A Glossary of Archery Terms A to Z

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Armguard: A leather pad worn on the inside of the forearm of the bow hand to protect the arm from the slap of the bow string.

Arrow Plate: An inlay just above the handle on the side of the bow where the arrow passes as it leaves the bow.

Ascharm 'A cabinet in which Bows, arrows, and archery tackle are stored.

Back: The surface of the bow farthest from the archer when the bow is held in the shooting position.

Backing: Various materials including: fiber glass, cellulose products, raw hide, etc. glued to the back of the bow to improve its cast.

Backed Boiv: A bow to which a backing has been glued.

Barb: A projection on a hunting head which prevents its easy withdrawal.

Barreled Arrow: An arrow whose shaft is tapered from the middle toward each end and having its greatest cross-sectional area in the middle of the shaft.

Boss or Bast: The twisted and coiled straw back of a target to which the face is attached.

Bow Stave: A billet of wood from which a bow is to be manufactured.

Bowyer: A maker of bows.

Brace: To string the bow.

Belly: The belly of the bow is the side that you see when you hold the bow in shooting position.

Bend: The act of bracing or placing the string in the bow nocks.

Bobtailed Arrow: An arrow that has its greatest cross section at the pyle and tapers toward the nock.

Bodkin: A three bladed broadhead arrow.

Broadhead: A flat triangular shaped hunting head made of steel.

Butt: A backstop to which faces are attached, such as bales of straw.

Carriage Bow: A bow that has its two limbs joined under the handle in a ferrule. It can be disjointed to permit easy transportation. (Takedown).

Cast: The inherent ability of a bow to propel an arrow.

Chested Arrow: An arrow that has its greatest cross-section toward the nock and tapers from this point toward both the nock and pyle.

Chrysal: A compression failure ie, a fracture of the fibers usually appearing as a line across the belly of the bow.

Clout Target: The standard four foot target enlarged twelve times and laid out in a horizontal position on the ground.

Cock Feather: The feather on the arrow which is at right angles to the nock. Usually the odd colored feather.

Crest: Colored bands of varying width and spacing, painted on the arrow for identification purposes.

Crossbow: A short bow set crosswise on a stock, drawn by mechanical means, and discharging a dart by trigger release.

Cross Wind: A wind blowing across the target.

Curl: A swirl in the grain of a bow stave.

Down Wind: A wind blowing toward the target.

Draw: The act of pulling the bow string the full length of the arrow.

Drawing Fingers: The first three fingers of the hand used in pulling the string.

Drawing Weight: The force in pounds required to bring a bow to full draw.

Drift: The sidewise movement of the arrow as it travels toward the target due to a cross wind.

End: A unit number of arrows used in scoring. In target com¬petition six arrows constitute an end.

Eye- 'The loop or loops in a bow string.

Field Captain: The official in charge of a tournament.

Finger Tips: Leather finger stalls used to protect the tips of the three shooting fingers.

Fistmele: The distance from the base of the clenched hand to the tip of the extended thumb. Used as a measure of the proper distance from the handle to the string when a flat
bow is braced or strung.

Fletch: Placing the feathers on an arrow.

Fletcher: A manufacturer of arrows. Arrow maker.

Fletching: The feathers which guide the arrow in flight.

Flight Arrow: A long, light arrow with very small fletching or vanes. Used in distance shooting.

Flirt: A jerky or jumping movement of an arrow from its theoretical flight line.

Follow the String: A bow that has taken a permanent set in the drawing direction.

Floo Floo: An arrow used in wing shooting. It is generally fletched with a complete spiral. The size of the fletching is such that the flight distance is short.

Footing: A hardwood splice at the pyle end of a wooden shafted arrow.

Gold: The bulls-eye in the regulation four foot circular target. A circle nine and three-fifths inches in diameter.

Grip: The part of the bow held in the shooting hand.

Hen Feathers: The two feathers, generally of the same color, which are not at a right angle to the arrow nock.

High Braced: When the fistmele distance exceeds seven inches.It is better to high brace a bow than to low brace one.

Hold: The pause at full draw position prior to release of the arrow.

Home: When the arrow is fully drawn with the pyle even with the back of the bow it is said to be "home".

Horns: Tips of the bow made from animal horn in which the bow string nock is cut.

Jointed Bows: Same as a carriage bow.

Kick: A jar which is felt when a bow is shot. Generally due to unevenly tillered bow limbs.

Lady Paramount: A lady assistant to the field captain. In charge of the women's shooting line or division in a tournament.

Laminated Bow: A bow that is built up in layers. It may consist of different kinds of wood, wood and metal, wood and
fiber glass, etc.

Limb: Half of the bow. From the handle or grip to the tip.Upper and lower limbs.

Loose: The act of shooting. Letting the drawn bow string slip
from the shooting fingers.

National Archery Association. (NAA): National Association of Target Archers.

National Field Archery Association. (NFAA): National Asso¬ciation of Field Archers.

Nocks: The grooves at the tips of the limbs of a bow into which the bow string is fitted, also the slot at the feathered end of an arrow.

Nocking Point: The point on the bow string where the arrow nock rests.

Overbowed: A bow with a drawing weight in excess of that which the archer can shoot properly.

Overdraw: To draw the bow beyond the arrow length for which the bow is designed.

Overstrung: When the fistmele is exceeded by the use of too short a bow string.

Pair: Two arrows and a spare, also three feathers.

Pennant: A small flag with the fly longer than the hoist. Placed at the line of targets on a staff to indicate the direction and velocity of the wind at the targets.

Petticoat: The border outside of the last or white ring of the target.It has no scoring value.

Pyle: The metal tip attached to the head of the arrow shaft, the point of the arrow. Anglo-Saxon (pil) meaning dart, also spelled pile.

Pin: A very small knot in bow woods, especially yew or osage.

Pinch: To crush the fibers of the bow by compression. See Chrysal.

Pinch: To squeeze the arrow between the drawing fingers.

Pin Hole: The center of the gold of the target, ie, dead center.

Point Blank: The act of aiming directly at the target.

Point of Aim: An object at which an archer aims by sighting over the tip of the arrow.

Quiver: A container for arrows. Shape, size and materials vary.They may be carried at the waist, over the shoulder, on the bow, or on the bow arm.

Quiver, Ground: In the simplest form, a metal rod approximately 18 inches long, pointed at one end and a loop formed at right angles to the stem at the other end. Inserted
in the ground, arrows may be dropped through the loop and withdrawn one at a time.

Range: The terrain used in archery competitions. Also called a Field Course.

Recurved Bow: A bow that is bent back from a straight line at the ends of the limbs.

Reflexed Bow: Unstrung and held in a shooting position, the limbs of the bow curve away from the archer.

Release: Same as Loose.

Round: A fixed number of shots at a given distance or set of distances.

Rover: An archer who engages in field shooting. See Roving.

Roving: Shooting over fields and woodlands at natural targets.

Run: When a single one of the strands which make up a bow string frays, stretches, or breaks, the string is said to have a run.

Sap Wood: The wood immediately underneath the bark.

Self: Used in reference to a bow or an arrow made from a single piece of wood, ie, self bow, self arrow.

Serving: The winding or wrapping around the bow string at the nocking points to protect the bow string from wear.

Shaft: The body or main section of the arrow. The term "feathered shaft" is frequently used in print to designate an arrow.

Shaftment: That section of the shaft to which the feathers are attached.

Shake: A longitudinal crack in a bow stave.

Shooting Glove: A three fingered glove used to protect the shooting fingers.

Shooting Tab: A flat piece of leather designed to be worn on the shooting fingers for protection.

Spiral: The curved position in which the feathers are attached to the arrow shaft.

Spine: The quality of resiliency in an arrow which permits it to bend as it passes the bow in flight and then recover its original shape.

Stacked Bow- 'A bow with an oval cross section. One in which the thickness of the limbs is little greater than the width.

Steele: Same as shaft.

Tab: See shooting tab.

Tackle: The equipment of an archer: bow, arrows, quiver, tabs, strings, etc.
Takedown: See Carriage Bow.

Tiller: Shaping the bow to proper curvature. To tiller a bow.

Toxophilite: One fond of, or devoted to, archery. Derived from the Greek toxen meaning bow and philos meaning loving.

Turn: A term used to describe a bow that has a twist to right
or left of the string. Underboived: A bow having too little drawing weight for the
archer.

Unit: Fourteen targets of a field roving course.

Upshot: The last shot in an archery contest.

Vane: The web or flat expanded part of a feather. The flat extended plastic surfaces attached to a shaft to serve as fletching.

Wand: A wooden stick two inches wide, standing upright in the ground. Six feet in height. Used as a mark at which to shoot.

Weight: The weight in grains of an arrow. See also Drawing Weight.

Whip Ended: A bow which has limbs that are too weak at the tips.

Whipping: See Serving.

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Betty Boop Figurines – How to Find and Value Them

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Betty Boop Figurines – Beautiful Art and Valuable Investment

Collectibles have long been a popular pursuit for fans of television shows, cartoons, movies and comic strips. Collecting memorabilia from these forms of entertainment makes for a fun, exciting and frequently profitable pastime for many fans.

Even once the obsession or fascination with a particular show or character passes, a collection can often be sold off to fund the latest intrigue or to provide some extra and much needed cash. In this article we’ll explore this phenomenon with a stocking clad sex symbol who has been with us since he 1930’s.

Background Of The Sultry Songstress

Ever since she first appeared on movie screens on August 9, 1930, the diminutive Betty stole the hearts of fans worldwide. Created by animator Myron “Grim” Natwick, her popularity has endured now for over 80 years, and it is clear that she has become and will remain an enduring icon and sex symbol for a long time to come.

Combining the best qualities of two 1920’s icons – screen siren Clara Bow and sultry singer Helen Kane – Betty won fans through her rare combination of outrageous sex appeal and a sincerely huge heart.

Her popularity crossed over from the big screen to the homes and hearths of collectors everywhere as fans clamored for a chance to take Betty home with them in the form of a wide range of Betty Boop merchandise.

One of the most collectible categories of these products is Betty Boop Figurines.

Why Are Betty Boop Figurines So Popular?

While many forms of Betty Boop Memorabilia have proved worthy of collecting, including plates, mouse pads, signs, music boxes and cookie jars, one of the most enduring incarnations is the Betty Boop Figurine.

Our guess is that figurines have gained so much in popularity and collectability because they present Betty in all of her three dimensional glory.

Rare Figurines date back to the 1930’s when Betty was at the height of her popularity. Committed collectors search far and wide for these rarities which can be very hard to find.

While these almost century old figurines can bring a dear price for those who find and deal in them, Betty Boop statues can be enjoyed by collectors of much more modest means, making Betty within reach of any collector’s budget.

This affordability combined with Betty’s natural appeal have made her one of the most popular collectibles with a rabid and avid fan base.

Where Can You Find Betty Boop Figurines?

It’s not hard to find these figurines. They abound online, at Amazon, eBay and myriad specialty shops. You can also usually find these collectibles in vintage and curio shops.

They are generally affordably priced commonly ranging from $15 on the low end to $40 or more on the high end.

There are also a few “special edition” collectibles available such as the “Calendar Girl” series. Special editions are typically all are hand brush painted, with certificates of authenticity.

One statement of caution for beginners, there are many inferior Betty Boop figurines out there. As always, be careful, check certificates of authenticity, receipts (if available) and gather any information you can from collectors’ forums.

Determining the Value Of Your Betty Boop Figurines – How Much Are They Worth?

While value is in the eye of the purchaser and ultimately any collectible is worth whatever a willing buyer will pay a willing seller in an arms-length transaction, emotion inevitably comes into play whenever passionate collectors are involved.

To get a thumbnail idea of what your figures are worth, the easiest and quickest way is to just login to your eBay account and do a “completed items” search for Betty Boop figurines.

This will show you what real people have paid in real life transactions buying and selling these collectibles. Be sure to check the listings though because authentic vintage Betty statuettes will go for significantly more if you sell them through a collector’s channel as opposed to an eBay auction.

So, use the eBay search results as a guide, but not as a bible for values. Remember, all you have to do is find someone who is looking for the figurine that you have and you’ll get a much better price.

An ’80s Revival

Betty enjoyed a resurgence of popularity in the 1980s, becoming ubiquitous on bags, belts, t-shirts, belts, towels, key chains, blankets and especially in art prints.

This resurgence was most likely a result of Betty’s appearance in three movies that decade, including the wildly successful “Who Framed Roger Rabbit” (1988), as well as “The Romance of Betty Boop” (1984), and “The Betty Boop Movie Mystery” (1989).

Light-Hearted Collectibles To Brighten Your Days

If you enjoy Betty Boop, and how could you not, then take a look at her figurines and other memorabilia and capture some of the innocent naughtiness and nostalgia she represents.

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Types of Business Correspondence in the Contemporary Office

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We live in the computer era, and modern businesses have access to many more different means of communication than businesses used to have say 20 years ago.

In the beginning people thought that computers will eliminate (or at least almost eliminate) paper … Now we use much more paper than before the computers. Paradoxes of everyday life …

The types of business correspondence we use nowadays are:

  • business letters
  • memos
  • faxes and
  • email

When someone mentions "business correspondence" around you what is the first thing that comes to your mind? If you are like most of us, you would probably immediately picture business letters. In spite of the fact that business email nowadays is used much more than letters. But business letters have been the only type of business correspondence for much longer than any of us can remember, so "business correspondence" is still associated with them more than with its any other type. And as anything that "has been there" for a long time business letters just have to have very well established rules and regulations. So none of us is surprised when students nowadays are taught to use phrases like "this is to remind you", "in respect of the above", "I am writing to advise" during their communications classes.

And then students become employees who need to write business letters and of course they write them the way they have been taught with no doubts whatsoever. "If everybody does it, if my teachers do it that way then it's the only way." "Creativity is not for writing business letters!" And business letters become "work of art" in the worst sense because people seem to compete in stuffing them with as many pompous ambiguous phrases as possible.

This is gradually changing though. More and more we try to write business letters using clear and concise language, natural style and conversational tone. People even use "I" instead of "we" in writing business letters lately, which makes the letters less flowery and allows to see the person behind the letter.

Business memos are not studied at school as profoundly as business letters. They are probably considered a by-product of business letters and are treated as something secondary. Besides, they appeared around 1920s and are much "younger" than business letters. This is probably the reason why they tend to be less formal and usually sound more human. Every business uses lots of business memos, and a lot of them nowadays are sent by email which makes them even more ubiquitous.

Business faxes became common during the 1980s. Actually, they have been around longer than memos but for a long time very few people had had access to fax machines. So, most of us would say that faxes have been a part of business environment for about 30 years which is nothing compared to the life span of business letters. Consequently, there are not very many rules established for writing faxes. Everybody wrote them the way they considered appropriate. And now faxes are dying a slow death. There is such a thing as faxing via computer of course, but it is so close to email it should probably be treated like one. But don't hurry to throw away your fax machine. Faxes are still very widely used, in some countries more than in others, and will be at least for a few years.

Business e-mail … the most recent and the most common type of business correspondence in today's office. How could we have lived and even conducted business without it ?! How can there be people that don't use email at all … there still are some eccentrics like that, you know? Email is the blessing and the curse of modern life, modern businesses included. It is very helpful as a means of instant communication but becomes a burden for those who have thousands of unopened messages sitting in their inbox. Spam is also a very big issue though a little less so lately when there are ways to harness it (more or less). Email is still in its infancy though we all know it is here to stay and it will be used more and more … if nothing better comes up, of course. The good thing is that we are gradually getting used to treating email with care and realizing that though it is very close to a phone conversation, it is still a type of business correspondence, "business" being the operative word.

Business letters, emails and memos will be for quite a while very widely used types of business correspondence. Faxes are still there, too, and the following 10 years or so will show whether they will totally blend with email. Who knows, we might even have new types of business correspondence a few years from now.

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Source by Alya Leuca

How Many Tattoos Does Lil Wayne Have?

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Along with Lil Wayne's astounding musical career, much conversation about this famous rap star has focused on the stunning tattoos that brand his body. Some people do not like the tattoos and many others find them a work of art. Whatever your opinion may be, one thing for certain is that he definitely generates a lot of controversy along with album sales.

When searching the internet blogs and websites, you will find many different answers to the amount of tattoos Lil Wayne actually has. Reports have included 59, 103, and 364. He definitely has a lot of tattoos. Perhaps keeping the total number of tattoos unknown provides more intrigue to the rapper.

There has been much discussion about the meaning of the three teardrops which he has tattooed directly below his eyes. These tattoos have had a number of interpretations. Some people say that the teardrops represent the number of people the person has killed. However, Lil Wayne has clearly reported that he has never killed another person. Others have suggested that the teardrops may represent three of his close friends who have died, given that he has two tears below one of his eyes and one tear below the other eye. It may represent two separate instances when his loved ones died. The other meaning of a tear tattoo is the number of years one has served in prison. Lil Wayne has served time in prison.

Lil Wayne has a tattoo of a letter "C" tattooed in between his eyebrows. Some people have said that it means Carter which is his last name. Others have said the C represents 'Cita', for his mother. Some people suggest that the C may also mean that he is a Christian. He got the C tattoo right after he got out of jail. There is a cross above the "C" that may indicate that he believes in God.

He has the word "fear and God" on his eyelids. He also has a red tattoo above his right eyebrow which reads "I am music." Lil Wayne has said that he has a deep love for music and he owes his success to a lot of people who work in the business.

Other Lil Wayne tattoos include:

-Apple and eagle on his stomach
-A gun on his palm
-A bird on his right shoulder for Birdman
– "Cash Money" on his stomach which is his record label
– "17" on his abs which represents 17th ward of New Orleans.
-The New Orleans symbol on right ear which is the Fleur de Lis
– "Hot" on one hand and "Boy" on the other hand which is a group that he was a member before going solo.
-A prayer on his back
– "Lucky Me" under his left ear
-The initials BM and then JR on either sides of his navel mean Birdman Junior
-The names "Baby" and "Slim" on each shoulder representing the two people who helped him into rapping.
-A Rolls Royce symbol on his left bicep.
– "Nae Nae" on each of his forearms representing his daughter.
– "W" and the name "Weezy" on the right side of his neck which represents his nickname.

Lil Wayne is one of the most famous rappers and his music and tattoos represent his emotions, opinions, and experiences. His fans around the world love his unique style and talent.

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Source by Amy Nutt

Mastering the Art of the Ninja – What the Black Belt Levels Mean in Ninjutsu

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Often, when teaching my ninja students, I find it necessary to discuss the advanced levels of ninjutsu training, progress, and ability within the black belt degrees. Since ninjutsu is a results-oriented system, as opposed to a "style-based" system, students often have difficulty in recognizing the value of continuing their own training after attaining shodan, 1st degree black belt.

If you really want to master the ninja's art, you must understand how progress through the mastery levels is different within ninjutsu than it is in the more conventional and "popular" sport martial arts. In fact, this is critical to your eventual development to not just wearing a black belt, but in being able to think, live, and act like a real ninja.

Here is a brief outline of the 1st four degrees in the black belt levels of ninjutsu:

Shodan – 1st degree ("beginner level") – Having knowledge of, and proficiency with, the kihon or "fundamental" techniques of the art.

Nidan – 2nd degree ("level 2") – The ability to respond appropriately against whatever a real attacker throws at you.

Sandan – 3rd degree ("level 3") – This level requires that the student can strategically manipulate the attacker's choices to cause him to attack you the way you want him to. It also includes the ability to escape and lock, hold, or throw.

Yondan – 4th degree ("level 4") – Here, the student seems to break the laws of physics as he or she slips into the perfect position that causes the assailant's attack to backfire against him. Here, the ninja student finds the eye in the proverbial hurricane that allows him to access his attacker's targets, while simultaneously making it almost impossible for the opponent to return fire.

As you can see, ninjutsu training moves from the mechanical, step-by-step, physical training where most martial artists tend to stop, and into the realm of the strategic. There are still several realms through which the aspiring master must pass, but this should give you and glimpse into how ninjutsu take a very different approach from that used by most martial arts systems that you will encounter in the world today.

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Source by Jeffrey Miller

Design Your Own Tattoo – Tips to Create a Great Tattoo Design

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Tattoos are art, plain and simple. The problem is coming up with the master piece that is worthy of being displayed on your body for the rest of your life. A tattoo is a statement about who you are and is the ultimate in self expression – so you've got to get it right!

So where do you start?

Looking at tattoo design pictures, that's where. Its simple, but effective. Its like doing research for anything. The more research you do, the better the end result.

The next question is where do you get good quality pictures of tattoo designs to start your research. Well, Im glad you asked …. There are many sources, but some provide better quality tattoo designs than others, as I will show you.

Online Designs

The lowest quality tattoo design pictures are the free pictures that abound on the internet. Don't get me wrong, some of the tattoo designs are great, but everyone has access to these pictures, so you can bet your bottom dollar there are a number of people around with the exact same tattoo design. Just imagine seeing someone else with your tattoo on them! That is why they are low on the quality ladder.

Flash at the Tattoo Parlor

Next is flipping through tattoo deigns at the tattoo parlor just before you get your masterpiece inked on you. Now, that is pressure! Again, the designs may be great, but you want to enjoy the process of choosing a tat, and come up with something unique, so never put yourself in that situation. If in doubt, don't do it. Keep looking.

Online Tattoo Galleries

Then there are tattoo designs that you can purchase over the internet. These are the most exclusive designs you can get straight off the rack. These days, due to the power of the internet, it is possible to download massive numbers of unique tattoo design pictures right to your computer to help you decide which design is for you. Also, there are some tattoo design products on sale that continue to update the tat designs even after you have made the purchase. You can even take the design of your choice to the tattoo parlor and get it modified to your own taste. Now no one will have your tat design!

Tattoo Artists

The ultimate source of a quality tattoo design, though, is to take an idea to the tattoo artist and get them to draw something up for you. Tattoo artists are experts at what they do, and they can guide you to a design that you are happy with. However, depending on how much of a design you take to the tattoo parlor, this is by far the most expensive.

Conclusion

Well, there are some sources to get you going on your search for that elusive (and hopefully exclusive) masterpiece. It all boils down to cost. How much are you prepared to pay to find your dream tattoo? Just remember that this is an investment in yourself and you will live with the design you choose for the rest of your life.

I spent ages searching free and pay galleries to find my tattoo. By far the best were three galleries I downloaded from the net, each with thousands of tattoos in each – they gave me so much to choose from, and I was able to find exactly what I was looking for. To help you find your dream tattoo, I have reviewed the best three packages. I have listed the tattoo categories in each package, so you know what you are getting. I am in the process of reviewing each package for specific tattoo designs. So far I have reviewed the Japanese Dragon, Chinese Dragon, Heart, Angel, Butterfly, Harley, Lower Back and Tribal Tattoo designs. I review the top galleries for each design listed, provide details of the type of designs and what to expect. Finally I rank each gallery, so you know which is the best for the type of design you are after. I know how hard it is to find the dream tattoo. I hope this review helps you in your search.

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Source by Rem Barrett

Analysis of the Mona Lisa Painting

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Leonardo Da Vinci was born and raised in Italy where the Mona Lisa was ultimately painted started in 1503. The style of the painting has long been cited as the forerunner of numerous styles of art, one of the true masterpieces in the history of world art.

A Description of Mona Lisa

Painting the Mona Lisa, Leonardo elevated himself into another station of artist, those that create new forms and perspectives. The relatively small painting of Mona Lisa manages to craft one of the most intense and effective art experience into a compact 30 "by 20 ½" frame. As for what kind of paint Mona Lisa was originally envisioned with, oils were used on poplar wood panel and have been restored numerous times. In recent years, curators at the Louvre have begun to worry that the painting appears to be breaking down more rapidly than in the past.

Leonardo places his model in the midst of the painting, using a pyramid design to center her. The fold of her hands forms the front of the pyramid and he uses the same glowing light for her breast, neck and face. His lighting is important as he uses it to create many of the geometric shapes – circles and spheres – that compose the painting. The form of the painting itself is very simple, a modification of the Seated Madonna, a form very popular during the 15th and 16th centuries for portraits.

What Does the Mona Lisa Mean?

He modifies the formula however, creating a sense of distance between the sitter and observer, mostly utilizing the arm chair on which she rests. Everything about her posture speaks reservation and silence. However, her eyes silently meet the gaze of the observer, drawing the viewer into her eye line. Everything surrounding her face is dark, bringing that much more focus to the light of her face and the attraction it provides. The overall effect is a kind of natural attraction to her, drawn in by her appearance, but it immediately contrasts with the distance Leonardo creates between subject and observer.

The landscape of the painting has long been pointed out as the first instance of portrait on landscape. Seated in the midst of an open loggia with what appears to be pillars on either side of her, a vast landscape stretches out towards an icy mountain range. The curves of her hair and clothing are emulated in the waves of the landscape and steady curves in the river and hills behind her. The question has thus arisen as to whether the Mona Lisa is as much a portrait as it is the depiction of an ideal. The harmony between the model and the landscape behind her creates a sort of natural order, all punctuated by the detail of her mouth and that world famous smile.

The Smile

For centuries, historians, psychologists, writers, and politicians have been trying to offer their own theories as to what the smile of Mona Lisa might signify. Freud characterized it as an allusion to an Oedipus complex (he was in love with his mother) in Da Vinci while others have stated that it is a sign of innocence and calm. The question of why the smile is seen in so many different ways has become almost as big of a research subject as the smile itself. There have been scientists who point out the special relations of the smile and how human sight picks up on them. Margaret Livingstone, a professor at Harvard claims that the painting is most effective when viewed peripherally. The smile is more effective when looking at her eyes for example.

In 2005 a computer program was used that analyzes facial expressions for emotional recognition to assign "emotional" values ​​to the smile. That program found her to be 83% happy. Regardless of Da Vinci's intentions, the smile of the Mona Lisa is one of the most enduring questions in all of art.

Mona Lisa Analysis Today

Because of the research and attention the Mona Lisa has drawn, more than a few dozen people have tried their hand at recreating it. Hundreds of copies reside in different art galleries around the world, some of which their owners believe to be the original. Recently, an internet phenomenon has arise in which a clever MS Paint user was able to make a video showing how to make the Mona Lisa on paint, the free graphics program bundled with Windows. Copying the Mona Lisa has long been a standard test of an artist's tenacity and skill.

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Source by Colin Andrews

Impeller Logs and Compasses

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Sailing and navigation…Measuring Direction and Distance

For Measuring distance at sea, the old type of log that gave us the knot as unit of speed has long since given way to more sophisticated mechanical and electronic devices.

Walker logs

One of the oldest is the Walker log. This uses a torpedo-shaped spinner a few inches long towed behind the boat on a length of braided line. As it moves through the water, spiral fins on the torpedo make it spin, twisting the line. The on-board end of the line is hooked on to the back of the log instrument, where it turns a shaft connected to a reduction gear box. This in turn moves the hands on a series of dials, rather like those of an old fashioned gas meter, to give Direct reading of the distance the spinner has moved through the water.

Advantages of the Walker log are its rugged simplicity and the ease with which weed or debris can be cleared from the pinner. Its disadvantages are that its display has to be mounted right at the back of the boat; that the log line (usually 30 or 60 feet in length) has to be streamed before the log can be used, and recovered before entering harbour; it tends to under-read at very low speeds; and at speeds over about ten knots the spinner is inclined to jump out of the water and skitter along the surface. There are definite techniques for streaming and recovering a mechanical trailing log, intended to reduce the risk of the line tangling. To stream the log, first attach the on-board end to the hook on the back of the display unit. Then, keeping the spinner in hand, feed out all the line to form a long U-shaped loop astern before dropping the spinner overboard, well off to one side of the loop. Some owners like to hold on to the line just astern of the display unit for a few seconds, just to absorb the snatch as the load comes on to the line.

When recovering the log, speed is essential, especially if the boat is moving fast. Unclip the inboard end from the hook on the back of the display, and drop it overboard, allowing it to trail out astern while you pull in the log line. Then holding the spinner, gather in the line, coiling it as you go. Trailing the line astern like this allows any kinks to unravel.

Electrical trailing logs

The electrical trailing log is superficially similar to a Walker log, inasmuch as it uses a spinner towed astern of the boat on a long line. In this case, however, the spinner is in two parts, and the ‘log line’ is an electrical cable. The front part of the spinner is attached to the cable and only the rear part is free to rotate. As it does so, an electronic sensor in the front part makes and breaks an electrical circuit, so the on-board display unit receives a short pulse of electricity each time the spinner rotates. These pulses are counted electronically and are presented as a digital display of speed and distance run.

The advantages and disadvantages of this type of log are much the same as for the mechanical Walker log except that it is dependent on electrical power from internal dry batteries, which in return allows the display unit to be mounted almost anywhere on board, and that because the line itself is not twisting, it is rather easier to stream and recover.

Hull-mounted impeller logs

On cruising boats, hull-mounted logs are by far the most popular type, though in principle they are much the same as the electrical trailing log: a rotating impeller sends a stream of electrical impulses to a display unit mounted in the cockpit or near the chart table.

The impeller – which can be either a miniature version of the trailing log’s spinner, or a paddle wheel an inch or so in diameter – is mounted in a fitting called a transducer, which either protrudes through the bottom of the boat or hangs down below the transom.

The disadvantages of this system are that an impeller so close to the hull can be affected by the water flow around the hull itself, and that it is difficult and potentially dangerous to withdraw the transducer to clear weed or debris from it at sea. The reason in-hull logs are so popular is primarily the convenience of not having to stream and recover 30 feet or more of log line at the beginning and end of each passage.

Other logs

At the top of the scale of price and sophistication are several alternative methods of measuring speed through the water:

Electromagnetic logs are based on the same principle as generators and electric motors: that electricity is created if you move a magnetic field past an electrical conductor. In this case the conductor is sea water and the magnetic field is created by the transducer. As the transducer moves through the water a small electric current is set up, measured by sensors on the transducer.

Sonic logs use accurate measurements of the speed of sound between two transducers mounted one ahead of the other. Each transducer emits a continuous stream of clicks, inaudible to the human ear, while listening for clicks transmitted from the other. When the boat is moving, the movement of the water past the hull slows down the clicks travelling forward whilst speeding up those travelling aft. The instrument accurately measures the time taken for each click to make the trip, compares them, converts the results into a display of speed through the water, and from this calculates the distance run.

Another type of sonic log uses sophisticated echo sounder technology to measure the rate at which plankton and debris are moving past its transducer.

The big advantages of all three types are that they are much less susceptible to fouling than ordinary in-hull logs and that they can go on working at very high speeds or in rough sea conditions, when turbulence or air bubbles make impeller logs unreliable.

Calibrating logs

No log can be relied upon to be 100 per cent accurate. This is particularly true of hull mounted logs because – quite apart from any inherent inaccuracies in the instrument itself – the gradual build-up of fouling as the season progresses means that the boat is dragging an ever-thickening layer of water along with it, so the water flow past the impeller will be slower than the boat speed through the water. Conversely, around some parts of the hull, such as alongside a sailing boat’s keel or near the propellers of a motor boat, the water flow may actually be accelerated, making the log over-read.

Errors can always be allowed for if you know about them, and most electronic logs have a calibration facility that allows them to be adjusted to take account of these variations. Finding, and if necessary, correcting, log error is known as calibration. In principle it involves measuring the time taken to cover a known distance, using this to calculate true speed, and comparing this with the speed indicated by the log. Any accurately-known distance can be used, though the best are undoubtedly the measured distances’ set up specially for the purpose. They consist of two (or sometimes three) pairs of transit posts, marking the start and finish of a precisely-measured distance, and shown on the appropriate chart. The course to steer to cover the Measured distance is also shown.

Settle the boat on course and at a steady speed before crossing the first transit line; note the time at which you cross the start ine and hold that course and speed without making any allowance for wind or tide until you cross the finish line, and note the time taken. Note the actual log reading at intervals of, say, 15 seconds so that you can work out the average log speed for the whole run.

As perfectly still water is rare, it is important to repeat the process in the opposite direction. Having found the speed over the ground in both directions, the speed through the water can be calculated by taking the average, by adding the two speeds together and dividing by two.

A more accurate result can be obtained by making four or six runs, but this can be a very

time-consuming process, especially as log errors are not necessarily the same at all speeds, so the calibration runs need to be carried out at a range of different speeds, and repeated as a double check after the log has been adjusted.

A common mistake is to work out the average time taken and divide the distance by this. The result invariably understates the boat’s speed, because it must have been travelling in the ‘slow’ direction longer than in the ‘fast’ direction.

Some large scale charts (harbour plans) have a clearly marked scale of distance – rather like the one you might find on a road atlas – usually printed somewhere near the bottom edge. But this is not always the case, and on the smaller scale charts used for coastal and offshore navigation it would be impractical to provide such a scale because the scale of the chart varies slightly from top to bottom. One sea mile, however, is by definition one minute of latitude, so the latitude scales on each side of the chart constitute a scale of distance.

The slight difference between a sea mile and an international nautical mile is so small that for normal navigation it can be ignored: what is important, on small scale charts, is the distortion caused by the Mercator projection, which means that distance has to be measured at the latitude at which it is to be used. The longitude scale on the top and bottom edges of the chart is useless as a scale of distance.

It is relatively rare to find ourselves faced with the job of measuring distance in an exactly north-south line, so we need some means of transferring the distance between any two points on the chart to the latitude scale. Dividers are the tool for the job. For classroom navigation the kind of dividers used in technical drawing are perfectly adequate, and their sharp needle points give a reassuring sense of precision, but for practical navigation, traditional bow dividers have the big advantage that they can be opened and closed with one hand, by squeezing the bow to open them, and squeezing the legs to close them.

Sometimes it is necessary to draw arcs of measured radius on the chart, for which it is useful to have a drawing compass. Again, the type intended for technical drawing can be used so long as it is big enough, but it is generally better to use the larger and less sophisticated versions intended for marine navigation.

Compasses and Measuring direction at sea

Direction at sea is measured using a compass – essentially an instrument which points north, and goes on pointing north regardless of the movement of the boat around it. In practice most yachts carry at least two compasses. One, steering compasses are relatively large, fixed to the boat, and used to measure heading. The other is usually smaller, portable and is used to measure the direction of distant objects, so it is called a hand bearing compass. Sometimes one compass can do both jobs: on many ships and a few large yachts an attachment called a pelorus allows the steering compass to be used for taking bearings, while on very small craft, a hand bearing compass clipped into a bracket can serve as a steering compass.

There are many ways of making an instrument that will stay pointing in one Direction, including gyroscopes, and what are called ‘ring laser gyros’, but although these have their advantages, they are much too sophisticated, and therefore expensive, to be of practical interest for yachts. The Overwhelming majority of yacht compasses Depend on magnetism, and in that respect can be seen as direct developments from instruments that were probably in use several thousand years ago. Compasses make use of the fact that the earth has a magnetic field, which is very much as though a huge bar magnet were embedded in its core and aligned with its North-South axis.

Any magnet that is free to swing tends to line itself up with the earth’s magnetic field. This effect is particularly obvious in the small, flat compasses used for orienteering and rambling on land, in which a single straight needle-like magnet gives a direct Indication of north. In marine compasses, several such magnets, or a single magnet in the shape of a ring, are mounted underneath a circular ‘card’, with a scale of degrees or compass points marked on it. The whole thing is suspended in a bowl filled with a mixture of water and alcohol, which slows Down the movement of the card, to reduce the swinging that would otherwise be caused by the pitching and rolling of the boat.

Compasses intended for fast motor boats are much more heavily damped than those intended for sailing craft; the rapid slamming of a planing boat can be enough to make the card of a sailboat compass rotate continuously.

Steering compasses

On a steering compass the fore-and-aft line of the boat is marked by a line or pointer on the compass bowl, called the lubber line, against which the boat’s current heading can be read from the card, so it is obviously important for the compass to be installed so that the lubber line is accurately aligned with, or parallel to, the centre line of the boat. Many compasses have supplementary lubber lines offset by 45° and 90° on each side, intended mainly for use in situations such as tiller-steered boats where the helmsman is likely to be looking at the compass from one side or the other.

Of course, there are variations intended to suit particular applications. On many small and medium sized sailing yachts, where cockpit space is at a premium, the compass is set into the aft bulkhead of the superstructure, so that the rear edge of the card is visible, rather than its upper surface. A compass intended for this type of mounting has an aft lubber line and a scale of degrees marked on the down-turned rim of the card. An even more extreme variation is occasionally found in compasses intended for steel craft, whose structure effectively masks the compass from the earth’s magnetic field. This problem can be reduced by mounting the compass as high above the hull as possible, so compasses have been produced that can be mounted on the wheelhouse roof, with mirrors or prisms arranged so that the helmsman effectively looks upwards at the bottom of the compass card.

Grid compasses

Grid compasses, intended primarily for aircraft navigation, enjoyed a surge of popularity after the Second World War, when many boats were fitted out from Army surplus stores! The claim that they were easier to steer by maintained their popularity for at least 20 years and several marinized versions were produced. A grid compass has a card with a particularly prominent north set in a flat-topped bowl. On top of the bowl is a transparent cover, marked with a grid of parallel lines and with a scale of degrees es around its edge. The required course is set by rotating the cover, and the helmsman then steers so as to keep the –. mark on the card lined up with the grid.

Hand bearing compasses

A hand bearing compass is basically a small, portable version of a steering compass, fitted with some form of sighting arrangement that allows it to be accurately lined up on a distant object. They can be subdivided into two groups: those intended to be used at arm’s length, which are usually fitted with a handle; and those intended to be held close to the eye, which are usually supplied with a neck strap. Which kind is best is very much a matter of personal preference, but anyone who uses spectacles or a hearing aid is well advised to go for an arm’s-length compass because even small pieces of ferrous metal such as the hinges of spectacles can cause compass errors if they are only inches away.

Sighting arrangements vary. The classic Sestrel Radiant, for instance, has a prism mounted above the bowl, with a V-shaped notch on top. When the compass is held up at arm’s length and eye level the lubber line and compass card can be seen in the prism. To take a bearing of a distant object, you line up the ‘target’ with the notch, rotate the compass until the lubber line appears in the prism immediately below the target, and then read off the bearing. Another common arrangement has two sights on top of the bowl, like the fore sight and back sight of a gun, and an edge-reading compass card. Close-to-the-eye compasses do not have such obvious sighting arrangements: instead they have a small prism mounted on top, whose optics are arranged in such a way that when you look at a landmark across the top of the compass, its bearing appears in the prism immediately below.

Fluxgate compasses

A new type of compass is rapidly gaining in popularity. Unlike a conventional ‘swinging card’ compass, a fluxgate compass has no moving parts, but instead uses electronics to detect the earth’s magnetic field and present that information on some kind of display. A fluxgate depends on the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction – as used in transformers and the ignition coil of a petrol engine. If you pass an electric current through a coil of wire wound around a suitable metal core, the core becomes a magnet. Which end is the north pole, and which the south, depends on the direction of the current flow in the wire, so if you apply an alternating current to the wire, the north and south poles of the core change places each time the current reverses. If you have a second coil of wire wound around this whole assembly the constantly-reversing magnetic field induces an electric current in the secondary winding.

In a fluxgate there are two cores side by side, with their primary windings receiving alternating current from the same source, but wound in opposite directions. This means that in a magnetically ‘clean’ environment (with no external magnetic influences) the induced magnetism in the two cores would be equal and opposite, so they would cancel each other out and produce no current at all in the secondary winding that surrounds both of them. The presence of an external magnetic field upsets the balance, causing a short surge of electricity in the secondary winding each time the primary current reverses. This effect is most pronounced if the two cores are parallel to the external magnetic field. In a practical fluxgate compass, several fluxgates are arranged in a circle. By comparing the voltages induced in the various secondary windings it is possible to deduce where north is relative to the ring of flux-gates.

At present, the most common use of this technology is to provide heading information for other electronic equipment such as autopilots or radars, but it can also be used to provide a steering display for the helmsman or as the heart of an electronic hand bearing compass. Apart from the ease with which fluxgate compasses can be connected to other navigational electronics, their big advantages are that they can be fitted with an automatic correction facility, and that because the sensor and display are usually separate from each other, the sensor can be mounted anywhere on board and well away from distorting magnetic Influences. Fluxgate hand bearing compasses also have the facility to ‘store’ headings, to save the navigator having to memorize them.

Their main disadvantage is that very large errors can occur if the fluxgate ring is not kept perfectly horizontal. There are electronic solutions to this problem, but the fact remains that the compass without moving parts actually requires more sophisticated gimbal arrangements than its swinging card counterparts.

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Source by John Routledge

10 Benefits of Graphic Recording

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Graphic recording is a tool for turning the intangible into the tangible it is a process and a product.

The process part is due to the graphic recorder transforming the spoken word into the visual. A graphic recorder listens intently to the conversation pen in hand and illustrates what they hear using pictures, words and color. This helps people collaborate and feel listened to creating a safe environment for new ideas.

The product part comes from the colorful output that is created. A complete digital capture of the illustrations created by the graphic recorder are compiled into a pdf that all participants receive after the event.

This process is hugely beneficial to any meeting of the minds and some of these benefits are outlined below.

1. Promotes Clear Thinking

Graphic records promote the clear thinking and good decision making that come when people can really ‘see what you mean’, and also see what they mean.

2. Provides Group Memory

A record of graphics captures the contents of a meeting in an engaging fashion and serves as an effective touchstone for recalling accomplishments and educating others.

3. Help Group Focus and Track

A graphic record provides a clear indication of what is being addressed by the group at any given moment, which aids participants to know where they are at and stay focused on the task at hand.

4. Increased Creativity

Recording graphics increases the ability to manifest ideas within an environment that unleashes the unlimited potential of the mind. As it uses both sides of the brain it opens up a relationship with the subconscious and allows thoughts and intuitions to flow freely. Visual Thinking builds connections with mnemonics and imagery eliciting the responses necessary to access these reservoirs.

5. Greater Efficiency and Productivity

Information discussed within a graphically recorded environment is more clearly understood, maximizing the time and efficiency of the “group mind.” With a greater grasp on individual roles and tasks, participants leave with a far better ability to reach goals and objectives. Graphic recording enables you to collect complex data in an integrated form on a single sheet of paper, increasing the opportunity to make informed decisions.

6. Greater Memory Retention and Comprehension – Scientifically proven studies show that simultaneous visuals increase participation and information comprehension. Add dimensions of real-time performance, radiant thinking (the brains natural process of thinking), metaphor, and mnemonics and comprehension is off the scale.

7. Documentation/ Product Creation

Recording graphics creates a real-time digital capture of the conversation. Clients receive an accurate recording of all the information harvested during programs that can be referred to at any time thereafter. These tools act as great memory tool that allow our clients to receive a cohesive understanding of what has been achieved.

8. Pattern recognition and understanding

Graphic recording is key in tapping the under utilized areas of the brain, boosting the creative IQ, the emotional IQ, assimilation of information, habit patterns and overall intelligence and mental performance.

9. Plays to your audience

Above 80% of us are visual learners. When we see it, we “get it.” Graphic recording provides critical information in an easy to understand format, predictable to the eye and organized for the brain. The faster participants understand your messages, the quicker and easier the agenda proceeds.

10. Seeing the Big Picture

A large graphical view of the discussion allows the group to notice relationships, identify themes, and spot gaps, all resulting in new insights. With more information on the page than could be held in the mind, people engage in higher level thinking and debate focused on solutions that truly consider the big picture.

As you can SEE the benefits of graphic recording are phenomenal no wonder the use of a graphic recorder or graphic facilitator is starting to become the norm in the top fortune 500 companies globally. In this new age of communication and community a tool like this is vital to ensuring you get the most out of your people’s time and effort.

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

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Der Immoblienmakler für Heidelberg Mannheim und Karlsruhe
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Schnell, zuverlässig und kompetent


Source by Paul Telling

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