Orbeez Review

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One of the most popular toys introduced this season is the Orbeez line of toys. Just what are Orbeez, you might ask. Well, an Orbeez is a tiny colored bead that will swell up to many times its original volume when it is placed in water for several hours. What you end up with are gum ball sized balls that are ready to play with. The real magic with Orbeez is that this is a toy that motivates children to use their imagination and creativity to unlock the fun found by playing with them. While there are themed sets for Orbeez, the real fun is what you can make of them. Here we want to take a closer look at this original toy, and what you can expect from Orbeez.

Orbeez really are quite amazing. They were initially designed is the agricultural sciences and soon found their way as a playful toy for children. They start off as very small shiny beads about the size of BB. Your child must soak the Orbeez in water for at least three hours and then they grow multiple times larger than their original size. What you end up with are colorful balls that are squishy, slimy, bouncy, wacky, funky, and really fun just to play with in your hand.

I know that some of you moms may be thinking that these could be dangerous for my child. No worries here, as the manufacturer has taken more than adequate steps to ensure that they are safe to play with. Orbeez meet all industry safety standards for toys, as well as surpassing all ASTM regulations. Orbeez are non toxic and environmentally friendly. In fact, it is better to discard old Orbeez in your garden than to throw them away. All toy industry tests for chemical and polymer materials have been subjected to Orbeez and they have passed with flying colors. The company has ensured that their product exceeds all mandatory packaging and labeling requirements as well.

Orbeez Magic Maker – This Orbeez kit is really where you need to start, and it is the most popular kit as well. With the Magic Maker you will get a water tank to grow your Orbeez, along with almost three thousand beads in nine different colors. Grow the Orbeez in the water tank and watch then grow. Once swelled up you can use the attached air pump and shoot the balls through the hoops and float them on top of the water. You can then pull up on the pump handle and watch the Orbeez exit the tank and whiz down the spiral ramp in to the collection tray below. The kit includes the water tank, air pump and handle, play an display collection tray, the Orbeez, and an activity book.

Basketball Aquarium – This kit is very similar to the magic maker but it has some additional games your child can play with. The kit has a magical ocean floor on the bottom on which to grow your Orbeez on. Once swelled you pump up the buoy and float the Orbeez to the surface. It is here that you can play a one and one basketball game against Sponge Bob and try to shoot hoops. This is a wonderful kit to play with a friend or two. The kits includes the Sponge Bob themed aquarium, almost two thousand Orbeez in three colors, buoys and hoops for the basketball games, and a sixteen page activity fun book.

Mood Lamp – Think back to the crazy nineteen sixties hippy generation and lava and mood lamps and you will instantly understand this kit. This is a genuine working mood lamp with a creative Orbeez twist. Your child will fill up the lamp with Orbeez balls and the lamp will illuminate them. There are endless combinations and patterns you can make with this kit. The magic mood lamp is included along with almost two thousand Orbeez in three colors, and an activity book. This kit does not include three tripple-A batteries that are needed to activate the light. The lights are LED and change colors making beautiful sights with your Orbeez.

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Source by Elijiah Rampart

Advantages of Buying Handmade Jewelry

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If you’re looking to convey a message of importance or show appreciation to someone you hold near and dear, you can’t go wrong with a meaningful piece of handmade jewelry. Available in a variety of bracelets, rings, earrings, necklaces and more, handmade jewelry has some great advantages.

Originality and Style

Jewelry made by hand is always unique hence no two pieces will ever be the same. You’re not constrained by recent trends or fashions because you’re not wearing the same jewelry everyone else is wearing. Handcrafted jewelry can also be personalized to suit your style or personality which allows you to stand out in a crowd.

Quality Craftsmanship

When you buy handcrafted jewelry you are helping to patronize hardworking artisans who have put their heart and soul into every piece they create. Jewelry artisans love what they do and it shows in their designs. Therefore, they produce only high quality jewelry for their customers. You are also helping to encourage good quality craftsmanship worldwide.

Cost & Affordability

You’d surprised to find that jewelry made entirely by hand is affordable. This is mainly because there are fewer overhead expenses to make jewelry by hand. The cost of handmade jewelry is typically lower in comparison to items you’d find in larger jewelry stores. The time taken to produce a beautifully handcrafted piece may take longer, but you will end up with something you can cherish for years to come. That in itself, is well worth the cost of any handmade jewelry item you acquire.

Trust & Understanding

Most artisans create and run their jewelry businesses themselves, which enables you to communicate one-on-one with them to develop trust and understanding. You will also have a better appreciation for the use of high quality materials and techniques. Many artisans will also work with you to create a customized piece of handmade jewelry specifically to your personal taste and style.

Availability & Selection

Another big benefit to consider is the variety of handmade jewelry available to choose from. There are many stones, beads, precious metals and techniques, so you’re guaranteed to find a whimsical, meaningful and unique piece of handmade jewelry to treasure for a lifetime.

In addition to the benefits listed above, handmade jewelry is available online. Browsing online jewelry boutiques allows you to shop for items right from the comfort of your own home. This is also a great way to do all of your gift shopping while saving both money and precious time.

Online Shopping Tip: Use online shopping to your advantage and do your research before you buy any type of jewelry. Read the About Us and F.A.Q. (Facts, Answers, Questions) pages for each website you visit. If you do have questions, don’t hesitate to email or call the artisan for help. Any good quality designer will be more than happy to answer your concerns or provide information to you.

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Source by Lisa M Landers

The Difference Between Contemporary And Modern Paintings

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You may hear some individuals use the terms "contemporary" and "modern" interchangeably. In some cases, this use of the words is perfectly acceptable. In art, however, contemporary and modern works mean two separate things. If you've ever been confused about the differentiation, here is a good way to look at the two painting concepts:

Contemporary Paintings

Contemporary art is used to describe works made recently. Some art historians will define contemporary paintings as works that extend back to World War II, while others believe it includes works created or accepted within the last ten years. The artists may still be producing artwork today, using the latest trends and techniques for painting. Generally, the classification is a catchall term for art that is current. In the future, people may look back on paintings produced today and give them a new name, but contemporary art serves as a placeholder for anything that has been recently produced.

Artists defined in this category are known for exploring with a variety of mediums, even on canvas. They may choose interesting color palettes, subjects, and depart from convention with their techniques. Some may even include other mediums like bits of paper, handmade dyes, or tape. Contemporary art has also seen a rise in politically charged subject matter. Artists make social statements on global issues including racism, religion, human trafficking, feminism, and environmentalism through their works.

Modern Paintings

Even though a museum of modern art includes truly modern art, it also often features contemporary displays, making the differentiation between the two very confusing. Modern paintings are defined in the art world as paintings produced between 1890 and 1965. Artists include Picasso, Renoir, Kandinsky and Matisse.

The era of modern art overlapped with impressionism, when artists started to throw traditions aside in favor of radical experimentation in their representations. History books often define the modern art era as starting when the last impressionist artists stopped producing. The artists from this time period redefined the art world and paved the way for the contemporary artists producing works today. Many modern painters were heavily involved in abstract and expressive pieces that may or may not represent a likeness to the piece's subject matter.

Commonalities Between Modern and Contemporary Art

Art enthusiasts may look disparagingly on those who use the terms modern and contemporary art interchangeably, but you will always hear some people do so. Since the modern art era, every painting classification has been fairly broad in scope. They all use real life, social issues and emotionally charged subjects to create a statement in their art. They also rely heavily on their mind's eye to provide inspiration for completely original and inspired pieces. Finally, they all include artists interested in experimenting with new and exciting mediums and techniques.

Many art eras overlap, making them seem confusing, but movements in art history have been fluid. They bleed into one another rather than having defined beginnings and ends. In all likelihood, the label on contemporary art may change once again, giving rise to a new movement in painting.

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Source by Matt Erney

Romaeuropa Festival – An Exploration of Contemporary Design in Rome

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Rome has been the resilient, long-standing European nerve centre of art and culture since the dawn of modern civilisation. But since 1980, Romaeuropa Festival has sought to introduce a flavour of contemporary design in Rome through performance art, music, dance, and theatre.

What is it?

Established now as one of the greatest art events in the world, Romaeuropa Festival attracts a multitude of acts from a wide expanse of mediums to showcase their works for two autumn months, between September and November every year. In archaic halls and theatres across the ancient sprawling city, tourists experiencing the delights of The Pantheon can slip into a show at one of the many participating venues, such as Teatro Olimpico and Auditorium Parco de la Musica, displaying an inverted world of contemporary design in Rome.

New meets old

Lovers of modern art and fresh forward-thinking ideas might almost forget the historic wonders and romance that await them outside. Although this is unlikely considering the main reason to visit this wonderful ancient city is for the old buildings and artwork. However, it demonstrates how popular and strong the festival’s appeal is, managing to survive this long in a place where contemporary art isn’t the first thing that springs to mind.

Explore the city

Visitors to the festival can take a stroll from their accommodation and in one instant choose between the classic ancient delights of city – the galleries, museums, chapels, The Colosseum and The Pantheon – or take in the more contemporary design in Rome, and experience an altogether different side to the 2,000 year old city. There are influences from all around the world presenting famous acts, undiscovered artistic gems and new, never-before-seen material to excite and intrigue visitors in equal measure.

Enjoy the art

At the heart of the festival in 2012 was a celebration of the 100 year anniversary of the birth of 20th century post-modern composer, John Cage, known for his experimental musical works, including the score “4’33”. This year the programme features a wide array of thrilling contemporary design in Rome and multi-media art performances. These include a piece of musical theatre called “Aliados”, which centres on the relationship between the meetings of Margaret Thatcher and the former Chilean dictator General Augusto Pinochet in the years 1998-2000. The piece aims to explore the pair’s shared memories of recent history and show how facts can alter due to the decline their respective psychological conditions

But the festival isn’t all modern performance art. There are classical compositions and dances representing the city’s deep-rooted traditions sitting comfortably alongside post-modern operas – a refreshing take on the form by Messiaen/Santasangre, for example.

The Italian capital has so much rich culture to offer all year round to tourists, but with the added injection of a two-month celebration of contemporary design in Rome, there are more ways than ever before to enjoy your visit.

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Source by Roberta Stuart

Major Differences Between Chinese and Japanese Cloisonne

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Cloisonné are metallic objects made with intricate designs and artwork which have been a unique piece of art and creativity since ancient times. It is a unique way of designing metal objects with gemstones, glass materials, enamel paints and other decorative objects which make this art an edge over other handicraft materials. The decoration on the metal objects by initially adding compartments to the metal objects with gold and silver wires. Once the soldering is done, they are finalized with enamel paints and then they are fired in a kiln. This piece of art has its existence since ancient times and has been as old as since 13 century BCE.

The existence of this piece of art has been majorly in Europe, Asia and North America. However this delicate piece of artwork has its existence majorly in china and Japan. Although Chinese and Japanese cloisonné are almost similar, yet there are some difference that will help you to buy the right piece of artwork.

In this article I will provide you with the common difference between Chinese and Japanese cloisonné.

Read on!

1. The simplest and the easiest to way to differentiate between in the Chinese and Japanese cloisonné is to look at the border and rim of the two metal objects. Chinese cloisonné are finished products of smooth and bright turquoise interior. On the contrary, Japanese cloisonné have an orange peel texture on the enamel. Chinese pieces have their borders decorated with Ruyi. Ruyi are colored decorative items which are 1 inch in width. They look like an upside down cloverleaf with a dot in the centre of each clover. However, Japanese cloisonné do not have any such wide borders on their metal pieces. Instead they use thin decorations at the rim which are mostly of reddish brown, blue or green in color. These thin decorations are dots which are decorated at the edges of the metal piece.

2. There is a strike difference in the birth of the cloisonné objects in china and Japan. Chinese cloisonné were well developed and were open to trade before Japan. In contrast, Japan has always kept itself secured and protected from the entire world and hence they developed this art and started to trade few centuries later. Chinese cloisonné began developing this artwork as early as 1300s and gradually it was adapted by other artists. Japan too initially adopted Chinese method of decorating metal vases and bowls in 1830s and lately in 1870s they developed their own unique style of creating and finalizing the artwork. So in other words, we can say that the roots of the cloisonné lies in china and later on in other countries. However, Japanese have proved themselves an ace in cloisonné objects.

3. Though Japanese cloisonné came late into existence, however, they have excelled past china. And henceforth, Japanese cloisonné have a larger variety of cloisonné in comparison to chinese cloisonné. Most famous kinds of Japanese cloisonné is Ginbari, Akasuke and Totai. The different in the three styles lie in their finishing. Totai was coated with a brown tree bark texture, Ginbari with bright, translucent enamels and Akasuke with a clear red enamel.

4. Difference also lies on the marks or the seals of the cloisonné from two countries. Chinese cloisonné were often sealed or marked in bright enamel. The sealed was impressed between 1897 and 1921 for export trade and often encrypted with “made in china” after 1921 and only “china” from 1897 to 1912. On the contrary, Japanese cloisonné were not marked or sealed. This was mainly due to the reason that Japanese cloisonné were exported from local clients which did not require any exportation marks.

5. There is a slight difference in the enamel coating of the cloisonné of the two countries. The bottom of the Chinese cloisonné is coated with enamel in order to strengthen it for high heat of kiln. Enamel coating was done to protect the base to crack or wrap from excessive heating. Japanese cloisonné did not have any such enamel coating and instead they were decorated with cloisonné wires with orange peel texture coating.

6. The designs of the two art pieces were also different. Chinese cloisonné were mostly designed and decorated with symmetrical designs symbolizing nature like seasonal flowers or Buddhist lotus pattern or mythical animals such as kara-shishi, winged horse or phoenix. Japanese cloisonné used symbols such as the Japan’s empress or emperor symbol. They use mostly asymmetrical designs with more crowded appearance than Chinese cloisonné. A common design which was used by the two countries was a dragon motif. The only difference in the dragon motif lies in the number of toes depicted. A Japanese cloisonné had three toes depicted whereas Chinese cloisonné had four or five toes depicted.

7. In terms of the gilding and finish of the two cloisonné; Chinese cloisonné use gilding with gold in order to protect them from heat. Often the surfaces of Chinese cloisonné are glassy and are bright in color. In case of Japanese cloisonné, all the metal objects are not gilded instead had a combination of copper, silver and brass wires.

8. Most of the Japanese cloisonné were of unusual shapes and sizes in contrast to the Chinese cloisonné’s which had a symmetrical shapes comprising of incense burner, a vase and two candle sticks.

9. The bodies of Japanese cloisonné were mostly made up of copper or bronze and Chinese cloisonné had bronze bodies. However, sheet- copper bodies in Chinese cloisonné were introduced in the early sixteenth century.

10. In comparison to Chinese cloisonné, Japanese cloisonné are more polished and reflect light.

I believe, that more we come to know the difference between the Chinese and Japanese cloisonné’s, the better we can differentiate between the two and can gather more knowledge while purchasing them. Though there is a difference between the two countries, yet you will find a wide variety of antique designs and creativity in both the of these metal pieces.

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Compositional Technique in Art

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I have to say 'Artists are people with a precious gift from God- the ability to imagine'. It is the ability to imagine that a multitude of ideas, form, shapes and creative thinking take place.

However, most beginner artists will agree that it is hard to take what we have imagined in our minds and place them onto our drawing paper. Most newcomers lack the ability to organize the chaotic mind into a system of order so that the final art work is a by product of a systemic thought process.

This though process can be known as composition. Composition is the integration of many different kinds of art techniques and philosophies with one's technique and style in painting. Composition technique is never easy and should be studied in great details for anyone interested in the study of art.

Compositional technique can be easier to master if one ask himself / herself these questions when painting. What is the 'spirit' of the object that you are trying to capture in your painting? What is the most interesting aspect of the object that you will want to focus on?

Yes, the keyword is focus! If there is no focal point, then you will not be able to capture the emotion of the subject and express it on paper in a way that will maximize the impression you will hope to achieve. And always remember that the selection of the color and tone is critical to bring out the mood of the painting. Every decision you made as the artist should have a primary reason behind it. Composition in art is about how you react to a subject and introduce your personal quality through your drawing.

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5 Woodblock Masterpieces of Women by Utamaro

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One of the most prominent themes in the arts of Man has always been female beauty. But surprisingly few artists are primarily identified with this theme. A major exception is the Japanese artist Kitagawa Utamaro (1753-1806) who dedicated is whole artistic life pursuing this beauty. He specialized in the posture, the character, the softness of the skin and the grace of the woman and fully utilized the characteristic of the woodblock to obtain the essence of female nature.

The following five bijin (beauty print) designs are among Utamaro's most acclaimed masterpieces.

Mature Woman in Love (c.1793)

From Utamaro's five part series Kasen: ko no bu (Selected Love Poems) this okubi-e (bust portrait / half length portrait) design is generally considered the best of this set of prints. The title in the English translation of this print is 'Love Which One Can Not Put Out in One's Mind' and is the portrayal of a mature woman resting her head on her hand. Her eyebrows are shaven, which indicates she's married, and her eyes are narrowed in a dreamily gaze looking into the distance. In this series Utamaro focuses on the facial expressions of these women using fine lines and soft delicate colors trying to expose their inner feelings.

Applying Lipstick (c.1794)

An ordinary woman depicted in a half-kneeling position looking in a mirror which she holds in her hand. She's applying red lipstick to her mouth after she blackened her teeth. In this design Utamaro proofs his mastery in depicting women wearing everyday clothes placed in an ordinary setting. The subtle contrast between the red lipstick and the white of the skin is a magnificent detail. The black box in front of her contains implements for blackening the teeth.

Yamamba and Kintaro (c.1801)

Utamaro designed nearly fifty prints of the mountain woman Yamamba and her son Kintaro (aka Kintoki) in various settings and formats. This naga-oban (c. 20 3/4 "x 9 1/2") design is Utamaro's most well-known print depicting this subject. In this scene the viewer can feel true motherly love from Yamamba as she's trying to calm the little boy with chestnuts while fondling him as he is holding on to her. The soft color combination is beautifully contrasted with the strong colors used for Kintaro, emphasizing his health and strength.

Physiognomical Studies (c.1791)

The following print is from Utamaro's famous 'Ten Physiognomical Studies of women' -series and is a study of a noble looking middle-aged woman reading a letter, with her hands outstretched to unfold it. A masterpiece because of its simplicity and superb composition. Some prints of this design have a pink-mica background instead of silver-mica. The pink was made after the silver.

The Muse Ohisa with Fan (c.1792)

This print design belongs to the same series as the foregiving one and is probably the most celebrated single bijin portrait in the history of Ukiyo-e. The model of this print is thought to be a daughter of Takashima Chobei who was a proprietor of a tea-house in Ryogoku Yagenbori. The viewer can feel the sweetness of this girl who is a daughter of a well-to-do family. It seems that Utamaro often painted Takashima Ohisa (like many other contemporaries) by preference. He also painted Ohisa in the series 'Six Famous Beautiful Women' , even after her marriage and as the proverb says: "Beauty is often inconsistent with luck", this pretty Ohisa died young leaving two sons behind.

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Source by Marijn Kruijff

Canvas Art Sets – 5 Benefits Of A 3 Piece Canvas

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Canvas art sets are more interesting to look at than regular single canvas paintings. If you have canvas sets hanging in your living room, your guests will definitely have positive comments about them. People see traditional single canvas paintings all the time, a 3 piece canvas will definitely catch attention.

I can think of at least five benefits of having a 3 piece canvas art set hanging on your wall:

1. Three piece canvas art sets tell a story. The painting flows through from one canvas piece to another. It holds attention and makes the viewer try to figure out the story, piece by piece. It makes a more interesting artwork and decor accent than any single canvas painting.

2. You can cover more wall space with a 3 piece canvas. You can hang them next to each other or separately with an inch or two apart. It can be spread out to cover a wider space. Depending on the design, you can hang it horizontally or vertically. If you need to decorate a wide wall, this would be a better option than buying 3 different paintings that may not even look nice next to each other.

3. Canvas art sets make cool gifts. Sure anyone can get a panting for a friend but rarely will one get a 3 piece wall art as a gift for someone. At least, your friend will be a bit more surprised receiving a 3 piece canvas instead of the usual single painting. You can get canvas art sets from 2 to 6 or 9 pieces.

4. Multiple piece paintings are cheaper to ship than one huge painting that is 6 to 7 feet long. Imagine the freight charges for a single painting that large. Canvas art sets are made of several canvas pieces which can be packed in smaller boxes. Some couriers charge shipment based on the amount of space a package occupies.

5. A 3 piece canvas will be easier to hang than one large painting. You won't have to struggle with one large painting that you can't carry yourself. A 3 piece canvas divides the weight into 3, making it easier to hang on your wall. Even the size is manageable.

If you will get canvas art sets, remember that they can be hung separately with some space between canvas pieces. Consider that when taking measurements and buying multiple-piece canvas sets. Another thing to consider is the color of the wall art. Match the canvas with the color theme of your room. If your home is decorated in a modern way, get abstracts or contemporary pieces. If your tastes are a bit more conventional, you can still find canvas art pieces with a traditional picture.

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Source by Ana Trenas

Defeating Siege Warfare – Satanic Battle Tactics Exposed & Destroyed

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The SIEGE is one of the most commonly used battle tactics employed by the devil to render Christians useless or partially ineffective in their spiritual service. I intend to use some of the principles of ordinary siege warfare to shed light on spiritual siege warfare. Before we look at this satanic strategy, however, I’d like to proclaim a few powerful truths. God wants us to be vibrant and victorious! He wants us to be wonderfully alive with His Spirit! He’s given us access to His character through Jesus Christ. He’s endowed us with POWER.

Through His Word and His Spirit, we have access to His love, joy, and peace in consistent and abundant quantities. With all His goodness so readily available to us, it’s a wonder we submit ourselves to anything less. So why is it that we often succumb to base desires and instincts? Why is it that lust, greed, pride, and fear exercise a powerful hold on us at various times and in varying degrees? Why do we so often lose our sense of victory and purpose, which has already been overwhelmingly won for us by Jesus Christ?

Satan’s Desire

The answers to these questions lie in understanding our old nature, and in recognizing the mission of our adversary – Satan himself. A proper understanding of his intentions and methods will go a long way in helping us to thwart his attacks.

Your adversary, the devil, prowls around like a roaring lion, seeking someone to devour. -1 Peter 5:8

Satan is evil incarnate. His ONLY objectives are to steal, kill, and destroy. He desires to devastate our walk with the Lord. He hates Jesus Christ and all those who claim salvation in His name. It gives the devil great pleasure to shipwreck a Christian, in regard to his faith. He will ruthlessly employ any scheme or method to help him reach his goal. Satan is not playing games. He is dead serious about his calling, unlike many of us. What Jesus said about Satan’s desire to sift Peter like wheat can also, in a measure, be said of Satan’s desire for the entire Body of Christ – and that means you and me! We need to recognize that we are at WAR with his satanic majesty! We need to respond to his threats in the POWER of the Spirit of God! He has robbed us far too long! We have submitted to him needlessly. We must remember that we are more than conquerors in Christ Jesus. We need to be aware of Satan’s wiles, and frustrate his every move with a Holy Ghost-inspired move of our own!

City Under Siege!

When Satan comes against a believer, he usually brings with him a long-term strategy for defeating him. He realizes that true disciples of Jesus are formidable opponents. He knows that if he comes against them in obviously brutish fashion, his chances for success are reduced. For this reason, he often comes as an angel of light, using some form of alliance. When he does choose to reveal his true intentions, he often uses the siege form of attack in order to wear down the spiritual strength of the believer.

An attacking army may use siege warfare when the enemy resists outright confrontation. In siege warfare, one army surrounds a fortified area with the intent to capture it. I’ll use an example of siege warfare as it was employed in biblical times to illustrate Satan’s siege tactic.

How to besiege a city or a fortified stronghold:

1: Surround it and cut off supplies.

2: Approach the enemy walls by digging zigzag trenches

to get within striking distance.

3: Use stone-throwers, catapults, and flaming arrows

to hurl objects over the walls of the enemy fortress.

4: When the defense of the enemy is weakened, send soldiers swarming up ladders, and/or enter through a tunnel bored through the wall. If available, use a battering ram to acquire forceful entrance.

5: Once sufficient numbers are inside, terrorize all inhabitants, kill or capture any opposition that remains, and completely dominate the affairs of the conquered.

Each of the aforementioned points correspond with a part of Satan’s besieging strategy. Take his intentions personal…

1: Satan’s first tactic is to surround us and cut off our supplies. It is his desire to get us out of the Word, out of fellowship, and out of prayer. Just as the ancient army sought to cut off their enemy from food, water, and contact with allies who could aid them, likewise Satan seeks to cut off the believer from the life-giving Word of God- the Bible, from fellowship with other believers, and from prayer. If you find yourself drifting away from consistent contact with other Christians – watch out! If your devotion to prayer is waning, and your consistent study of the Word is lacking – be careful! You are in the first stages of being besieged. I have found, upon reflection, that all of my serious brushes with backsliding began in this way. I would be bopping along, walking with the Lord, and growing in His Word. Then, for one of many seemingly plausible reasons, I’d find myself ceasing from consistent prayer and Bible study.

The reasons for these lapses ranged from an “innocent” interest in sports, T.V., or other amusements, to a more blatant and unconfessed sin. If I didn’t rouse myself from this state, the strange, downward spiral of complacency would pull on me, drawing my affections away from the things of God and the people of God. We must stay in prayer before the Lord. We must stay in the Word. We must remain in fellowship with believers. Following these principles in truth will keep us in tune with the Spirit of God, Who will guide us through the battle, unharmed.

2,3: Once the enemy effectively cuts us off from the Word, fellowship, and prayer, he begins to hurl thoughts and desires at us which are contrary to the Word of God. He hopes that our faith, which we can use as a shield to quench all the fiery darts of the evil one, is sufficiently weakened and of no effect. If we continue to offer feeble resistance, but still do not rectify the downward spiral of Tactic 1, he simply continues approaching and continues to hurl evil thoughts and desires at us until we give in. If we don’t cry out to God at that point, if we toy with the ideas presented to us, if we don’t fight back using the powerful spiritual weapons at our disposal, then temporary setback is very much a possibility.

… for the weapons of our warfare are not of the flesh, but divinely powerful for the destruction of fortresses -2 Cor. 10:4

We do not have to submit ourselves to the mental onslaught of demonic attack. We can destroy every wicked thing in the name of Jesus – by living according to the power in His name. The war between good and evil, as it relates to us, is waged in our minds. God intends to build a holy castle in the mind of every believer. Satan seeks to tear down this Christian edifice in the soul, and build fortresses of pride, fear, lust, anger, and other evils. Since this is his intention, we must take every imagination, speculation, reasoning, argument, and proud obstacle – EVERY THOUGHT – captive to obey Christ. We do this by renewing our minds, by obeying the Word of God. We do this by resisting evil things. If it doesn’t line up with righteous thinking, REJECT IT! Don’t meditate on unprofitable things any longer than it takes to determine their origin and to decide their destiny. If you don’t deal with temptation in the first precious moments of its birth, you will find it increasingly more difficult to lay hold of the victory. God’s Word promises the way of escape in every temptation, that we might be able to stand up under each and every one-but to fool around with thoughts catapulted into your mind by devils is worse than playing with fire!

4,5: If the evil thoughts which have been hurled over into the mind have begun to produce repeated acts of sin, the enemies then seek to swarm in and take over the daily life of the believer. If the firebrands, which were thrown over the wall, found dry wood, with no water made ready to quench them, they would surely burn and cause great destruction. If the wicked thoughts and desires Satan sows find a place in the life of the believer, that believer will surely suffer loss. The amount of loss depends on the extent to which the believer allows the evil to flourish. Satan well knows this principle of sowing: Sow a thought, reap an act; sow an act, reap a habit; sow a habit, reap a life-style. He desires to cause a serious and lengthy malaise to engulf you. He doesn’t just want to cause you to sin a little bit here and there; he wants you to be bound in a LIFE-style of sin. He wants your faith derailed, your mind deranged, and your testimony destroyed. If an act of sin is not repented of, it could become a wicked habit. The habit could become a filthy life-style, and wreak continuous havoc in the life of the besieged. There are many “Christians” today who are hiding wicked habits or filthy life-styles. They attend church regularly, they sing, they tithe. They say all the right things and wear the right clothes; but inside, they are dead, or dying. Their fellowship with the Lord has been cut off. In the lives of many of these lukewarm churchgoers, the enemy is near to completely dominating their fortress. The overtaking of their spiritual citadel is close at hand.

Prevent The Siege

The key element in defeating siege warfare lies in diffusing the possibility of it happening before it actually occurs. A powerful city with vast supply stocks, diverse routes of escape, superior weaponry, and numerous allies at least as powerful as itself, is not likely to be besieged in the first place. If some enemy is senseless enough to try, it will be soundly defeated. This is the true lesson of this true lesson of this article!

Stay alert! Stay devoted to the Word, to prayer, and to fellowship with God’s people. Realize that Satan is a defeated foe. No weapon formed against us can harm us! We are more than conquerors, because of the great things God has done for us in Christ! Satan knows that the only power he can have over us now is power that we appropriate to him. He is the prince of darkness. Only when we willingly choose to dwell in an area of darkness can he exercise a measure of authority over us. For this reason, and of course, because it greatly offends our heavenly Father, we should seek to be free of sinful habits. As A.W. Tozer once said, “Deal THOROUGHLY with sin.” This doesn’t mean you won’t ever sin again if you somehow make up your mind not to. It means that incidences of sin must remain isolated, be repented of, and be cast out- DAILY! Don’t allow sin habits to form! Repent of anger, if it erupts, as soon as possible. Don’t allow the “sinking seedlings” of lust and pride to find good ground in your heart, and grow into ornery oaks of lust and pride. Don’t let the power of unforgiveness keep you under enemy attack! You know the old adage, “An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure.” Jesus has our preventative spiritual medicine ready, to keep us from defeat and despair. He also is the Cure in case we do ever fall to the besieging hordes of darkness. Through His great wisdom and power, the fortress of the fallen believer can again be won for righteousness, the looters expelled, the devil dethroned.


If you find yourself in need of cleansing today, if you really want to be set free from the dominance of some evil thing, pay close attention! Humble yourself. Be honest about your struggles before God and man. Ask the Lord to forgive you, again. Ask Him to help you forgive yourself. If you are like me, you are sometimes harder on yourself than is necessary. Forgive yourself! Yield yourself to Him, for His purposes. Cry out to God, “Lord, tear down the towers of sin in my life and strengthen me to do what is pleasing in Your sight! Ask Him to quench the burning lust Satan has planted in your mind. Ask Him to repair the devastation, which the “battering rams” of evil have caused in your life, and to repair “tunnel” damage, through which Satan has undermined your very foundation.

Confess your sin to a strong, trustworthy brother or sister – one who will be willing and able to stand with you through your recovery. Get yourself back into a regular prayer life. Meet constantly with your Lord in prayer -that is a key! Get into the Word, and return to it daily. Keep your sword sharpened! Fellowship with Christian brothers and sisters constantly! These are the elements with which to make and keep your fortress a safe haven, free from the threat of the besieger. Above all, lean not on your own strength. Learn to lean fully on the Lord. “Greater is He that is in me, than he that is in the world.” He is the Mighty and Awesome Warrior! A strong and mighty tower is our God! Keep Him on the throne of your heart. His real presence there will preclude satanic siege, or will ensure certain defeat upon the enemy foolish enough to think his weapons will be any more effective than a water gun would be against a NUCLEAR BOMB!!

Broken Bread Christian Publications is the literary branch of Broken Bread Christian Alliance. We have other teaching and tract material available to aid you in your spiritual growth. Please email us or write us for a list of other titles and/or to be added to our mailing list.

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Source by Brian K Burns

Exploring the Breath, Range, Character, Scope and Reception of Cyprian Ekwensi's Writings

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Ekwensi one of Africa's most prolific writers who died late last year and was buried early this year, maintained a vibrant writing activity throughout his life, publishing a collection of short stories, cash on delivery , his last work of fiction and completing work on his memoirs , titled, In My Time for several years on to his death. With over twenty novels, collections of stories and short novels to his name, Ekwensi's thematic preoccupation equally covered the Nigerian Civil War from the perspective of a journalist and life in a pastoral Fulani setting in Northern Nigeria.

Ekwensi's first published work was the novella, When Love Wh ispers, published in 1948, ten years before the great African novel, Achebe's Things Fall Apart , appeared in London. He was inspired by sorrow over his unsuccessful attempt to court a young woman whose father insisted that she makes a marriage of convenience to write it. This short, light romance formed part of what became known as the Onitsha Market school of pulp fiction, and its success inspired Ekwensi to continue in that same mode.

Ekwensi had already distinguished himself by the several short stories he had written for broadcast on radio. These he later put together, within ten days, while on his way to Chelsea School of Pharmacy, London, to realize his first novel, People of the City, which Nigeria's premier newspaper, The Daily Times , published in installments before it appeared in book form in 1954. but which was not published in the United States until 15 years later. People of the City (1954) was the first West African novel in modern style English to be published in England. It's publication thus marked an important development in African literature with Ekwensi becoming one of the first African novelists to receive much exposure in the West and eventually the most prolific African novelist.

The fact that Cyprian Ekwensi started his writing career as a pamphleteer is reflected in the episodic nature of people of the city (1954) a collection of stories strung together but reading like a novel, in which he gives a vibrant portrait of the fast-paced life in a West African city, Lagos. People of the City which recounts the coming to political awareness of a young reporter and band leader in an emerging African country is filled with his running commentary on the problems of bribery and corruption and despotism bedeviling such states. In it and several others, Ekwensi explores the lure, thrills and challenges of urban life, and the extreme permissiveness and impersonal relationships permeating the lives of migrants to the city, where close-ties normally fostered by the extended family system of their traditional societies determ a serious check on the deviant lifestyles that find full expression in the city.

According to, Bernth Lindfors, none of Ekwensi's numerous works is entirely free from amateurish blots and blunders. Lindfors therefore concludes that he could not call any "the handiwork of a careful, skilled craftsman." On his portrayal of the moral irresponsibility in city life, Bernth Lindfors, argued that "because his sinful heroines usually come to bad ends, Ekwensi can be viewed as a serious moralist whose novels offer instruction in virtue by displaying the tragic consequences of vice. But it always seems as if he is more interested in the vice than in the virtue and that he aims to titillate as well as teach. " While this view may be contested, it is undeniable that he always strove hard to reach his audience in the most immediate and intimate style. Indeed, it was to maintain this that he clung to those themes that afforded him the mass readership he so much craved

In a 1972 interview by Lewis Nkosi, Ekwensi defined his role as writer thus: "I think I am a writer who regards himself as a writer for the masses. I don't think of myself as a literary stylist: if my style comes, that is just incidental, but I am more interested in getting at the heart of the truth which the man in the street can recognize than in just spinning words. "

Ernest Emenyonu, a Nigerian critic noted for his sympathy towards Ekwensi, charges that Ekwensi "has never been correctly assessed as a writer."

Another sympathetic critic, the long-standing American convert to the study of African Literature, Charles Larson, describes him as one of the most prolific African writers of the twentieth century. According to Larson, Ekwensi "is probably the most widely-read novelist in Nigeria – perhaps even in West Africa – by readers whose literary tastes have not been exposed to the more complex writings of Chinua Achebe and other more skilled African novelists."

Kole Omotoso past President of Nigerian Association of Authors and Drama professor at University of Ibadan confessed a lifelong fascination with him after reading his novelette The Yaba Round about Murder as a child, for, as he confesses, it taught him the importance of space in writing fiction. Omotoso goes on to state that Ekwensi's major importance in Nigerian writing is because he believed in himself and 'made us believe in ourselves.' The pan-Africanist slant of his writings and his publications being mostly in Nigeria were found commendable. When many other African writers were in self-exile, he chose to remain in his native country, rather than live abroad where publishing opportunities are more abundant.

While some scholars discounted Ekwensi's novels, others valued their social realism. Charles R. Larson put his work in historical perspective: "Local color is their forte, whether it be Ekwensi's city of chaos, Lagos, or Onitsha …; the Nigerian reader is placed for the first time in a perspective which has been previously unexplored in African fiction. "

Placing Ekwensi's work firmly in the popular idiom, Douglas Killam explained their importance: "Popular fiction is always significant as indicating current popular interests and morality. Ekwensi's work is redeemed (although not saved as art) by his serious concern with the moral issues which inform contemporary Nigerian life. As such they will always be relevant to Nigerian literary history and to Nigerian tradition. "

Ekwensi told stories that, like well-cooked onugbu (bitter leaf) soup, left a pleasant after-meal tang on the palate. Throughout his works Ekwensi told us that a work of fiction does not deserve that honorable name if it does not at first sight -…- arrest the reader like a cop's handcuffs ….. I read many of Ekwensi's books, and save for 'The Drummer Boy', which was a recommended text when I was in junior secondary school in Plateau State, the others were read because they are what a book-hungry soul needs for sustenance. Who can, having been initiated into the cult of Ekwensi, forget the revenge-driven Mallam Iliya , the sokugo- stricken Mai Sunsaye, the skirt-besotted Amusa Sango, the raunchy belle, Jagua Nana (they don't create women like that any more, whether in fiction, on the telly, and probably in real life); and the heart-rending Ngozi and heroic Pedro? They are my friends for life.

Ekwensi did much more than create 'airport thrillers'. He told great stories that live on in the hearts of all who encountered them. (Henry Chukwuemeka Onyeama a Lagos-based writer and teacher)

An Ibo, like Chinua Achebe, Ekwensi was born in 1921 in Minna, Niger State, in Northern Nigeria, but attended secondary school in a predominantly Yoruba area, Ibadan. He is very familiar with the many major ethnic groups in his country, and thus possesses a knowledge often well exploited in his novels. He went on subsequently to Yaba Higher College in Ibadan and then moved over to Achimota College in Ghana where he studied forestry. For two years he worked as a forestry officer and then taught science for a brief period. He then entered the Lagos School of Pharmacy. He later continued at the University of London (Chelsea School of Pharmacy) during which period he wrote his earliest fiction, his first book-length publication Ikolo the Wrestler and Other Ibo Tale (1947), published in London. His writings earned him a place in the National Media where he rose to Head of features in the Nigerian Broadcasting Services and ultimately becoming its Director.

Several events in Ekwensi's childhood contributed later to his writings. Although ethnically an Igbo, he was raised among Hausa playmates and schoolmates and so spoke both tribal languages. He also learned of his heritage through the many Igbo stories and legends that his father told him, which he would later publish in the collection Ikolo the Wrestler and Other Ibo Tales . In 1936 Ekwensi enrolled in the southern Nigerian secondary school known as Government College, Ibadan, where he learned about Yoruba culture as well as excelling in English, math, science, and sports. He read everything he could lay his hands on in the school library, concentrating on H. Rider Haggard, Charles Dickens, Jane Austen, Walter Scott, and Alexandre Dumas. He also wrote articles and stories for numerous school publications, particularly The Viking magazine.

During the later part of his stint as a forest officer Ekwensi started yearning for the city. So beginning in 1947 he taught English, biology, and chemistry at Igbobi College near Lagos. To his classes he read aloud manuscripts of books for children, Drummer Boy , Passport of Mallam Ilia , and Trouble in From Six , and short stories. Finally, after decades of supplementing his writing career by working in broadcasting and doing other public relations work, Ekwensi gave up his day jobs in 1984 to pursue writing full time. He returned to writing adult novels, picking and choosing from his personal "archive" of earlier written manuscripts much of which he revised into the novels Jagua Nana's Daughter , Motherless Baby , For a Roll of Parchment , and Divided We Stand, which were published in the 1980s. For example, in For a Roll of Parchment he recounted his trip from Nigeria to England, as he had in People of the City . He did, however, update his material to portray post-World War II Nigeria, with its faster paced life.

Sex, violence, intrigue, and mystery in a recognizable contemporary setting most often in the fast-paced melting pot of the city were common diet in Ekwensi's works especially in Jagua Nana , in which a very worldly and highly attractive forty-five year old Nigerian woman with multiple suitors falls in love with a young teacher, Freddie. She agrees to send him to study law in England on the understanding of their getting married on his return. Around this beautiful and impressive prostitute, Ekwensi sets in motion a whole panoply of vibrant, amoral characters who have drifted from their rural origins to grab the dazzling pleasures of the city.

And the novel itself shows us the seedy underbelly of the big city, Lagos, where Jagua's favorite haunt, the Tropicana bar, sets the scene for much of the story.

Sometime, back in the 1950s the Onitsha Market 'literary' mafia, strarted producing and marketing openly, a semi-nude picture of a buxom Igbo teenage beauty, with the sassy caption, "Beateam mee lee" – I dare you to beat me!

Those were the prudish days of high moral values ​​in Igboland and indeed Nigeria, of Elizabethan fashion with cane-wielding primary school teachers and headmasters. The offending picture sent shockwaves right down the spines of the public who, nonetheless, rushed to buy copies. Men who turned up their noses at the pictures in public, secretly bought, viewed and relished copies. And..school boys did odd jobs for parents, and the money they earned were saved up to the one shilling cost of the picture, which they used to purchase it and then usually tucked it away, in-between books, away from the prying eyes of parents or the class teacher, from where curious peeks of the treasure could be sneeked sometimes, at its owner's risk, even in the middle of a lesson. Noted for churning out almanacs, with pictures of the famous, unfolding events, folk art, as well as such literature as those of Ogali A. Ogali, author of the legendary "Veronica My Daughter", the mafia knew where to draw the line. Sex, however, sold any day and age and the mafia knew this. But nobody wanted to be identified with anything even remotely pornographic. "Beateam mee lee" was therefore, at the time, the mother of all daring.

It was against this backdrop that Ekwensi took the Nigerian literary scene by storm with the publication of the raunchy Jagua Nana . Ekwensi's most widely read novel, Jagua Nana, published in 1961 returned us to the locale of People of the City but with a much more cohesive plot centered on Jagua, a courtesan who had a love for the expensive as reflected in her name itself, which was a corruption of the expensive English automobile, Jaguar. Her life personalizes the conflict between the old traditional and modern urban Africa. Although Ekwensi had earlier shown the direction of his works with the publication, in 1954, of People of the City , it was Jagua (the lead character in this novel) that built the Ekwensi legend and assumed a life all its own, becoming a folk hero of sorts. Jagua dared the reading public. Ekwensi the artist, also had the magic of picking out names of his characters that were instant hits. They stuck like glue in the reader's memory and helped animate the fictional personality. Bold, defiant, imaginative and rendered with uncommon technical finesse, Jaguar Nana totally established Ekwensi as the ultimate chronicler of Nigerian city life.

Published in 1961, the novel Jagua Nana , tells the story of an aging prostitute named Jagua who tries to provide for herself security in her later life through her relationship with a younger man. Yet while this young man is studying law in England, Jagua involves herself in various activities, some dubious, some not. Jagua Nana, witnessed some improvement in plot quality and control, unlike what obtained in People Of The City , chronicling the adventures of an ageing prostitute in Lagos, in love with her work and the expensive lifestyles, but who ends up in grief and disappointment.

Ekwensi's attempt to dust her up later and usher her into some form of happiness and fulfillment introduces the quest motif in his work, which manifests itself fully in the sequel, Jagua Nana's Daughter (1987), where Jagua, after a long search, was able to reconnect with her educated, socially elevated daughter, who had also had her own fair share of loose life. Both daughter and mother were at the same time engrossed in a quest for mutual fulfillment and healing until they met fortuitously. In the end, after she suffers sufficiently, Ekwensi allows her to have happiness.

As was to be in several of his other novels, Ekwensi's moralizing is evident and reform is possible for some characters. For example, in the later novel Iska Ekwensi portrayed a young Ibo widow, Filia, who moves to Lagos after her husband's death. There she tries to lead a respectable life. While she tries to get an education and responsible employment, she encounters numerous obstacles, which allow Ekwensi to show readers a wide range of urbanites. Yet this novel, published by a European press, could not compete for popularity with its predecessor, Jagua Nana , which caused controversy for its frank portrayal of sexuality. When an Italian movie company wanted to film Jagua Nana , the Nigerian government prevented this effort fearing negative media portrayals of the country.

Talking about what inspired him to write the work in an interview, Ekwensi said : I was a pharmacy student at the Yaba Higher College those days and I lived in the same compound with a young man who was very romantic. He would never miss his night club for anything. We had a night club then, called Rex Club, run by the late Rewane – the two Rewanes are dead now, by the way and one of them was at Government College, Ibadan while the other one was a politician.

Now, many years later, I was called upon to do a program for the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) about night life and I found out that I had so much material about this subject that I could really build it into a whole book. That was the inspiration.

Yet another of his novels is Burning Grass (1961) a collection of vignettes giving insight into the life of a pastoral Fulani cattlemen family of Northern Nigeria..The novel and the characters are based actually on a real family with whom Ekwensi himself had previously lived . For after studying forestry at the Yaba Higher College in Lagos during World War II, Ekwensi began a two-year stint as a forestry officer which familiarized him with the forest reserves, from which he was enabled to write such adventure stories in rural settings as Burning Grass. .

"In the days in the forest, I was able to reminisce and write. That was when I really began to write for publishing," he told Nkosi. The several months spent with the nomadic Fulani people, later became the subjects of Burning Grass .where he follows the adventures of Mai Sunsaye, who has Sokugo , a wanderlust, and of his family, who try to rescue him. While seeing his protagonists through varied adventures, Ekwensi portrays the lives of the Fulani cattlemen. This early work, considered one of his more "serious" novels, was published by Heinemann educational publishers and reissued in 1998

Two novellas for children followed in 1960; both The Drummer Boy and The Passport of Mallam Ilia which were exercises in blending traditional themes with undisguised romanticism.

Between 1961 and 1966 Ekwensi published at least one major work every year. The most important of these were the novels, Beautiful Feathers (1963) and Iska (1966), and two collections of short stories, Rainmaker (1965) and Lokotown (1966).

Beautiful Feathers (1963) repeat the nationalist and pan-Africanist consciousness of the pre-independence days of the 1950s and how the young hero's youthful commitment to his ideal leads to the disintegration of his family, thus underscoring the proverb alluded to in the title: "However famous a man is outside, if he is not respected inside his own home he is like a bird with beautiful feathers, wonderful on the outside but ordinary within."

From 1967 to 1969, during the Nigerian civil war, when the eastern part of Nigeria attempted to secede, Ekwensi served as a government information officer the experiences from which he used to write the 1976 picaresque novel Survive the Peace . which realistically portrayed the activities of a radio journalist in the wake of the civil war in Biafra.who in his effort to reunite his family, encounters the violence, destruction, refugees, and relief operations that such chaos engenders. Through flashbacks, Ekwensi also depicts the war itself giving a post-mortem on the just-connected, interrogates the problems of surviving in the so-called peace. It looks for instance at the pathetic fate of James Odugo, the radio journalist who survives the war only to be cut down on the road by marauding former soldiers.

In such early works as the collections Ikolo the Wrestler and Other Ibo Tales , and An African Night's Entertainment , the novel Burning Grass , and the juvenile works The Leopard's Claw and Juju Rock , Ekwensi told stories in a rural setting.

Ekwensi continued to publish beyond the 1960s, and among his later works are the novel Divided We Stand (1980) in which he lampooned the Nigerian civil war, the novella Motherless Baby (1980), and the restless city and christmas gold (1975), Behind the Convent Wall (1987), and Gone to Mecca (1991).

Ekwensi also published a number of works for children.such as Ikolo the Wrestler and Other Ibo Tales (1947) and The Leopard's Claw (1950). In the 1960s, he wrote An African Night's Entertainment (1962), The Great Elephant-Bird (1965), and Trouble in Form Six (1966). Over time, Ekwensi produced other books, mostly for children, which though they may not have been internationally acclaimed, were nonetheless well known and read all over Nigeria and Africa. They included Rainmaker (1965), Iska (1966), Coal Camp Boy (1971) Samankwe in the strange Forest (1973), Motherless Baby (1980), The Restless City and Christmas Gold (1975), Samankwe and the Highway Robbers (1975 ), Behind the Convent Wall (1987), Gone to Mecca (1991), Masquerade Time ! (1992), and King Forever ! (1992). In 2006, he completed work on two other books; "Tortoise and the Brown Monkey", a short story and "Another Freedom".

Gratifyingly Ekwensi is still writing, He has published several titles as When Love Whispers , Divided We Stand , Jagua Nana's Daughter and King for Ever! all related to earlier works.

When Love Whispers like Jagua Nana revolves around a very attractive woman with multiple suitors. But whilst she thinks she has won the love of her life her father expects her to get married to an older man in an arranged marriage.

Divided We Stand (1980) was written in the heat of the Biafra war itself, though published later. It reverses the received wisdom that unity is strength, showing how ethnicity, division, and hatred bring about distrust, displacement, and war itself.

Jagua Nana's Daughter (1986) revolves around Jagua's daughter's traumatic search for her mother leading her to find not only her mother but a partner as well. She is able to get married to a highly placed professional as she, unlike her mother, is a professional as well. She thus gains the security and protection she desires.

King for Ever! (1992) satirises the desire of African leaders to perpetuate themselves in power. Sinanda's rising to power from humble background does not prevent his vaulting ambition from soaring to the height where he was now aspiring to godhead

In the decades since Ekwensi began writing, the Nigerian readership has changed. Unlike the days of the Onitsha Market fiction, when books were printed inexpensively and sold cheaply to suit popular tastes at the turn of the millennium few publishing companies controlled the choice of books published; book prices made books often go beyond the reach of the masses, mostly restricted to schools and libraries, which cater to nonfiction and instructional materials. With various forms of media increasing in popularity, the incentive to read has fallen. With fewer people reading for pleasure, novels are in little demand. Because of these circumstances, creative writers suffer. Of this downside, Ekwensi told Larson, "Journalists thrive here, but creative writers get diverted and the creativity gets washed out of them if they must take the bread and butter home."

At a public lecture in 2000, quoted by Kole Ade-Odutola in Africa News , the elderly but still vivacious Ekwensi expressed his desire to "build and nurture young minds in the customs and traditions of their communities" through his writings. He explained, "African writers of the twentieth century inherited the oral literature of our ancestors, and building on that, placed at the center-stage of their fiction, the values ​​by which we as Africans had lived for centuries. It is those values ​​that make us the Africans that we are – distinguishing between good and evil, justice and injustice, oppression and freedom. " In tune with the times, he had started self-publishing his writings on the Internet. Despite the vagaries of the African publishing world, at age 80 Ekwensi was still pursuing his goal because as he wrote in his essay for the Essential Ekwensi 15 years earlier, "The satisfaction I have gained from writing can never be quantified."


Beier, Ulli ed., Introduction to African Literature (1967);

Breitinger, Eckhard, "Literature for Younger Readers and Education in Multicultural Contexts," in Language and Literature in Multicultural Contexts , edited by Satendra Nandan, Uinveristy of South Pacific, 1983.

·, Volume 117: Caribbean and Black African Writers , Gale, 1992. Dictionary of Literary Biography

Dathorne, OR The Black Mind A History of African Literature. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1974.

Emenyonu, Ernest, Cyprian Ekwensi . Evans Brothers, 1974.

Emenyonu, Ernest, editor. The Essential Ekwensi . Heinemann Educational Books, 1987.

Larson, Charles R., The Emergence of African Fiction . Indiana University Press, 1971

Larson, Charles R. The Ordeal of the African Writer. London: Zed Books, 2001.

Lindfors, Bernth, 'Nigerian Satirist' in ALT5

Laurence,. Margaret Long Drums and Cannons: Nigerian Dramatists and Novelists, 1952-1966 (1968).

Mphahlele, Ezekiel

Palmer Eustace. The Growth of the African Novel. Studies in African literature. London: Heinemann, 1979.

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Makler Heidelberg

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg
Der Immoblienmakler für Heidelberg Mannheim und Karlsruhe
Wir verkaufen für Verkäufer zu 100% kostenfrei
Schnell, zuverlässig und kompetent

Source by Arthur Smith

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