How Photography Has Changed Over the Past 200 Years

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Taking pictures throughout one’s life has been a part of American culture for over a hundred years now. The camera was first introduced in the United States in the early 1800s and was commercialized later in the century. From the time it was first put into the American market until now, the camera and the technology of the camera has changed significantly. Also, with the camera, the items that hold the photographs have changed significantly as well. For example, picture frame lighting is now available to highlight the photographs they hold and there is also such thing as a led picture light which really emphasizes the photograph. The art light is something which has most certainly changed with the technology that came with the modern day camera. However, it is the camera that has dictated these changes in the frames.

The first official camera was invented in 1814. The big, clunky machine was used to take still life pictures in black and white. The photographs almost always came out scratchy and faded looking, but for the time, this machine was very impressive. No one probably could have imagined how photography would have changed over the next 200 years.

The next big accomplishment in photography came with the introduction of color to the photographs in 1861. In fact, some photographs from the American Civil War can be found in color. It took awhile for color cameras to be readily available to the public, so for the next thirty years, color photographs were still a relatively new, revolutionary technology.

A change in the way photography was done happened when the disposable camera was invented. This camera enabled travelers to take inexpensive cameras on vacations without carrying a big, expensive one with them instead. Also, many of these disposable cameras were made to be waterproof, so people could take photographs underwater on a snorkeling or scuba diving trip.

Next in the photography world came the introduction of the digital camera. This made it so that photographs could be taken and then loaded into the computer to be sent to people via the internet or they could be sent to most drug stores to be developed at a specific time, usually set by the customer. This new technology revolutionized the way people stored and used their photographs.

Finally, today there have been many new additions to the camera technology. Cell phones now have a picture-taking capability to them. Also, there is such thing as high definition photographs, which makes the photograph even clearer than it already was before this digital technique. Probably the newest thing to the world of photography is the camera that has a view on both sides of it for those who do not want to have to rely on strangers to take a picture for them and their friends. With all of these advancements coming in shorter and shorter amounts of time, it will be interesting, in the upcoming decade, to see what other changes will be made in this market.

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Source by Connor R Sullivan

History and Clothing in Ancient Japan

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Japanese history includes alternating periods of isolation and revolutionary influences from the rest of the world. As early as the Jomon period from about 14000BC to 300 BC, Japan had a hunter-gatherer lifestyle; wooden stilt houses, pit dwelling, and agriculture. Weaving was still unknown and the ancient Japanese clothing consisted of fur. However, some of the world’s oldest pottery is found in Japan, along with daggers, jade, combs made form shell and clay figures.

The period thereafter to 250 BC saw the influx of new practices like weaving, rice sowing, iron and bronze making influenced by china and Korea. Chinese travelers describe the men ‘with braided hair, tattooing and women with large, single-piece clothing.’ Initially ancient Japanese clothing consisted of single piece clothing. The ancient and classical Japan begins from the middle of the 3rd century to 710. An advanced agricultural and militaristic culture defines this period. By 645, Japan rapidly adopted Chinese practices and reorganized its penal code.

The peak period of ancient Japan and its imperial court is from 794 to 1185. Art, poetry, literature and trade expeditions continued with vigor. Warlords and powerful regional families ruled ancient Japan from 1185 to 1333 and the emperor was just a figure head. By the Japanese Middle Ages, Portugal had introduced firearms by a chance landing of their ship at Japanese coast; samurai charging ranks were cut down; trade with Netherlands, England and Spain had opened up new avenues. Several missionaries had entered Japan as well.

Distinct features of the lifestyle, ancient Japanese clothing and women is difficult to decipher for the simple reason that it is super-imposed by the Chinese culture. Ancient Japan readily adopted other cultures and practices and most of its own culture is lost among these adaptations.

Ancient Japanese clothing was mostly unisex, with differences being in colors, length and sleeves. A Kimono tied with an Obi or a sash around the waist was the general clothing and with the advent of western clothing are now mostly worn at home or special occasions. Women’s obi in ancient Japanese clothing would mostly be elaborate and decorative. Some would be as long as 4meters and tied as a flower or a butterfly. Though a Yukata means a ‘bath clothing’, these were often worn in the summers as morning and evening gowns. Ancient Japanese clothing consisted of mena and women wearing Haori or narrow paneled jacket for special occasions such as marriages and feasts. These are worn over a kimono and tied with strings at the breast level.

The most interesting piece of ancient Japanese clothing is the ju-ni-hitoe or the ‘twelve layers’ adorned by ladies at the imperial court. It is multi-layered and very heavy and worn on a daily basis for centuries! The only change would be the thickness of the fabric and the number of layers depending on the season. Princesses still wear these on weddings.

Since the Japanese people don’t wear footwear inside their homes, tabi is still worn. These are split -toe socks woven out of non-stretch materials with thick soles. Clogs have been worn for centuries in ancient Japan and were known as Geta. These were made of wood with two straps and were unisexual. Zori was footwear made of softer materials like straw and fabric with a flat sole.

Ancient Japanese clothes, culture and footwear are slowly regaining their popularity with the western world. There is an honest curiosity in knowing more, wearing kimonos or using silk fabrics with beautiful floral prints from the ‘land of the rising sun’.

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Source by Christopher Schwebius

Fabric Painting As A Career

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Fabric painting is not the most conventional of careers to choose from; in fact most would relegate it to the hobbies listing, an obscure craft. Some would ask, “Who would want to spend their career with fabric paint?” But think about it; if the career were not a significant one, we would all be sitting on bland, colorless and design free furniture, we would probably all be dressed up in flour sacks and staring at blank walls. Of course that’s a slight exaggeration, but you get the point, I’m sure.

As a career fabric painter, you have the opportunity to add creative and sometimes colorful value to the world we live in. Although fabric painting can be a laborious pursuit it has become thousands of times easier to reproduce fabric painting on numerous mediums. With the advent of digital art, reproduction artwork can be placed on cups, plates, textiles, shoes, wood and more.

The prospects are actually quite exciting when you think about it. Rather than designers buying that blase fabric for their fashion accessories project, you can now offer them custom fabrics, specially created for their specific use; something unique to their collection. Designers can now say bye, bye to boring; and hello to happy. Their clients will love you for it.

Artists can now create their masterpieces and have them duplicated for short run reproduction just as easy as or perhaps easier than it would have been to process the art through the traditional fabric mills. This is great but there are still some major manufacturing companies that hire artists to create hand painted designs for their new collections. They then take the artists designs and produce them on various types of fabrics.

One career that is easily integrated and is an offshoot of fabric painting is, screen printing, which in itself is a vast field. Traditionally, screen printing has been viewed as the answer to producing tee shirts for schools and casual wear. Today the screen printing industry is booming as artists are getting even more creative and adding flair to their designs.

The sizes of screens have grown from a little bitty square on the front of your shirt to a large format screen designed for all over tee shirt design. Still there are others who use this screen printing method to create custom yardage for sale and for creating their own line of goods.

Such artwork was initially painted on fabric and later printed on garments for toddlers and adults alike. Just as the original was embellished with studs, stones, sequins and glitter, so too are the creations of the silk screen artist. The beauty of course is once the original design has been developed on fabric and screens created, the design can be produced in unlimited colors, sizes and of course quantities.

On the flip side of the screen printing issue are the embellishers who are also fabric painters in their own right. These artists take a generally basic design and customize it, giving it the oomph it may have needed. This is done many times with fabric paint, rhinestones, mirrors, ribbons and a host of other accessories.

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Source by Teri M Bethel

What is the Difference Between CD and DVD Media?

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Although both CD and DVD have the same media size and shape, the similarity ends there. There are numerous points of difference between the two, as listed below:

Data pits and lasers

A disc has microscopic grooves that move along in a spiral around the disc. Both CDs and DVDs have these grooves. Laser beams are applied to scan these grooves. As you may be aware, digital information is represented in ones and zeroes. In these discs, very tiny reflective bumps (called 'lands') and non-reflective holes (called 'pits'), which are found along the grooves, reflect the ones and zeros of digital information.

Here lies the difference – by reducing the wavelength of the laser (from the 780mm infrared light used in the CD) to 625mm or more infrared light, DVD technology has managed to write in smaller 'pits' as compared to the standard CD. This allows for a greater amount of data per track. The minimum length of a pit in a single layer DVD-RAM [http://computer-information.info] is 0.4 micron, as compared to 0.834 micron for a CD.

Also, the tracks of DVDs are narrower, allowing for more tracks per disc, which again translates into more capacity than a CD.

Layers

As explained above, DVDs have smaller 'pits' and the lasers have to focus on them. This is done by using a thinner plastic substrate than in a CD, which means that the laser has to pass through a thinner layer, with less depth to reach the pits. It was this reduction in thickness which was responsible for discs that were only 0.6mm thick – half that of a CD.

Data access speeds

DVDs access data at a much faster rate that do CDs. Here is a comparison – a 32X CD-ROM drive reads data at 4M bytes per second while a 1x DVD drive reads at 1.38M bytes per second. That's even faster than an 8x CD drive!

UDF (Universal Data Format)

Recording formats of CDs and DVDs are quite different. DVDs use UDF (Universal Data Format [http://pda-devices.info]). This allows data, video, audio or a combination of all three, to be stored in a single file structure. The advantage of this is that any file can be accessed by any drive, computer or consumer video. CDs, however, are not compatible with this format.

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Source by Logan Rokwild

A Tourist's Guide to Southern Vermont

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1. Introduction:

Easily accessible from lower New England, Southern Vermont is a rolling carpet of Green Mountain foothills and valleys that offer an extensive array of seasonal sports, yet maintain all of the state's characteristics, including picture postcard villages, covered bridges, maple farms, and cheese producers .

2. Orientation:

Brattleboro, gateway to the area, is "home to an eclectic mix of native Vermonters and transplants from all over the country," according to the "Greater Brattleboro" guide published by the Brattleboro Area Chamber of Commerce. "This cosmopolitan town is eastern Vermont's undisputed economic, recreational, and cultural center."

Accessed by Interstate 91, it is both the first major Vermont city north of the Massachusetts state line and the only one served by three exits-in this case, Exit 1 leads to Canal street, Exit 2 to Main Street and the historic downtown area, and Exit 3 to Route 5 / Putney Road, which offers a commercial concentration of hotels and restaurants. The Comfort and Hampton Inns and the Holiday Inn Express, for example, are located here, while the art deco Latchis Hotel, complete with its own movie theater, is located downtown.

3. Brattleboro:

Situated at the confluence of the Connecticut and West rivers, Brattleboro was originally occupied by the Abenaki tribes, but protection against them took form as Fort Drummer, constructed by and named after, Governor William Drummer of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, in 1724.

Siding with the French in the French and Indian War, they migrated to Quebec the following year, at which time the structure was transformed into a trading post for the friendly few who remained behind. Neverheless, peace, often fleeting during this period, dissolved between 1744 and 1748, prompting its troop re-occupation.

Becoming a New Hampshire grant, the area surrounding it, designed Brattleborough after Colonel William Brattle, Jr. of Boston, was chartered as Vermont's first town the day after Christmas in 1753.

From the fort sprouted a settlement, giving rise to the area's first store in 1771, first post office in 1784, and first Connecticut-spanning bridge in 1804. Becoming increasingly industrialized for the period due to the power provided by the Whetstone Brook's waterfalls, it soon boosted paper, flour, and woolen textile mills, paper making machinery and carriage manufacturers, two machine shops, and four printers. It has been home to the Estey Organ Company for more than a century. The Massachusetts and Vermont Valley railroads subcontractedly facilitated commerce, trade, and travel with and to the rest of New England.

The current "Brattleboro" spelling was adopted in 1888.

Today, more than anything, the city is synonymous with art. Aside from its numerous avenues, it exclusively features its Gallery Walk program, in which exhibits are displayed at some 50 locations throughout town on the first Friday of every month, some accompanied by live music and others by the artists themselves. Numbered, each display corresponds to the description, location, and route of the guide published monthly.

Maintaining the town's raison d'être is the more permanent Brattleboro Museum and Art Center, located downtown, across from the Marlboro College Graduate School in the former Union Station and offering views of the river paralleling tracks outside and retaining the original ticket windows inside, behind which is the appropriately titled "Ticket Gallery."

"Founded in 1972," according to its own description, "the Brattleboro Museum and Art Center presents rotating exhibits of contemporary art and a wide array of cultural events, including lectures, workshops, performances, film screenings, (and) family activities."

"Close to Home: New Pastels by Ray Ruseckas," one recent exhibit, offered, as its title suggests, an artistic perspective of the area.

"The hillsides, forests, and glades of the Connecticut River Valley," said Mara Williams, museum curator, "are Ray Ruseckas' stomping grounds and inspiration. as the rhythms and proportions of place … through refined tonal shifts or contrast between light and dark, (he) produces an effect of psychological apprehension, a fission between what is seen and what is implied or felt. "

"Threaded Dances," by Debra Birmingham, another recent exhibit, equally featured surreal effects.

"(Her) paintings are elusive and mysterious as a landscape enveloped in mist," Williams wrote. "Images emerge slowly, sensibly from delicately layered surfaces. Veils of blue-gray to pearl-white shroud empty or barely populated space. are unmoored from time and space. "

Other recent exhibits including "People, Places, and Things" by Jim Dine, "Art + Computer / Time" from the Anne and Michael Spater Digital Art Collection, and the three-dimensional, inflated sculpture "Expanded Forms" by Rodrigo Nava.

Art, at least in literary form, may be interpretable through architecture-in this case, of Rudyard Kipling's Naulakha home-Hindi for "jewel beyond price" -in nearby Dummerston. One of Vermont's 17 National Historic Landmarks, it served as his home in 1892, because his grandson was native to the area, and he wrote his famous "Captain's Courageous" and "Jungle Book" novels here.

As a living house that can be rented for varying places from the UK's Landmark Trust, it features its original furniture, while the carriage house, which had once been Kipling's barn, sports a living room fireplace and accommodates four.

Although it is not open for museum visits, one recent patron who had partaken of its "hotel" status, found that a determined advantage, writing in Naulakha's guest book, "It is fascinating to visit the house of writers and artists, but all you usually get is an hour's tour with an absolute prohibition 'not to touch.' How wonderful then to sit at his desk and soak up Mr. Kipling's bath. "

Aside from art, Southern Vermont is often equated with its covered bridges and Brattleboro is no exception. Constructed in 1879 and located on Guilford Street off of Route 9, the 80-foot-long by 19-foot-wide Creamery Covered Bridge, for instance, spans The Whetstone Brook. Made of spruce lumber, with timber lattice trusses and either-end stone slab supporting abutments, it features a 5.5-foot wide, evenly covered sidewalk that was added in the 1920s. It is the only such structure visible from Route 9 and the only one of Brattleboro's symbolic structures to survive.

4. Grafton:

As a preserved village, Grafton, located north of Brattleboro, could serve as the quintessential image of Vermont and grace any postcard, with its church, crafts shops, galleries, museums, and historic inns lining Main Street (Route 121) and maple syrup taping and cheese making venues located just up the road.

With four general stores and a half dozen mills and schools during the mid-1800s, it was a hub for farmers, tradesmen, and travelers, producing shoes, sleighs, and butter churns. Retaining, a century and a half later, its blacksmith and cabinet making shops, it offers the visitor an opportunity to step back in time and sample true New England ambiance.

"Grafton's uniqueness," according to its own description, "comes from being a real town, not a museum-like recreation, with its citizens being its most valuable resource. wonderfully diverse population of 600 people. "

Surrounded by a kaleidoscope of color in the fall and covered with a blanket of white in the winter, it offers numerous recreational opportunities, but the latter season, particularly, "is a magic time in Vermont, making you believe that you are living in a holiday card. Cross-country ski, snowshoe, (or) stroll through the village.

Cornerstone of the town is the Grafton Inn. Tracing its origins to the two-floor private home of Enos Lowell, who converted it to an inn to serve travelers seeking good food and lodging in 1801, it grew in size and prosperity with that of the village and counted several owners-from Hyman Burgess to the Phelps Brothers, who added a third floor after purchasing the property for $ 1,700 in 1865. That overall appearance remains to the present day.

Although it fulfilled its originally intent purpose of serving commercial travelers, several notable people have stayed there over the years, including Rudyard Kipling, Daniel Webster, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Theodore Roosevelt, Woodrow Wilson, and Ralph Waldo Emerson.

After Depression era stagnation, disrepair, and competition from emerging modernized motels, it was admitted by the Windham Foundation in 1965 and elevated to more expected standards with plumbing, heating, hot-and-cold running water, and private bathrooms. Yet its 45 guest rooms retain their country character.

Its dining venues include the Old Tavern Restaurant and the Phelps Barn Pub.

Aside from the inn, there are several attractions in Grafton, including the Native Museum, the Grafton History Museum, and the Vermont Museum of Mining and Minerals.

Behind the inn is the Grafton Village Retail Store, which offers a wide selection of cheese, maple products, wine, and Vermont indicative souvenirs, but cheese is handmade a half mile up the road at the Grafton Village Cheese Company.

Established in 1892 as the Grafton Cooperative Cheese Company, it continues to produce handcrafted aged cheddar, a process visible through a glass window, although its production plant and a significantly sized retail store is located in Brattleboro. Behind the Grafton facility is a short covered bridge.

Another Vermont associated experience can be enjoyed at Plummer's Sugar House. Owned by third generation syrup producers, it sports 4,000 maple trees, which are snapped between February and April. Informal tours are conducted and syrup can be purchased in its barn-like gift shop.

5. Molly Stark Trail:

Designated the Molly Stark Trail by the Vermont Legislature in 1936, the 48-mile, officially numbered Route 9 zigzags through the Southern Green Mountains, lowland valleys, lakes, streams, waterfalls, and historic villages from Brattleboro in the east to Bennington in the west . It was named after the wife of Brigadier General John Stark, who led the Colonial militia of Vermont and New Hampshire troops to victory in the 1777 Battle of Bennington, during which he proclaimed, "There they are boys! We beat them today or Molly Stark sleeps a widow tonight. "

In the event, she had no need to, but also never stepped foot on the scenic byway that bears her name and is associated with several others of Vermont fame, such as Ethan Allen, Grandma Moses, and Robert Frost.

It serves as the threshold to the Green Mountain National Forest. Established itself in 1932 to control rampant logging, flooding, and fires, its 399,151-acre New England and Acadian forest ecoregion is located in Bennington, Addison, Rutland, Windham, Windsor, and Washington counties.

Three nationally designed trails-Long Trail, Robert Moses National Recreation Trail, and portions of the Appalachian Trail-along with 900 miles of lesser-known paths offer a wide range of related sports activities, from hiking to bicycling, horseback riding, cross country skiing , and snowmobiling, in three Alpine and seven Nordic ski areas.

Abundant wildlife includes bears, moose, coyotes, white tailed deer, black bears, wild turkeys, and numerous bird species.

The town of Wilmington marks both the Molly Stark Trail's halfway point between Brattleboro and Bennington and the crossroads with northbound Route 100.

Chartered on April 29, 1751 by Benning Wentworth, Colonial Governor of New Hampshire, and named after Spencer Compton, First Earl of Wilmington, the town itself was actually fed by what its surrounding land provided, including grass, oats, corn, vegetables, potatoes , and the spruce, hemlock, birch, beech, and maple trees that were transformed into lumber. Haystack Mountain offered skiing.

Town and population growth were sparked by a series of precipitating events, such as the introduction of river-located sawmills in the 1830s, the establishment of a rail link at the end of that century, and the dedication of the Molly Stark Trail in the 1930s .

Threading through town, Main Street (Route 9 and the trail itself) offers views of another quintessential Vermont village, with quilt, craft, and antique shops, restaurants, and church steeples.

"Wilmington," according to the "Southern Vermont Deerfield Valley Visitors' Guide" published by the Chamber of Commerce in Wilmington itself, "contains superb examples of 18th and 19th century architecture in as many as eight distinct styles. From Late Colonial (1750- 1788) to Colonial Revival (1880-1900), the architecture is so well-preserved, that the major part of the village has been placed on the Vermont Register of Historic Places. "

A right turn at the traffic light (coming from Brattleboro) on to Route 100 leads to the Old Red Mill Inn, "a wayside tavern, inn, and restaurant at the river's edge," as it bills itself.

Rustic in character, the inn, a converted sawmill dating back to 1828, retains much of its original construction and is itself listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Its dining venues include Jerry's Deck Bar and Grill, with outdoor seating overlooking the Deerfield River, and the Old Red Mill Restaurant, which "hearty food and drink are specialties of the house," it proclals.

"Prime steaks and rib roasts, along with fresh New England seafood, are menu favorites, all preceded by crisp garden salads and warm, fresh-baked breads."

6. Route 100:

A short drive on Route 100 leads to West Dover, gateway to the Mount Snow ski resort, as evidenced by the Alpine-themed Austrian Haus Lodge, one of the first buildings encountered.

Settled by Captain Abner Perry, of Holliston, Massachusetts, in 1779, and granted a charter signed by Governor Thomas Chittenden, head of the newly formed Vermont Republic, the following year, West Dover and its easterly Dover counterpart began as the township of Wardsborough. After a successful petition to divide it, however, it evolved into Wardsborough itself and Dover after the passage of an 1810 Legislative Assembly act.

Although the summer initially served as the season of attraction for vacationers drawn to area farms during the early-1900s, its winter opponent took center stage mid-century when Walter Schoenknecht, of East Haddam, Connecticut, acquitted the Ruben Snow farm, transforming it into the present and popular Mount Snow Ski Resort.

Demand soon turned the talented of lodges into the many of today, along with the coincident shops, restaurants, and motels necessary to support the influx of sports enthusiasts.

Literally paving the way to it all, Route 100 replaced the original dirt artery, which was plied by sleighs in its early days. Aside from automobiles, even the small Deerfield Valley Airport brings in winter tourists.

As a base town, West Dover's purpose becomes unexpectedly handsome as you approach the Mount Snow entrance, revealing buildings such as the Inn at Sawmill Farm, the West Dover Inn, the Snow Mountain Market, and the Lodge.

"West Dover (itself)," according to the "Southern Vermont Deerfield Valley Visitors' Guide," "stands as one of Vermont's most splendid examples of a homogenous historic district." Consisting of just 20 buildings dating from 1805 to 1885, the entire district is part of the National Register of Historic Places.

"The village showcases a number of well-preserved buildings. The West Dover Congregational Church, (for instance), was built as a meeting house 'in the modern style' of 1858 with money raised by selling pews at auctions. Office was originally the District # 6 schoolhouse, erected in 1857. Across the street, the Harris House, one of the oldest in the village, is now home to the Dover Historical Society. "

Tantamount to any Vermont village is an historic inn-in this case, it takes West Dover Inn form.

"Nestled within the serene Deerfield Valley of Vermont's Green Mountain National Forest," according to its own description, "and only two miles from the base of Mount Snow, our home continues an important American tradition of friendly hospitality over 150 years ago.

"Originally built in 1846 as a stage coach stop and tavern, the West Dover inn has been lovingly restored and now provides 12 quiet, luxury accommodations, as well as modern and memorable dining in the 1846 Tavern and Restaurant."

Its menu features pub fare and house specialties, such as rib eye steak, salmon, roasted duck, and pasta.

Mount Snow, the area's major attraction, is reached by its Northern and Southern Access roads off of Route 100. Considered the most accessible Green Mountain ski resort and located only nine miles from Wilmington, it encompasses 588 acres subdivided into the four mountain areas of Main Mountain, North Face, Sunbrook, and Carinthia, rising from a 1,900-foot base elevation to a 3,600-foot summit one. Its vertical drop is 1,700 feet.

Twenty lifts provide a 30,370-person hourly capacity.

During the summer and fall, the Bluebird Express offers scenic, six-person bubble lift rides to the summit, where views from the Bullwheel Restaurant encompass Little Equinox, Equinox, Mother Myriak, Dorset, Little Stratton, Stratton, and Glebe mountains, which collectively appear as if they were undulating, green-caraved waves interspersed with icy blue, mirror-resembling lakes. Cloud obstructions stamp the expanse with black patches.

"Mount Snow," according to its self-description, "offers long cruisers, black diamonds, and technical tree terrain. access the varying terrain … Advanced skiers and riders will enjoy the 12 trails and two lifts on the North Face. riding. "

Accommodations include the slopeside Grand Summit Resort Hotel and Snow Lake Lodge, a less expensive alternative on its namesaked lake. Complimentary shuttles take skiers to the mountain in season.

7. Bennington:

Bennington, on the western end of the Molly Stark Trail, is particularly rich in sights.

Awarded a town grant after it was chartered by New Hampshire Governor Benning Wentworth in 1749, it experienced initial growth when soil and hands, of the original 20 settlers, transformed the area from ground to town, by means of hand-hewn logs and hand- ground corn, while mechanization took form as grain mills on the east side of the Walloomsac River and sawmills on the west, facilitating the population swell, to 1,500, only four years after the settlement was established.

Nail cutting forges, foundries, blast furnaces, blacksmiths, and tanneries augmented this expansion.

Today, a drive past the town on Route 9 / Molly Stark Trail leads to several important attractions. The Bennington Museum is the first of them.

Incorporated in 1852 as the Bennington Historical Association, which itself was founded to commemorate the pivotal battle that raged a few miles across the New York state line, it is one of Vermont's few accredited museums, which missions is to "showcase and model the creativity of Vermont in all its forms and through its history, as well as serve as a venue for visual and performing arts that enrich our community and our world. "

Even the building that houses it is of historical importance. Constructed of native stone and originally serving as the first St.. Francis De Salas catholic church between 1855 and 1892, it was admitted by the Bennington Historical Museum in 1928. Subsequent expansions and intermittent name changes resolved in the present Bennington Museum, the largest art and history repository in Southern Vermont with diverse collections from the early- 18th century period to modern times. It features the most extensive public collection of paintings by American folk artist Grandma Moses.

Thirteen continuous and changing exhibitions have included "Gilded Age Vermont Reflects the Industrial Boom," "Bennington Modernism," "Works on Paper," and "Regional Artist Gallery."

The town, in many ways, was defined by the brief Bennington Battle that can be interpreted at the next attraction, the Bennington Battlefield State Historic Site, only a short drive away on Route 9.

Numerous, diverse reasons and circumstances have lit the spark of war through history. Supplies, or at least the pressing need for them, precipitated this one.

By the end of July 1777, the British invasion of New York, intended for the purpose of regaining control and led by General John Burgyne, had reached Fort Edward, east of Glens Falls. But the flow of necessary staples from Canada that would ensure the movement's advance through the Mohawk Valley and down to New York City, including draft animals, wagons, and beef, had been reduced to a trickle.

Because intelligence advised Lieutenant Colonel Friedrich Baum that Bennington-located stores were ill-protected, he elected to redirect his garrison to Vermont and New Hampshire instead. But Vermont's Council of Safety, receiving word of its pending onslaught, solicited aid from Vermont troops under Seth Warner and some 1,500 New Hampshire men under John Stark.

Threshold to the confrontation was a hill overlooking the Walloomsac River, five miles from Bennington and not in Vermont, to which Stark sent defensive forces on August 16, 1777, two days after the British had reached it.

Although initial musket fire prompted the immediate surrender of Indians, Canadians, and Tories, the British themselves held their ground and a two-hour clash with the Americans, which Stark later described as "one continuous clap of thunder," resolved in the capture of the hill and the death of Baum. When the last puff of gun power dissipated, 200 British had perished and 700 had been captured, as opposed to the 40 Americans killed and the 30 wounded.

The Bennington Battle monument, located at the supply storage site and the state's tallest structure, had its origins in 1873, when the Vermont General Assembly established the Bennington Battle Monument Association, itself an extension of the Bennington Historical Society, with $ 112,000 for land and the actual structure raised by private citizens, the three states of Vermont, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts, and Congress.

Designed by Boston architect John Phillipp Rinn and dedicated in 1891, the resulting monolith, constructed of blue-gray magnesian limestone questioned from Hudson Falls, New York, rises 306 feet, 4.5 inches from a 37-square-foot base and is elevator accessible to an observation level, which 20 11-foot slotted openings afford views of three states. Guided tours up the 421 steps are also periodically offered.

Tickets are purchasable from the gift shop, which occupations the precise site of the original storehouse, goal and catalyst of the battle, while a smaller monument honors Seth Warner, commander of the Green Mountain Boys who helped defeat the British during the second engagement.

Another important Bennington sight is the nearby Old First Church.

Influenced by the "great awakening" in Connecticut and Western Massachusetts, local separatists first gathered on its site on December 3, 1762 in a rudimentary pine structure on what is today the green in front of the church and the village's center.

Constructed in 1805 by architect Lavius ​​Filmore, cousin of the nation's 13th president, the church itself, of colonial architecture, features full pine tree trunks hand-planned into columns, wooden block exterior corner decorations that resemble the stone ones used by their European counterparts, and both lower and upper pews, the latter for visitors and young parishioners.

After a 1937 renovation, which restored the box pews and the high pulp, poet Robert Frost read "The Black Cottage" during the rededication ceremony, although a second, more extensive project, undertaken between 1994 and 1999, added the exterior of present white and gray coat of paint. The interior was also replastered and attention was given to the marble steps, the basement beams, the roof, and the bell tower.

Although Frost was not himself a member, he purchased two family burial plots in the adjacent cemetery, where he is separated, along with 75 Revolutionary War patriots.

Art can be appreciated in Bennington in the Bennington Center for the Arts, located a short distance from the Old First Church and built by local philanthropist Bruce Laumeister and his wife, Elizabeth Small, in 1994, initially to display pieces from their own collection. Since, it otherwise achieves its goal of bringing world-class art to residents and visitors of New England.

Paintings and bronzes of and by Native Americans, along with Navajo rugs, pots, and kachina dolls, have yielded, from its earliest days, to an increasing number of noticeable exhibits in the expanding, multiple-gallery venue, including those from the Society of Animal Artists, the Plein Air Painters of America, the American Watercolor Society, the New England Watercolor Society, the Allied Artists of America, the American Academy of Women Artists, the Pastel Society of America, and Arts for the Parks. It is the only East Coast museum to have rented the California Art Club.

Connected to the center is the bright red painted Covered Bridges Museum, which was completed in 2003 and is the world's first such venue dedicated to their preservation, understanding, and interpretation. They are, in essence, Vermont itself.

Exhibits focus on their design, engineering, construction, and history, and are augmented by films, computer work stations that enable the visitor to explore their building techniques, and a working model railroad layout depicting area covered bridges.

Connecting riverbanks and offering suspended passage for pedestrians, bicycles, horses, carriages, and motorized vehicles, they provide, according to Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, a "brief darkness leading from the light to light."

The real thing, as everywhere in Vermont, is not far from the museum. A northerly drive on Route 7, followed by left turns on to Northside Drive (which itself becomes 67A West) and Silk Road, leads to the 88-foot-long Silk Bridge, which spans the Walloomsac River.

After another left turn on to Murphy Road and a two-mile drive, the Paper Mill Village Bridge appears, a town lattice truss design, although it is a 2000 replacement for the original built by Charles F. Sears in 1889.

Finally, the Henry Bridge, located 1.3 miles further ahead of the intersection of Murphy and River roads, is another reconstruction, built in 1989 to replace the original hailing from 1840.

8. Shraftsbury:

A glimpse into a poet's life can be experienced in the Robert Frost Stone House Museum, built in 1769 of stone and timer and located on a seven-acre parcel of land in South Shraftsbury (Route 7's Exit 2).

A literary landmark, it was the home Frost lived in from 1920 to 1929 and in which he penned poems for his first Pulitzer Prize winning book, "New Hampshire," including "Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening," ironically written at his dining room table on a hot June 1922 morning after he had been wake all night, working on a different project. An entire room is devoted to this effort.

"The 'Stopping by Woods' room," according to the museum's guide, "is (entirely) devoted to this poem-the story of how it was written, a facsimile of the handwritten manuscript, a controversial comma, presentation of meter and rhyme , what the critics said about the poem, and what Frost said about it. An example of extreme poetic craftsmanship, this beloved poem is one of the central poetic achievements of American literature. "

Because the surroundings remain essentially unchartered since Frost lived there-from the birch and apple trees, fields, woods, stone walls, and the timbered barn to the red pine trees he himself planted-the visitor can absorb his inspiration.

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Get Over Your Sleep Disorder With Orthomolecular Medicine

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Treating and healing sleep disorders with ordinary amino acids is the basis for Orthomolecular Medicine. Large doses of naturally found proteins called amino acids can repair the imbalance in the brain and repair its malfunction. These amino acids are affordable and are used in therapeutic doses much larger than those levels normally found in food. The concept of orthomolecular medicine is based upon the use of very large doses of vitamins, minerals, amino acids, or botanical extracts for the cellular repair and enhancement of normal brain activities.

Are you not getting a promotion because you are tired at the office? Are you close to a divorce from fatigue and lack of sleep? Can you not handle your children because you are too tired? Sleep disorders can cause many problems and you may not be able to break the pattern on your own. Sleeping pills can help you fall asleep, but most cause you to sleep too much or wake up with fatigue. Modern orthomolecular medicine can help these problems disappear for many people within several weeks. There may be sleep habits that also need to be altered and dietary changes that should be made. Do not eat or watch television in the bedroom if you have sleeping problems. Stay out of bed until you are ready to fall asleep. Purchase a good mattress and cotton, silk, linen, hemp, or wool linens for the bedroom. Try to avoid caffeine and excess alcohol in the late afternoon and evening. Do not take over the counter sleeping aids.

Orthomolecular Medicine uses several supplements to improve and enhance sleep. These can be botanical products like Kava, Valerian, St John’s Wort, Passion Flower, Lemon Balm, and Chamomile. The botanicals should be taken on a daily basis for several months. This may take three to five weeks to make a noticeable change in sleep.

Melatonin and a combination of Vitamin D, calcium, and magnesium should be tried for very serious sleep problems. Melatonin does not always work and should be taken in levels of 1.5 to 3 mcg/day about thirty minutes prior to bedtime. You may want to take selenium along with the melatonin to enhance your immune system.

Chinese patent formulas to improve sleep include Amnien Pian, Bu Nao Wan, and Zhi Bai Di Huang Wan. There are at least twelve different patent formulas from China that can aid sleep. The correct formula is selected based upon your needs. Most Chinese patent formulas should be taken for at least six weeks or longer to address the underlying disorder causing the insomnia symptom.

Amino acids needed to enhance sleep include 5-HTP, theanine, and GABA. The addition of bio-identical hormones may be needed for men in andropause or women in menopause. Do not ever take any type of hormone without a blood test or saliva test to determine which hormones are low. Remember that the Chinese have avoided many sleep disorders and hormone imbalances by using food therapy and Chinese herbs. Consider these options with a healthcare provider.

© Dr R Stone, MD-India

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Fabric Painting As A Career

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Fabric painting is not the most conventional of careers to choose from; in fact most would relegate it to the hobbies listing, an obscure craft. Some would ask, “Who would want to spend their career with fabric paint?” But think about it; if the career were not a significant one, we would all be sitting on bland, colorless and design free furniture, we would probably all be dressed up in flour sacks and staring at blank walls. Of course that’s a slight exaggeration, but you get the point, I’m sure.

As a career fabric painter, you have the opportunity to add creative and sometimes colorful value to the world we live in. Although fabric painting can be a laborious pursuit it has become thousands of times easier to reproduce fabric painting on numerous mediums. With the advent of digital art, reproduction artwork can be placed on cups, plates, textiles, shoes, wood and more.

The prospects are actually quite exciting when you think about it. Rather than designers buying that blase fabric for their fashion accessories project, you can now offer them custom fabrics, specially created for their specific use; something unique to their collection. Designers can now say bye, bye to boring; and hello to happy. Their clients will love you for it.

Artists can now create their masterpieces and have them duplicated for short run reproduction just as easy as or perhaps easier than it would have been to process the art through the traditional fabric mills. This is great but there are still some major manufacturing companies that hire artists to create hand painted designs for their new collections. They then take the artists designs and produce them on various types of fabrics.

One career that is easily integrated and is an offshoot of fabric painting is, screen printing, which in itself is a vast field. Traditionally, screen printing has been viewed as the answer to producing tee shirts for schools and casual wear. Today the screen printing industry is booming as artists are getting even more creative and adding flair to their designs.

The sizes of screens have grown from a little bitty square on the front of your shirt to a large format screen designed for all over tee shirt design. Still there are others who use this screen printing method to create custom yardage for sale and for creating their own line of goods.

Such artwork was initially painted on fabric and later printed on garments for toddlers and adults alike. Just as the original was embellished with studs, stones, sequins and glitter, so too are the creations of the silk screen artist. The beauty of course is once the original design has been developed on fabric and screens created, the design can be produced in unlimited colors, sizes and of course quantities.

On the flip side of the screen printing issue are the embellishers who are also fabric painters in their own right. These artists take a generally basic design and customize it, giving it the oomph it may have needed. This is done many times with fabric paint, rhinestones, mirrors, ribbons and a host of other accessories.

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Source by Teri M Bethel

The Samurai Sword – The Ritual and Etiquette of a Legend

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The sword was the samurai’s most important weapon.  The samurai would never be without it, but it was bad manners to take it out so others could see it.  The samurai would never show a common person the sword.  If a high-ranking official asked to see the sword, the samurai would pull the sword out of its scabbard only a few inches.  

The samurai sword, called a katana, was a marvel of engineering.  A master craftsman could take more than a month to make a samurai katana.  The craftsman would start by melting metal, even pots and pans.  The heat of a specially made fireplace created molten metal, burning away the impurities.  Then the craftsman would pour the metal into the shape of a sword.  While the metal was still warm, he would pound the sword with a hammer, flattening it out.  He folded the metal over onto itself, and then cooled it in water.  Then, he heated the sword up again, pounded it flat again, then folded it over.  This hammering and folding, heating, and cooling cycle was repeated dozens of times.  It is what gave the samurai katana its legendary hardness and razor-sharp edge.

When the craftsman was satisfied with the samurai sword, he began the polishing process.  He first polished the samurai katana with a pumice-like material, which smoothed the sword out.  Then he polished it with a different material, which would remove the scratches left by the pumice.  Twelve different materials were used to polish the sword, each one finer than the last.  Each removed the scratched left by the previous material.  The twelfth material had the consistency of flour, which left the sword bright and shiny.  

Finally, the craftsman would sign his name on the samurai katana, underneath the handle.  He then added the wooden handle and a decorative hand guard.  

Ritual surrounded the making of samurai sword.  It is said that there were certain foods the craftsman would not eat during the sword-making process and even certain activities the craftsman would not do while making the sword as part of the ritual.  The making of the sword was a religious experience for the craftsman.  The sword had a religious significance for the samurai, too.  The samurai called the sword “his soul,” and it never left his side.

Typically, the samurai would carry two swords.  The samurai katana was usually a little more than three feet (0.9 m) long.  The second sword they carried was called a wakizashi and was about 2 feet (0.6 m) long.  They would use the wakizashi if the katana broke, for closer combat, or for the grim ritual of seppuku (suicide to protect honor).  Together, the two swords represented the high social status of the samurai.  

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Source by Jules Brice

8 Tips For Coming Up With the Best Tattoo Design Ideas

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For many years now, body art has been a popular art form. While at one point in time body art had special meanings, such as leadership, status, and even ownership, today tattoos are more of a fashion statement that portraits uniqueness. If you want to get a tattoo, no doubt you want to get a great design that is absolutely you. So, how can you come up with great tattoo design ideas? The following are a few tips that will help you come up with the best tattoo design ideas for you.

Tip # 1 – Take a Look at Other Tattoos – One way that you can come up with great tattoo design ideas is to take a look at other tattoos that other people have. While you do not want to copy exactly what someone else has, taking a look at other tattoos can definitely give you some great ideas. Be sure to be creative but take the designs you see on other people into consideration as well.

Tip # 2 – Check Out Books, Stickers, Posters, Stationary, Etc. – Believe it or not, inspiration for your tattoo could be almost anywhere. If you want some great ideas, take the time to check out books, stickers, poster, stationary, and anything else you can get your hands on. It does not have to be a tattoo already to be a great idea, so remember that inspiration for your tattoo can be just about anywhere you look.

Tip # 3 – Consider Color or Black and Gray – Another thing you need to consider when you are trying to come up with good tattoo ideas is whether or not you want to go with a tattoo that is done in black and gray or a tattoo that is very colorful. Either can look wonderful, depending on the tattoo you choose, so take both options into consideration.

Tip # 4 – Get Creative with It – You will also want to take the time to get creative with the tattoo. More than likely you will not want to do something that everyone else is doing. You'll want to make sure that the tattoo design that you choose is unique and creative, so let your creativity and imagination run wild.

Tip # 5 – Remember You Have to Live with It – When you are trying to come up with the best tattoo designs for you, be sure that you remember that you are going to have to live with this tattoo for some time. Sure, there are methods of removal, but they are expensive and painful as well. So, think about a design that you are still going to enjoy and appreciate 10 years down the road.

Tip # 6 – Find a Design with Meaning – Whatever tattoo design you choose, you will want to be sure that you find one that has special meaning for you. Whether it is a special image that you like or the name of an important person that you have lost, make sure that the design you pick out has meaning for you, whether anyone else understands or not.

Tip # 7 – Go with a Design that Fits Your Particularity Personality – Each person has a different type of personality and you'll want to go with a tattoo design that nicely reflects your personality. There are many great designs out there, and whether you choose from an existing design or you make the design yourself, you'll want the design to match your particular personality.

Tip # 8 – Browse Online for Some Great Ideas – If you are looking for great tattoo ideas , one of the best places to look for them is online. There are a variety of great sites you can find that provide great tattoo ideas. You can actually buy many tattoo designs online; however, you may only want to use the designs you see for some inspiration. Either way, checking out online designs is an excellent idea.

As you can see, a tattoo is definitely not something you just want to rush into. You'll want to take your time to make sure that you get the best tattoo design for you. If you are sure to take your time to find a great design, no doubt you'll find a tattoo design that you'll be happy with for years.

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Source by Mitch Green

Teaching Historical Fencing – The Flourish

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Is it possible to train in complex movements with the sword without having an opponent or drill partner with whom to work? If so, is this training of any value? Did fencers do this in the Middle Ages or Renaissance? The answer to all three questions is “yes,” and such drills should be a regular part of your historical fencing training.

For over 100 years Japanese martial artists have used kata, series of steps, kicks, punches, or weapons actions as a traditional part of their training. Such kata often include 50 or more distinct movements. Among the founders of modern karate one or two kata formed the basis for lifetime study, although the number of kata have proliferated and their quality arguably declined with the widespread commercialization of the martial arts.

In Europe some 400 to 500 years before the development of karate kata, swordsmen were using series of movements to flourish, a term found in both German and English Long Sword texts, with solo footwork movements and blade actions much like the kata. Lindholm’s and Hull’s translations of Dobringer’s gloss of Liechtenauer’s teaching verse for the Long Sword includes a flourish that starts with the gate or barrier guard, includes displacements, and ends with attacking blade work. This flourish appears to be a prebouting display of expertise for the amusement of spectators and the intimidation of opponents.

The surviving English texts interpreted by Heslop and Bradak include flourishes, as well as a variety of other exercises that can be done without an opponent. They view these as training tools suitable for solo practice. In fact, the more complicated sequences may actually be better practiced without a partner in order to avoid training the partner to excel in the role of target (not something that you would want in an actual sword fight).

Thus there are actual historical flourishes that can be used for training. However, you can construct flourishes for your students using the following guidelines:

The first rule is do nothing that would not make sense in an actual fight. That seems obvious, but it can be easy to forget that these were weapons designed to kill people, and that the people who used them had no interest in training in techniques that would result in their own death or serious injury. Flourish does not mean that you have a license to do unhistorical or fanciful weapon twirling.

Second, decide what mix of technique you will use. You may focus solely on attacks. However, incorporating changes of guard and defensive actions help develop a broader range of abilities. At the same time you should decide what distances the flourish simulates. A flourish with a concentration on renewals of attack at short distance is a much different exercise from one in which the offense is based on passing steps and full arm actions.

Third, restrict your flourish to a number of steps that can be remembered easily. Fifty steps becomes as much a memory exercise as a fighting one. Dobringer’s flourish at its most basic is eight actions; the English Additional Manuscript 39564 flourishes are longer, but still under two dozen movements (depending on how you count them).

Fourth, have the movement flow forward and back. This is a practical consideration to enable you to fit your flourish into your available training area. However, German practice technique is movement based with footwork accompanying strikes; English practice does include actions delivered apparently without footwork.

Fifth, have your actions end up in the right place. Each blade and foot movement should flow seamlessly from the immediately preceding movement. If the students have to stop and reposition out of sequence to make the flourish work, each repositioning would create opportunities to be hit in an actual fight.

Sixth, write down a description, let it sit overnight, and then see if you can execute it as written. Revise if necessary, and then give it to your students to try.

Finally go back and make certain that what you have designed makes tactical sense. Is it something that a Medieval or Renaissance fencer would do if faced with an armed opponent desiring his harm or death? Only after these checks are done can you be confident that it can be assigned for practice.

The flourish can become an excellent tool for warm-up, for solo practice, and for displays of skill during open houses or other recruiting activity. It offers your students a challenge that they bear full responsibility for meeting, helping to create pride in their performance. And it further connects them to the history of fencing and to the importance of fighting spirit in swordplay.

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Source by Walter Green