skill of human drawing that the animal drawing skill is hard to come by. If you be even moderately good at drawing animals you will be in a distinctly advantageous position as an artist.

So if you are serious and want to make improvements to the drawing that you produce read the above tips and suggestions again and start utilizing them from today itself.

As a simple fun exercise have some of the drawing that you have produced now in a safe place where you can reach them easily whenever you want. Now follow the given suggestions for 2 months. And at the end of 2nd month compare both set of drawings and see the difference if you have been sincere you yourself will notice the difference.

Remember the techniques presented here are simple and doable, so you do not have any excuse of postponing their adoption.

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Source by Tapan Sarkar

Analysis of Bouguereau’s, "A Young Girl Defending Herself Against Eros"

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William Bouguereau, a French-Academic Painte, was an extremely famous painter in the late 1800’s. He was born in La Rochelle, France, on November 30th 1825. As a young man, Bouguereau put himself through Ecole des Beaux-Arts by making labels for local grocers, and painting portraits of Local Parishioners. Much like many of the other artists of the 19th century, Bouguereau paid careful attention to his meticulous form and technique. The commoners loved Bouguereau, people would storm the Annual Salon every year, and pay unimaginable prices to see and buy his latest work. The public adored Bouguereau, however, according to the official website of The Getty Museum, critics did not feel the same way; “They derided the “bourgeois finickiness” and “contagious mediocrity” of Bouguereau’s mirror-smooth, romanticized paintings of cupids, nudes, and peasant girls.” Some people felt that Bouguereau’s painting represented everything that was wrong with 19th century academic art. The impressionist hated his work, and this type of art was exactly what they were trying to move away from.

One of Bouguereau’s most famous works, “A young Girl Defending Herself Against Eros” is an astounding painting that, the moment you set eyes on the painting, the aesthetics will catch you off guard. The incredible attention to detail in the faces of the two characters is what really attracted me to it. It is astonishing how perfectly Bouguereau demonstrates the perfect emotions. It is an academic representation of a woman playfully resisting cupid’s arrow, secretly wanting it, yet clearly shying away from it. This can be interpreted as symbolic of how hard love is to resist at times. Even though we don’t want to get hurt by the arrow, we still all secretly want it. I think that the value he uses really makes it light hearted and even kind of a funny painting. The texture and space he uses also really gives the painting its traditional academic feel, which is simple while still invoking emotions.

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Source by James Ruhle

Far East Painting – Hua Niao – A Chinese Ancient Painting Style

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Hua Niao – The Concept
Chinese Bird-and-Flower Painting, known as Hua Niao, is a kind of painting named after its themes that cover flowers, birds, insects, and fish. The artists have the leeway to understand flowers as plants, and to include pets in their artwork.

The History
Hua Niao Painting inserted since quite early Chinese eras. It graced bronze pots, potteries, and phoenix work of arts on silk, during the War States Period (7th-4th centuries BC). The images depicted corroborate that ancient Chinese flowers and birds were the favorite topics of the Hua Niao artists. Simple and plain initially, this Chinese Painting style historically graduated to a mature and significant art form, with the help of developed schools, techniques, and well-established theoretical background. Hua Niao works became an absolute study of art through the Tang Dynasty (618-907), growing until the end of Five Dynasties Period (907-60).

The Details
In pre-Tang and Tang Dynasty, emotions, moods, feelings, and the temperament of the human figures were the identifying features of the Bird and Flower Painting. The characters rarely looked at each other. The 'flowers' they held, the 'trees' they sat near to, or the 'birds' flying around them, would symbolize the relationship existing between them. This symbolic representation of human feelings was an important turning point in the history of Chinese Art. Soon, Hua Niao became an independent Fine Art form during the mid and late Tang Dynasty.

The Varieties
– Ink and Wash Painting
– Fine Brush Painting
– Fine Brush with Ink and Wash Painting
– Fine Brush with Heavy Color
– Fine Brush with Light Color
– Fine Brush with Freehand Style
– Freehand Style
– Great Freehand Style
– Slight Freehand Style

The Artists
Many famous artists emerged during 618-960, with Huang Quan and Xu Xi being the representative names along them. Quan Huang was a court painter and his paintings focused on rare flowers and birds in the court. His depictions were lively and looked full-fledged luxurious and beautiful. 'Sketch of Rare Bird Scroll,' portraying many kinds of birds, was a masterpiece by Huang.

Artist Xu Xi also associated with the same dynasties and was not involved in any kind of politics. Xu used ink for his artwork. Thick strokes, wild themes, and branches & leaves were a couple of key features of his paintings. Xu would use a small amount of colors to avert any impairment to the ink. 'Snow Covers Bamboo' was one of the unique works by Xu Xi.

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Source by Annette Labedzki

Samurai Sword Facts

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The first samurai swords we’re actually straight bladed, single edged weapons imported from Korea and China known as chokuto, which were later replaced with the curved blade variety at the end of the 8th Century. The name of the curved blade swords which replaced them was Tachi. The reason for this transformation was samurai found that a curved sword could be drawn from the scabbard more swiftly and provided a far more effective cutting angle.

The point of a samurai sword is called a Kissaki. This is the hardest part of the sword to polish and forge and to hand create a quality one would require an extremely skilful artisan. The value of a sword is determined largely by the quality of the point.

Samurai would use wooden swords (Bokken) for practice for safety reasons as well as for preserving their real swords from unnecessary damage.

The samurai would give names to their swords as they believe in the sword lived their warrior spirit.

There are three main types of samurai sword. 1: Katana: The longest type of sword, over 24inches, generally used for outdoor combat. 2: Wakizashi: Around a third shorter than the Katana at between 12 and 24 inches, this was worn in indoor establishments by samurai for its obvious better manouverability indoors. 3: Tanto: A small knife used in much the same manner as a Wakizashi.

As part of the samurai sword making process a sword tester took the new blade and cut through the bodies of corpses or condemned criminals. They started by cutting through the small bones of the body and moved up to the large bones. Test results were often recorded on the nakago (the metal piece attaching the sword blade to the handle).

Shogun is the name of the most powerful samurai, and they would wear two samurai swords. A Katana and a Wakizashi. They had a license to dismember anybody who offended them.

Early samurai would fight on horseback, and they’re weaponry in addition to samurai swords was bows and arrows.

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Source by Nick Johnson

How I Passed the CSET….Little Tips and Pointers That Made the Difference Between Pass and Failure

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The CSET — Your Path To A Rewarding Career!

Few careers can provide the levels of responsibility, satisfaction and fulfillment that teaching brings to California educators. Each day, thousands of teachers across California help their students to study, to learn and to reach for their dreams.

Good Teachers Create Great Lives

Teachers can touch lives in ways that no one else can. Everyone remembers at least one teacher who provided them with encouragement and inspiration, with the help and advice that they needed just when they needed it most.

You are one small step away from becoming such a teacher.

Good Teachers Also Lead Great Lives

But teachers don’t just inspire and educate. As a teacher, you’ll enjoy respect from your family and friends, and a social status given to few other professionals. You’ll have long paid vacations that will enable you to travel the world or pursue your own goals. And you’ll have an income that will bring you independence and a career path that can lead you from challenge to success.

All that stands between you and a rewarding career of educating, guiding and inspiring students right now is your CSET test.

Pass The CSET exam, Pass On Your CSET test Knowledge

The CSET exam is a series of single-subject tests intended to prove to the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing that you have the basic CSET test knowledge and ability to teach your subject in a classroom. There is also a CSET Multiple Subject exam which is required for K-8 certification.

Currently there is a

  • CSET Mathematics
  • CSET English
  • CSET Social Science
  • CSET Science
  • CSET Spanish
  • CSET Business
  • CSET Health Science
  • CSET Home Economics
  • CSET Physical Education
  • CSET French
  • CSET Spanish
  • CSET German
  • CSET Industrial and Technology Education
  • CSET Art
  • CSET Agriculture

    With hard work and, no less importantly, the right CSET test preparation, you should find it easy to pass the CSET and start your teaching career.

    What You Need To Know About The CSET

    Whichever subject you intend to teach, you’ll find that passing the CSET test will require you to make use of two sets of skills: recalling the CSET knowledge that you possess about your subject; and answering exam questions quickly and accurately.

    Both of these skill sets are vitally important on the CSET.

    What is the CSET?

    The CSET is a single subject exam, intended to replace the old Single Subject Assessments for Teaching and Praxis II tests. There are three types of test in the CSET:

    Single Subject Teaching Credentials are mainly used from grades 7-12 and authorize a teacher to teach one particular subject.

    Multiple Subject Teaching Credentials allow teachers to teach a range of different subjects and are generally used in elementary schools for grades K-6.

    Education Specialist Instruction Credentials allow teachers to teach students who have a particular disability or special need in grades K-12.

    Each exam in the CSET contains a number of subtests and lasts up to five hours. The sub-tests themselves are not timed however, allowing you to spend more time on areas that you find difficult and less time on the parts that you know best.

    Time management will be an important element in getting the score you need to pass the CSET exam and become a teacher.

    Two Types Of Questions, Two Types Of Challenge

    CSET exam questions come in two forms: multiple-choice questions ask you to choose the best answer from a number of options. In these questions, it is important to remember that the best answer isn’t necessarily the only correct answer. You may find that two CSET exam answers look correct but one answer will be more correct than the other. (This also means that when two answers look the same, you’ve got a 50/50 chance of guessing the right one.)

    Constructed-response CSET questions ask you to discuss, describe, analyze, explain etc. Often you’ll be asked to complete more than one task. Always read the question carefully and make sure that you have completed all the tasks.

    CSET Test Taking Tips for Essay Writing

    CSET Test Preparation– How To Cram Fast And Effectively

    Whatever your subject, the CSET exam is going to expect you to have memorized vast amounts of information. Some of that CSET information you’ll know well because you use it every day. But much of the details that will turn up in the exam will be the sort of knowledge that will normally have you turning to the books to find the answers.

    In the CSET, you’ll need to be able to recall those facts from your memory. That means being able to cram.

    Top Methods To Quickly Complete CSET Test Preparation

    At some point, just about everyone finds themselves having to cram for an exam. It might not be the best way to learn, but it’s often the only way to pass the test.

    There are a number of effective techniques that you can use to fill your head with the information you need to breeze through your CSET exam.

    1. Organize Your Priorities

    No one excels at everything. There will inevitably be some subjects at which you are stronger and others at which you are weaker. You’ll need to make sure that you spend more time memorizing and learning your weaker areas than your stronger ones for the CSET.

    Don’t worry if it looks like there’s a huge difference between the amount of work you have to do and the amount of time you have to do it. The next step will be to chop down the work and preparation required to pass the CSET.

    2. Pick And Store for the CSET

    Once you’ve identified those areas that will need the most work, read all the information through once. Highlight the most important points (don’t just underline: it’s easier to picture a highlighted page than an underlined sentence).

    There are a number of different methods that you can then use to store your CSET exam information in your head:

    o Break up what you need to learn into bite-sized chunks. There’s a limit to how much you can stuff into your short-term memory in one go. Take each piece a little at a time.

    o Acrostics help you remember a list in the right order by turning them into strange sentences. My Dear Aunt Sally is the famous way to remember to Multiply and Divide before you Add and Subtract. You can create your own acrostic for any set of facts on the CSET.

    o Turn your CSET notes into musical notes. If you can put the words you’re trying to memorize to a tune you like, you’ll find them much easier to remember. You might not be able to hum in the exam, but you can sing in the shower — and in the process, keep memorizing for the CSET;

    3. Get the CSET Rammed Right In There!

    Cramming only puts the information you want in your head for a short time (using what you’re memorizing will keep it there for the long term). In order to stop what you’ve memorized falling out before your CSET exam, you’ll need to keep seeing it and going over it right up until you need it on the day.

    Acing The CSET

    The actual content of your exam will depend on the subject you’re thinking of teaching. The official CSET study guides will tell you what you’re supposed to know before you walk into the CSET exam room. You should certainly be familiar with the CSET guides that apply to you.

    What the CSET study guides won’t tell you though is how to ace the CSET when you aren’t sure of the answer. That isn’t because you can’t do it; it’s because they don’t want you to know how to do it.

    Here are 5 Ways To Ace The CSET (Even When You Don’t Know The Answer)

    1. Do the easy questions first

    Use the first few minutes of the exam to zip through the paper. You’ll certainly find some of the questions easier than others. Do those straight away. It will make you feel a bit better and give you more time for the tough questions. And if you find yourself getting stuck on a question, make a mark, leave it and move on. Come back to it at the end when you’ll have more time, more focus and less panic.

    2. Use a process of elimination

    This is an absolute must on any multiple choice question. There will always be one or two questions that are outrageously wrong. Knock them out quick and your score doubles.

    3. Drop extreme language and numbers

    One way to pick the bad answer choices from the good is to look at the wording of the answers. The examiners generally prefer the correct answer to be wishy-washy. Any answer choice that uses words like ‘all’, ‘never’ or ‘always’ are probably wrong. Similarly, on math and science questions, the highest and lowest figures are usually bad choices too. Take them out.

    4. Identify similar answers

    Another way to hone in on the right answer choices is to pick out any answers that look the same. Usually on the CSET exam, two answers will be extreme, one will look right and one will be right.

    The one that looks right has been put there deliberately to confuse you.

    The examiners are hoping that as you rush through the exam, you won’t notice that there’s a better answer right next to it and pick the wrong choice. That’s mean, but it actually does you a favor. When two answer choices look similar, one of them is likely to be right.

    5. Use previous questions

    One of the great things about long exams like the CSET is that the answer to one question can often be found in another part of the test. It’s going to be almost impossible for the examiners not to repeat a subject or duplicate a point. If you’re scratching your head over a question, move on and keep an eye out for it later. There’s a good chance that they’ll give the game away in a different question.

    Those are just five simple tactics you can use to ace the CSET test. There are dozens of others and you’ll need them all to put yourself in the classroom and in front of the blackboard. To learn all the tactics you need, and to make sure that your CSET test preparation is right on track, check out our Study Guide and start your teaching career with top marks.

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    Source by Cary Hanson