Banksy’s Influences – Who Inspired Banksy?

Banksy is a pseudo-name for a well-known British graffiti artist. He is believed to be born around 1974 in Yate, South Gloucestershire. He was first involved in graffiti during the great Bristol aerosol boom on the late 1980s. The style of his artwork is mostly satirical piece on topics such as culture, ethnic, and politics. Technique wise, the way he combines both stencil and graffiti is very similar to a French artist Blek Le Rat. His art that appear in cities around the world was first born out of Bristol underground scene involving musicians and artists. His prints are popular with celebrity and singer Christina Aguilera and actor Brad Pitt.

When it started, Blek Le Rat took inspiration from New York’s graffiti scenes. It is from this scene that he created his own style by continuously painting stenciled rats around the streets in Paris before going nationwide to Lyon, Marseille and Toulouse.

Banksy has also recognized Blek Le Rat influences in his artwork while also being a big fan of Blek’s work. In one of his quote, Banksy said “Every time I think I’ve painted something slightly original, I find out that Blek Le Rat has done it as well, only twenty years earlier.”

On the other hand, Prou admitted that he sees Banksy as a son of his movement in addition to crediting Blanksy for raising his profile while providing him with increased publication that resulted in increased commercial success. In his interview with Sunday Times, Prou said “I consider him like my descendant. He took some ideas. But he changed them. And he took the movement to a huge level all over the world.”

What other’s do not really know is that there is another person whom inspired Banksy to first take out his stencils and spray paints in the dead of night. Known as the Godfather of Street Art, Richard Hambleton made his first mark in the 1970s painting chalk outlines with red blood across North America cities. His most famous piece, the Shadowman and Marlboro Man collections are among some of his pieces that have the clearest links to Banksy.

He was born in Vancouer, Canada in june 1954. He earned his bachelor in 1975 from Emily Carr School of Art. Recognize as the Founder and Co-Director of “Pumps” Center for Alternative Art in Vancouver. He is now working and living in New York City. Richard Hambleton is the surviving member of group who, together among Jean-Michel Basquiat and Keith Haring, had a great success coming out of New York City art scene during the 1980s. A lot of his work is similar to graffiti art, however, Hambleton considered his work as public art.

He is the person who influenced Xavier Prou (Blek Le Rat). When ask, Prou said that he really like Richard Hambleton. Richard was the first artist from NYC to export his work all over the world in the 80s. His work has been so widespread in Europe it could be found in London, Paris, Berlin, Rome, and many other cities.

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A Letter to Science About the Antidote for Cancer

The 1937 Nobel Laureate in Medicine, Szent-Gyorgyi was the co-founder of the American National Foundation for Cancer Research. His ‘Letter to Science’ in 1974 stated that the accepted criteria for applying for crucial government cancer research funding was counterproductive. From his political-medical science perspective, the funding for a cure for cancer was prevented because the accepted criteria for substantial research was itself carcinogenic in nature.

As a Hungarian citizen during World war II he avoided capture by the Gestapo for holding political science theories offensive to the Fascist government. After the war he declined the political theories of Russian communism to pursue his cancer research in America. His letter to science made use of political ideas belonging to the ancient pagan Greek atomic Science for Ethical Ends. The pagan concept of the 28 day moon movement resonating emotion-forming mathematical information to the atomic metabolism associated with the female cycle, had been taught at the Epicurean University in ancient Athens.

These ideas however, go beyond the limitations belonging to modern day science residing within the legal systems of Christianity, Islam and Judaism. We hope that science can resolve the problem and that this might be of practical future value to all three by providing a cure for cancer and bestowing upon them a more benevolent global scientific culture.

Szent-Gyorgyi saw the ancient Greek ideal to develop a political science to guide ennobling government for the health of the universe, in order to avoid the extinction of civilization, as a medical issue. It is the very opposite of the prevailing global scientific thermodynamic culture, which in fact demands the extinction of all life in the universe. This death cult concept of reality clearly belongs to a carcinogenic scientific mindset.

The idea of American Democracy contains aspects of the ancient Greek ethical political science. In 2017 this concept of democracy was clearly revealed to be a plutocracy: government by the wealthy. We can argue that within a culture driven by thermodynamic chaos this current plutocracy might well be a common sense prerequisite for immediate economic tribal survival, inspired by moral democratic values. However, its intrinsic scientific, carcinogenic nature must sooner or later bring about a repeat of its well recorded cyclic destruction of tribal societies. Carcinogenic science is now helping to accelerate this process toward a terminal state, in obedience to the prevailing thermodynamic extinction law.

All that is needed to evolve beyond that situation is just to place the plutocratic know-how alongside relevant survival antidote logic within a computer set up to generate human survival blueprint simulations. Such simulations will outline new technological guidelines to accrue unimaginable wealth, together with the administration guidelines to benefit the people. This model is in contrast to the illusory anticipations existing within a society based upon the present global inflow of dysfunctional information.

This crucial research methodology had already been enacted this century, but the apparent cancer cure knowledge was, as Szent-Gyorgyi predicted, completely ignored. In 1979 China’s most highly awarded physicist, Kun Huang, provided Australian Science-Art researchers with the methodology to measure the existence of the life force. He suggested that by using Szent-Gyorgyi’s understanding of ancient Greek mathematical geometry, it should be possible to develop a scientific program to generate simulations demonstrating the evolution of seashell growth and development through space-time.

If the simulations matched perfectly with seashells recorded within the fossil record then the physics laws governing the evolution of life would have been discovered. During the 1980s, this experiment was successfully carried out in Australia. In 1990 the world’s largest technological research institute, IEEE in Washington, reprinted the discovery from published papers by Italy’s leading scientific journal, Il Nuovo Cimento. IEEE acclaimed it to be one of the 20th Century’s great optical mathematical discoveries, placing it alongside such names as Louis Pasteur and Francis Crick.

In 1995 this mathematical discovery was transposed into a physics format by the President of the Institute of Basic Research in America, to discover new physics laws governing the evolution of life forms. The prevailing thermodynamic mathematical logic was shown to generate futuristic distorted carcinogenic life-form simulations. Szent-Gyorgyi’s cancer research observation about dysfunctional thermodynamic information was activated to completely negate the Australian project to obtain a human survival blueprint. Scientists around the world had no choice but to agree that seashells did indeed carry crucial evolutionary survival information because it was clearly written down on mechanistic seashell fossil objects. None of them realized the simple truth, that living life-forms within the seashells had transmitted that information to the growing shell formation. Szent-Gyorgyi, who had predicted such a nonsensical situation had written a book about it, entitled ‘The Crazy Ape’. The scientists refused to allow the living process to use infinite mathematical logic because their obsolete non-sensible thermodynamic culture had already sentenced all life in the universe to extinction.

The Nobel Laureate’s description of a crazy ape mindset, however, had defined a entirely natural state of mathematical schizophrenia existing at the dawn of civilization. This reality only highlights the incredible technological potential of humanity if a great political leader bothers to encourage the generation of the human survival blueprints mentioned above. From such designs completely new technologies can be quickly developed to benefit the human condition.

Ancient Sumerian astrological mathematical intuitions evolved from celestial movement wonderment, a fact compatible with the scientific research process acclaimed by Szent-Gyorgyi. From these ancient research intuitions we inherited a 7 day week of 24 hours a day, with each hour of 60 minutes. Their sense of direction gave us a circle of 360 degrees. Both their time and directional guidance systems are now used to explore the nature of outer space universal reality. However, during the time of the Sumerian civilization, their intuitions about the nature of infinite reality was neither mathematical nor scientific. It was based upon religious concepts belonging to argumentative gods and goddesses, one in particular was Inanna the goddess of sex and war.

The religious non-mathematical persuasions of the Sumerians to wage war was a natural expression of a survival of the fittest instinct to guard against their falling prey to some other tribe intent of committing violence against them. The Sumerian astrological mathematical knowledge and the worship of warlike deities was later absorbed by the Babylonian Kingdom. Ancient clay tablets record the Sumerian gods from a dark abyss declaring ‘Let there be light’ prior to the creation of hybrid humans from clay. Their gods argued about the bestowing of eternal life to keepers of the Ark during the Great Flood. Mathematics then became an unethical Babylonian instrument to terrorize the populace to wage war. The Babylonian priests developed the mathematics to be able to predict eclipses, Inanna the goddess of sex and war became Ishtar the Babylonian goddess of prostitution and war and the bestowing of immortality to the keepers of the Ark escalated into violent chaos.

This unethical use of mathematics is made clear by the discovery of a baked clay tablet written by a Babylonian priest to his king. The message reads to the effect that the gods demanded that the 673 BC lunar eclipse be used by the king to terrorize the population to ensure that they became sexually anxious to advance the art of waging war to increase the power of the Babylonian Kingdom.

The 19th Century champion of American Democracy, Ralph Waldo Emerson wrote about the enslavement of the American people by a plutocracy that had inherited aspects of the unethical Babylonian legal system. He did not realize that such a state of government at that time was a biological necessity for American survival amid a global society of warring tribes seeking to dominate each other. Nonetheless, his mathematical solution involved new technologies alluded to within ancient Sanskrit mathematics, which were based on a similar scientific logic that Szent-Gyiogyi used later to derive his cancer-free science belonging to ancient Greek political mathematics.

The carcinogenic cycle of the destruction of future civilizations fighting to the death over which deity, or set of mathematical laws, provided personal access to infinity followed from the Babylonian social system. Szent-Gyorgyi’s description of the scientific crazy ape with a carcinogenic mindset can now be seen as belonging to a form of mathematical schizophrenia being an integral aspect of a primitive tribal evolutionary process. The process of dysfunctional emotional information governing modern plutocracy has now been classified by government appointed epidemiologists as a global 3D epidemic. The mass manufacture of dysfunctional information and communication devices is now understood to be causing severe damage to global society.

To better understand the nature of this global dysfunctional information epidemic it can be seen to be similar to the use of mathematics programmed within a poker machine, employing sound and colour vibrations to bring about a heroin-like addiction. This compulsion is designed to bring about a state of moral and financial bankruptcy. The unethical use of mathematical manipulation involving illusory emotional anticipation, echoes the global stock-market excitement. That game is destined eventually to cause economic collapses for the benefit of the players running global plutocratic battles of wits. Nonstop artistic colour advertising instills a trivial sense of excitement to the masses referred to in terms of market confidence.

This global economic existence is eventually paid for by massive casualties on battlefields, with people fighting for the right of some deity or honour philosophy to grant both victims and survivors some beneficial access to infinite realty. The mathematician, Plato, classified the associated artistic rhetoric, pomp and ceremony involved in such a form of government, as unethical art, lacking a substantial spiritual purpose.

The philosopher, Immanuel Kant, researched the difference between Plato’s definition of unethical art and and human survival artistic wisdom to establish the ethical basis of the electromagnetic Golden Age of Danish Science. The philosopher of science, Emmanuel Levinas, agreed with Kant’s conclusion that the missing artistic spiritual component within Plato’s condemnation of art, was an asymmetrical electromagnetic inner-vision existing within the creative artistic mind. The relevant asymmetrical electromagnetic potential technology belonging to that concept was predicted by the inventor of the alternating electric industrial motor, Charles Proteus Steinmetz. He actually wrote, specifically stating, that such a spiritual electromagnetic motor technology would be far greater that the technology associated with the present physical electromagnetic one.

In 2010 the Australian seashell life force discovery theories were fused with quantum biology by the Department of Medicinal Chemistry at the Italian University of Pavia. In association with Quantum Art International based in Italy they jointly worked together to research for an antidote to the global dysfunctional epidemic. They were aware that Isaac Newton within his long forgotten, but nonetheless published, 28th Query Discussions, insisted that ancient Greek science considered that gravity was not caused by the functioning of a mechanistic universe. Newton wrote that the mass of objects in space was not the first cause of gravitational force as modern quantum mechanics had falsely pretended otherwise.

Although the previously mentioned living evolutionary seashell mathematics had been recorded on mechanical seashell objects, modern quantum mechanical science was unable to reason about the crucial living information being transmitted to the shell by the living creature within it. The Italian-Australian team, free to reason otherwise, began to research how quantum mechanics needed to be completed by linking it with living information. In 2016 they achieved their objective. Their Science-Art antidote discovery was awarded an international First Prize at the XX International Exhibition & Competition of Contemporary Art, Central House of Artists, Moscow. The World Fund for Arts, Government of Moscow, Artist Union of Russia and the European Art Union sponsored this competition.

Recent DNA discoveries have allowed us to consider that humans now belong to one species. In that case, the prevailing carcinogenic thermodynamic scientific culture, which demands human extinction, depicts the human species as suffering from some sort of scientific carcinogenic neurological disorder. That echoes the conclusion that the greatest mathematician in history, Georg Cantor, whose work upholds most of modern science made. He wrote that the modern scientific mind was suffering from a myopic fear of infinity, as alluded to by Waldo Emerson and Szent Gyorgyi.

The author of ‘The Crazy Ape’ held that there is a link between molecular electromagnetic processes and fundamental aspects of cancer growth and development. The scientist, David Hilbert, working with Albert Einstein on mathematical research embracing that field of knowledge, fully supported Cantor’s observation that an ignorance of infinite mathematical reality governed the modern scientific mind. With the aid of several other great philosophers of science, it was not difficult to discover the antidote to bring scientific research into a far greater perspective than one obsessed with human extinction. Very eminent scientists around the world hailed the antidote discovery as being a major historical achievement of the 21st Century.

During 2016 the Australian Prime Minister, the Governor General, the Minister for Art and Communications, the Leader of the Opposition and several senators received copies of the prize-winning antidote documentation. On November 15, 2016, the Department of the Minister for the Arts and Communication advised that the Australian Government’s principle arts funding body makes decisions on grant applications at arm’s length from Government, through a process of peer assessment.

It is not rational to use peer assessment about a internationally accepted unique important discovery of crucial government importance. The cancer antidote document was dismissed in a way that Szent-Gyorgyi had very clearly described as belonging to a counterproductive cancer research methodology. Not one senior Australian politician saw fit to allow any opportunity for critical evaluation of this research for the betterment of the global human condition.

To compound this illogical way of thinking the Macquarie University in Sydney, acting on behalf of the Commonwealth Visual Arts Board, arranged for a phone interview which would have been about the antidote situation. The University mailed copious protocol directions to guide the discussion, which were ultimately counterproductive to the antidote thesis. Therefore, the non-sensible proposal associated with the Australian Visual Arts Board was dismissed out of hand.

The greedy unethical plutocratic nature of Australian politics became evident during the writing of this letter to science. The resignation of the Minister for Health concerning the misuse of pubic monies for personal gratification made front page newspaper headlines. This was followed by more front page headlines, in which similar ‘misuses of funds’ scandals were associated with other senior Australian politicians. The plutocracy; government by the wealthy, can be considered scientifically unfit to care about the health and wellbeing of democratic government and explains why its appointed epidemiologists are unable to find an antidote to the prevailing 3D dysfunctional information epidemic.

In conclusion, the pharmaceutical empire in the hands of powerful multinationals, continues to conduct brilliant research resulting in incredible discoveries, alleviating the spread of cancer. However, it is surely warranted that the antidote discovery be critically examined as soon as is possible.

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How To Use Wall Hangings Properly?

Wall hangings were used as decorators in homes, temples, churches, and buildings to decorate them, by various cultures from the early times. This trend is followed in contemporary times also. The wall hangings designed from different cultural environments exhibit a historical outlook and are very resilient as they are from textile background.

Now a day, wall hangings have become an important part of home decoration as they can be used in various exclusive ways. The wall hangings can be designed in a number of lovely styles like landscapes, modern art and flowery wall hangings provided the weaver knows his work excellently. The wall hangings are enjoyed by the art fans as well as the interior decorators as they are a good complement to the traditional art. In medieval times the wall hangings were prepared using wool but now high quality colors and latest fibers are used for this purpose. They can be used to make classical as well as traditional wall hangings.

In modern wall hanging tapestry, the use of chenille is popular. This is because this versatile material is soft and flexible. If you wish to decorate your home then the use of chenille will make your décor elegant, warm and adaptable. Chenille can be used for a wide variety of settings in home décor like tapestry throws, wall tapestries and cushions.

The high class wall hangings are very useful as they provide motivation to the decorators as well as historical and traditional sense to the viewer. They also make the living area look spacious.

A vivacious colored wall hanging makes your room more spacious and bigger than it actually is. But for a room that is already big, you can line up a number of wall hangings of different sizes to make it look smaller than it actually is.

The wall hangings differ a lot from the traditional posters. So, placing them at their right place requires a lot of intellectual skills and patience. A lean and high wall will be most suitable for a long wall hanging which will give it slightly active look and not the trifling looks.

But for a large wall hanging the wall with apparent display will be most suited which helps in displaying the charm and brilliance of the wall hanging to its greatest extent. The wall hangings are a very god choice to decorate your house and give it a royal look.

If you are having 2 wall hangings of self-effacing designs but only 1 rod, then you can hang both of them next to each other on the same rod with a gap of 3 to 6 inches. Be cautious about the dimensions because any exception in the dimension will create a kind of chaos that will not be pleasant to look at.

From decades, wall hangings have been the best choice for decorating the houses. Manufactured from modern stuff and knitting, they are the most handy, appealing and a displays the beauty of history and traditions. Wall hangings are truly the heritage for future generations.

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For more home decor articles, see Jessica’s latest article about using decorative mirrors.

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What is Shibari

The knowledge of the ancient art of is very incomplete. Research and knowledge development are still going on every day. There are many different styles, such as Fumo Ryu (the spiritual style) or Iki (the bare Zen essentials only style) and the individual styles of various rope artists.

Picture a room, lit by candles. Shadows will dance on the walls and create the atmosphere in the room. That is exactly what you want to achieve in Japanese bondage – the battle between contrasts: beauty and fear, love and endurance, desire and despair, mental growth and humiliation, pain and lust.

It is an intriquing art that involves different levels: physical, mental and metaphysical. For the Kizõshà (giver, donor, dominant, active partner) it is a balancing act, juggling with various different impulses. To the Ukétorinìn (recipient, submissive, passive partner – in Japan sometimes also called M-jo – “maso woman” – which can be anything from a female professional bondage model to a woman who just loves to be tied. The male recipient is sometimes referred to as M-o – “maso man”) it is the ultimate journey to paradise.

Weaving or wrapping

“Japanese bondage” is an inadequate, superficial translation. While most people are only aware of the bondages, the lifestyle and technique encompasses much more – in techniques as well as background. Shibari Do, as the lifestyle is called, has roots in Japanese lovemaking and courtship, Ki-energy manipulation, traditional Japanese rope torture techniques, martial arts, theater, even ancient fashion and aspects of Zen Buddhism. The erotic use of bondages is only one aspect of the lifestyle. The technique in modern days is also used as a performing art, has healing aspects and in general is also a way to train the body and mind.

Shibari best translates as either “weaving” or “wrapping in ropes”. Both translations refer to the interaction between ropes, the mind and the Ki energy meridians in the human body. Ki (or Chi in Chinese) is the energy of life; meridians are the channels, through which this energy flows. And since Ki – in Oriental philosophy – controls life inside the body as well as the interaction between the body and its environment, Japanese bondage has a direct influence on life. Ki can only flow and create a healthy situation through the eternal pattern of changes between Yin and Yang. The techniques strive to influence this pattern through magnifying both the Yin and Yang position on many different levels.


There are many myths and very few facts about the Japanese bondage origin. As a result, to date its origin remains unclear. A few references to what could be early forms of Japanese bondage provide some insight.

In the first half of the 17th century, during the Tokugawa Shogunate (Edo period) the dominant Japanese religion was not Shinto (that came about after the decline of the Togukawa dynasty) but a Shogun-backed form of neo-Confusianism. One of the most important Buddhist schools was the Nichiren Shu Komon School in Kyoto. It had eight temples in Kyoto (the 17th century capital of Japan) and was financed by members of the highest classes, including the Shogun himself.

The 17th High Priest of the school, Nissei, was a decadent, powerhungry man only interested in money, power and women. Under his reign members of the high social classes would gather in this school, tie up naked women in subdued and humiliating positions and leave them tied long enough to enjoy them and make drawings of them while in bondage, thus producing pornographic pictures. These gatherings were called “komon sarashi shibari”. Very rare examples of such drawings have surfaced in Ukiyo-e (17th century erotic woodblock print) collections.

While this is one of the very few documented ancient uses of bondage as an erotic technique, the fact that such gatherings existed in Kyoto supports undocumented rumours about Samurai in rural areas tieing up women and exposing them for erotic amusement. At these gatherings apparently bondage techniques were used, borrowed from Hojo Jitsu (the art of tieing and transporting prisoners), Japanese rope torture techniques (Kinbaku) and Sarashi (the public display of criminals). That is where the martial arts roots (if any) of Japanese bondage are believed to originate from. Although often portrayed as such, there is no evidence of a direct, linear connection between Shibari and what is known as “soft weapon techniques” in most martial arts, of which Hojo Jitsu is one.

Komon Sarashi Shibari in itself brought about another misinterpretation. Japanese words can mean many different things, depending on their context. Komon can be translated as “anus”, which lead to the misconception that Japanese bondage started out as a means to display women with their behind exposed. In this case however Komon means “advisor” or “consultant” (read: part of the temple staff and “follower of confusius”), which is a reference to the school where these gatherings happened and the participants.

Another intriguing source for the Japanese bondage origin and history are ancient Japanese police records. In the 17th century at least one traditional bondage was used by doomed love couples in ritualistic suicides. “Forbidden lovers” (usually lovers from different social classes) would sometimes use the “shinju” (a torso harnass) bondage to tie each other and next – firmly connected together – plunge into a river, a lake or the sea to drown together. For quite some time such ritual suicides were known as the “shinju suicides”.

This is what Washington State University notes about “shinju suicides”: “the most popular theme of both kabuki and joruri (forms of theater – ed.) was the theme of double suicide, shinju, as thwarted lovers, unable because of social restrictions to live a life together, desperately chose to kill themselves in a mutual suicide hoping to be reunited in the pure land of bliss promised by Amida Buddha. Many of these double suicide plays involved ukiyo themes, such as the love between an upper class or noble man and a prostitute. This is the theme of the most famous of the shinju plays (Sonezaki Shinju), by Chikamatsu Monzaemon (1653-1725). Such shinju plays often inspired a rash of real double suicides, so the Tokugawa regime in 1723 stepped in and banned shinju not only on the kabuki and joruri stage, but in real life as well.”

In Japanese psychology the word “shinju” (meaning either “pearl” or “oneness of hearts” depending on its context) is still used for multiple suicides involving people with a strong bond.

In Japanese bondage terms “shinju” is a torso harnass, tied to bring out and erotically stimulate the female breasts (the “pearls”). Amazingly the word “shinju” in Japan is also used for shoulder-string type halter tops for women.

Is there any sort of heritage?

The answer to that question is currently impossible to provide with any certainty. It might be, but due to the lack of any historical reference it is unlikely. Yes, there are references to the art dating back to the 17th century. That however is also where any attempt to trace it back any further stops. As an erotic artform it apparently existed in the very mondain upper classes in Japan. But it has no, as many claim, linear roots to any martial art.

In fact the following assumption is much more likely. Most ancient cultures have seen combinations of power, sometimes spirituality and mysticism, and eroticism. Courtley Love and much earlier Celtic and Saxon rituals in Europe and the Kama Sutra are only a few examples of this. And yes, in most of such rituals weapons and warrior culture were woven into the rituals of courtship, lovemaking and sexuality. Power eroticizes! It always has. There is no reason to assume it was any different in Japan.

Shibari today

Contemporary “Japanese bondage” pictures usually have an entirely different background which – unfortunately – is pornography. Most originate from 1950-1980 produced Japanese pornographic videos. Their only “raison d’etre” can be found in the fact that the combination of naked women and rope sells. These Japanese movies can be seen as the Japanese answer to the emerging popularity of bondage in the American pornographic industry since the 1930’s (John Willie, Betty Page and others).

The vast majority of Japanese rope artists from this period actually made their money rigging the bondages for these movies and some still do. Some, such as the late Osada Eikichi (a.k.a. “mister flying ropes”) and Denki Akechi, created their own style and performing acts.

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The Art of Mixing Wines – Blend Your Own Wine

In simple terms, blending wine means mixing or combining two or more wines and coming up with something new. It is done for various reasons like

  • To obtain better color
  • To improve or enhance aroma
  • To adjust the sweetness, the pH of the wine or the levels of tannin
  • For the adjustment of the acidity level of alcohol
  • To reduce the oak flavor and get wine flavor

Once the reason for mixing is known, there are few simple rules to be followed. Mainly the aim of blending has to be fixed. Combining can be done for fun or to get a new one which can be reproduced in larger quantities for commercial purposes. Tips to be followed while amalgamating them are simple.

  • Wines of similar type are to be combined. For example, a red wine has to be combined with a red one and a white with white.
  • Do not use bad wine to combine with a good wine to make it tolerable. The resultant would be disappointing and over and above the good wine would go waste.
  • It is advisable to try with very little quantities so that the wastage is minimized. Until the desired result is obtained use wines in little quantities.
  • It is better to blend wines made in the same year, which will allow some shelf life to it.
  • While experimenting on various blends, it is good to keep notes to avoid repeating the combinations which are already tried and tested.
  • One can take help of a friend to judge the resultant.
  • One should take care to blend them in well lit rooms which are free of any other odor.

Combination of wines in fact has a scientific approach too. It is a very simple process which can be learnt easily. It is called Pearson square and by following the instructions one can easily get the desired blend. There is a set method to any kind of blending adjustment that has to be done.

It is better to blend wines before the aging process starts so that the two separate wines which were combined, age together. It is the right mixing which brings delicious taste to it.

As there are various reasons for combining there are also various types too.

Vintage wine blend is a type which is commonly used for champagne. It is made from different grapes grown on the same vintage or year. For a bottle of champagne to have a label of vintage it has to be made from grapes from the same year and vintage. Champagne made from different grapes or years is marked as “N.V” and cost less.

Bordeaux blend; it is the famous French wine where only certain varieties of grapes are to be used. If any other grapes are used the resulting wine can not be called as Bordeaux. As a practice use two to three of the approved varieties to make luscious variety.

Meritage is the kind of wine which is similar to Bordeaux but only wines made in Bordeaux can be called so. There are regulations to label a bottle as Meritage. The wineries should have acquired the approval of the Meritage association to use the name.

Red wine blends are found in vast numbers in the market. Of them, the most famous is the Super Tuscan which came into being in 1970s. Italy has very strict rule for wine making, which were broken by the maker of super Tuscan. They created the new wine from grapes of their own choice.


There are many aspects to wine making and later their mixing. Combining wines becomes easy once the aim for doing so is known. There are certain rules and tips to reach the desired goal. It also has a scientific approach to it which is as easy as additions and subtractions.

Learn More about Blending Wine

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The History of Bonsai in Buddhism

All over the world people have been growing and collecting bonsai trees as a hobby and a form of artwork. These tiny trees have long been cultivated in decorative containers, thus giving them their name; bonsai literally means tree in a pot. While many think of bonsai trees as Japanese, the art of bonsai originated in China as part of a spiritual practice linked first to Taoism, and later to Buddhism.

Bonsai was part of the ancient Chinese art of “penjing,” also know as “pun-sai,” which means the practice of creating a miniature landscape in a container. Chinese artists used plants, rocks, and other natural materials to craft tiny landscapes, often resembling sacred mountains, brooks, and other natural scenes, as well as dragons and serpents, all arranged on trays or in pots.

This practice of creating miniature landscapes and trees can be linked to China’s philosophical tradition of Taoism. Taoism proposed that thinking and living in a natural way and letting go of rigid, conventional beliefs would help one’s mind better tune in to the rhythm of nature. Being one with nature, going with the flow, and understanding how everything in life is interrelated are an integral part of Taoist teachings. The idea of yin and yang provide one example. Taoism also holds that even if something in nature is small, it will contain both power and strength if its age is advanced (and if it is confined to a small space). Bonsai trees become more valuable with age.

Monks from India brought a new influence to the Chinese Taoist tradition that became known as Chan Buddhism. Chan Buddhists began to include seedling trees in their miniature mountain landscapes. While working with natural materials, pruning and clipping the dwarf trees was part of the creative process, and Buddhist monks found themselves absorbed in a form of meditation.

Buddhism then advanced to Korea, and finally it made its way to Japan where it became known as Zen Buddhism. Diplomats traveling to China and Korea brought back Chinese art and culture to Japan, and the making of miniature landscapes, with its ties to Buddhist symbolism, was quickly adopted.

At first, it was only Japanese Buddhist monks and scholars that cultivated bonsai trees and tiny landscapes. The core of the Zen philosophy was refined to represent beauty in austerity, with all but the essentials removed to reveal the true nature of something. Ancient Japanese scrolls reveal that bonsai represented a fusion of traditional beliefs blended with other Eastern philosophies of the harmony between man, the soul, and the natural world.

By the fourteenth century bonsai was revered as an art form in Japan, and it is much represented in poetry and painting. At this point, bonsai trees were displayed indoors by the Japanese aristocracy, and the practice of creating bonsai became less associated with religion. A few centuries later, bonsai trees became commonplace amongst the general Japanese population as they are today.

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Source by Andrew Kozlowski

6 Facts About Oil Paint

1. The earliest known paintings that were done in oils date back to the 7th century BC. These paintings were Buddhist murals that were discovered in caves in Western Afghanistan. Oil paint didn’t become widespread for use in art works until the 15th century, when it became popular throughout Europe. Jan van Eyck, a 15th century Flemish painter, is widely believed to have invented it, though in reality he did not invent it, instead he developed it.

2. Oil paint is credited with revolutionising art. One of its key properties is that it’s very slow to dry. It gave artists a lot more time to work on their paintings and it allowed them to correct any mistakes they might have made. Oil paints allowed for artists’ creativity to flourish more because artists could devote more time to each painting. Many of the most widely praised paintings were done in oils.

3. For a few centuries artists had to store their oil paints in animal bladders. This was because the paint tube wasn’t invented until 1841. It was invented by John Goffe Rand, an American painter. Before the tube was invented, artists would have to mix their paints themselves before painting. They would have to grind the pigment up themselves, then carefully mix in the binder and thinner.

4. The most basic type of oil paint is made up of ground-up pigment, a binder and a thinner, which is usually turpentine. For the binder there are lots of different substances that can be used, including linseed oil, walnut oil and poppy seed oil; each of these gives the paint different effects and has different drying times.

5. There are modern versions of oil paint that can dry a lot more quickly than the standard version. The way that it dries is not by evaporation, but by oxidation, the process where substances gain oxygen. It is generally accepted that the typical painting done in oils will be dry to touch after about two weeks, though it can take six months to a year before the painting’s actually dry enough to be varnished.

6. Oil paint is very durable and tough, so it’s used as a finish and protector. It can be used on wood and metal and in both cases, it can be used internally as well as externally. It’s often applied to wood during building construction and can be found on metallic surfaces on things like planes, bridges and ships.

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Source by Joanne Perkins

Ballistics in Forensics – What Are Rifling Patterns on a Bullet?

When a bullet is fired from a gun, the gun leaves unique markings, or grooves, on the surface of the bullet as it travels through the barrel. These grooves help forensic firearms examiners determine a match between the bullet and gun type and perhaps to the actual gun used in a crime.

What is a Rifling Pattern?

A spinning bullet is a more accurate bullet. Therefore, many guns have spiral grooves carved into the inside of their barrels to make the bullets spin as they leave the gun barrel. The procedure for carving grooves into the barrel of a gun is called rifling. Cutting the grooves leaves high parts, or lands, intact between them. The grooves grab the bullet as it traverses the barrel and cause it to spin and thereby increasing its accuracy of hitting the intended target. Old smoothebore rifles were not accurate beyond 100 feet or more, but present day rifled firearms are highly accurate to several thousands of yards.

Accuracy is not at the top of the list of the Calleigh Duquesnes (a character on CSI: Miami) of forensic firearms examiners. Their interest is how the lands and grooves of the rifling procedure mark the bullet.

When a gun barrel is manufactured, the rifling is etched inside of it. The depth of the grooves, the width of the lands, and the degree and direction of the spiral vary among different types of firearms and different manufacturers. These qualities help forensic examiners identify the type of gun that fired a bullet found at the crime scene and its manufacturer.

As an example, let us say a .32 caliber Smith & Wesson handgun has five lands and grooves with a right hand (clockwise) twist, and .32 caliber Colt has six lands and grooves with a left hand (counterclockwise) twist. Browning firearms also have six grooves, but have a clockwise twist. Marlin rifles utilize a method known as microgrooving. Microgrooving leaves between 8 and 24 narrow grooves within the barrel. Suppose a firearms examiner is given a .32 caliber bullet taken from an autopsy, and he discovers grooves compatible with a bullet having traveled down a barrel with five lands and a clockwise twist, the murder weapon was likely a Smith & Wesson, and forensic investigators can exclude all other handgun types and target .32 caliber Smith & Wesson handguns.

To make the firearms examiner’s job easier, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) keeps a database known as the General Rifling Characteristics file to assist with making their determinations. It delineates the land, grooves, and twist qualities unique to known firearms. Similarly, bullet and shell casings can be matched with bullets and casings taken from other crime scenes that are listed in other databases.

Because smoothbore firearms like shotguns and older model firearms are not rifled, their bullets will not show any evidence of marking caused by lands, grooves, or twists. This makes the forensic firearms examiner’s job a lot harder.

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Source by Fabiola Castillo

Drawing and Painting Tips – The Layout Sketch

A layout sketch is the process of faintly outlining the key elements of an image on to paper (or canvas). The aim should be to get each component the correct size and in the right position before moving forward. However, this first stage is where most amateur artworks go wrong!

In a portrait for example, the layout sketch would merely ensure that the outline of the eyes (nose, mouth, etc) are the precise shape, correct size, accurately aligned and the right distance apart. The layout sketch requires no further detail, but get this wrong, and your artwork will be doomed to failure, no matter how good your painting or drawing technique is.

It is possible with a great deal of practise and care, to complete a layout sketch by eye alone, but is that how professional artists work? No they don’t! Time is money and professional artists use techniques and tools to get precise layout work done quickly.

Here are the most common tools and techniques for working from a photograph.


The simplest tool is use of a pencil as a ruler and protractor. For example, when drawing a face, the pencil can be used to measure the relative size of an eye, the distance between the ear lobe and the corner of an eye, or the angle of the nose. This works best when copying from a large photograph, and reproducing an image at the same size.

The technique is simple: lay the pencil flat on the photograph. Place the point of the pencil where you want to measure from, and grasp the other end of the pencil at the exact point you wish to measure to. Without changing your grip, move the pencil to the paper and make a mark on the paper at the tip and point of your grasp.

Similarly, angles can be duplicated by laying the pencil on the photograph, say a roof line in a landscape, and carefully moving the pencil to the paper while retaining that angle. An easier method is to place you reference photo over your paper, so that the pencil can be rolled from one surface to the other without altering its angle significantly.

A slightly easier method is to use a ruler, and take absolute measurements. If you need to re-scale an image, the use of a ruler is preferable. For example, when scaling up to twice the size, you simply double the measurement (etc). But, this technique has become outdated.

Alternatively, it is possible to buy dividers that achieve the same measuring effect. Some even have a limited re-scaling function.

Most people now have access to a PC with peripherals, so it is easier to scan and re-print a photograph at the same size you want to draw or painting, rather than re-scale as you go.

The use of a pencil (or anything else) as a ruler is best employed for checking minor detail dimensions and angles.

Grid method

Another slightly outdated but effective method of laying-out is the grid. Briefly, you need to draw a grid over the reference image, and a grid on your paper. The layout is achieved by separately copying the contents of each box of the grid. In effect, your layout will comprise lots of tiny drawings that all fit together to make the whole.

Using a grid limits the potential for error, and the smaller your grid boxes, the more accurate your copy will be. If your grid is say 1cm squares, then your layout lines can never be inaccurate by more than 1cm (unless your grid is inaccurate, or you draw something in the wrong square), but the chances are your sketch will be pretty close to millimetre perfect.

You can use grids of different sizes for the reference photograph and the artwork. In this way, re-scaling (if you need to) is easy. For example, to double the size of your drawing, use a 1cm grid on the photo, and a 2cm grid on the drawing paper. However, for the system to work, both parts must have the same number of grid boxes.

Grids take a good deal of effort to use. The other down side is that the reference photograph must be expendable (you need to be able to draw lines all over it), and you need to remove the grid lines on your art paper when you have finished the layout. Grids are good for oil paintings, since they can be painted over.

Tracing Paper

Many professional artists use tracing paper. It is a really accurate way of completing a layout. I recently read an instructional article on the use of tracing paper, published on a major UK artist site. My recommended method of use is very different.

The first thing is to lay the tracing paper over the image to be copied, and mark its position. This is so that you can place the tracing paper over the image time and time again, and always in exactly the same place.

Although tracing paper is very transparent, it can be hard to see detail in darker tones. The best way to use it is with back illumination; do your tracing on against a windowpane (in the day time!), rather than on a desk or table.

Draw carefully around the key elements with a sharp pencil (step 1). Reverse the tracing paper and draw accurately over your pencil lines, to create a mirror image on the backside (step 2). Use a sharp soft pencil for this, and remember that an outline with be transferred to whatever your tracing paper is resting on (so use some scrap paper). Now place the tracing paper right side up on your art paper. Mark its position, so you can put it back in exactly the same place if you need to. Draw over your pencil lines again to transfer the image (step 3). At no point should you scribble. Use the minimum pressure on your pencil marks; the aim is to transfer a light (temporary) pencil mark, not engrave an outline into your art paper.

It takes some time, but you should end up with faint, but very accurate layout lines. Obviously, you cannot re-scale an image using tracing paper. Tracing paper works best on a smooth surface. You may struggle to achieve a transfer on watercolour paper, and toothed pastel papers, so aim to transfer the minimum detail you need for a layout.

When working with darker papers, a white pencil at step 2 gives better results. A white pencil also often gives better results with coloured pastel papers.

Tracedown Paper

Tracedown paper is a form of carbon paper for artists. I have never personally used it, but it works like tracing paper with steps 1 and 3 being performed simultaneously, and step 2 omitted completely. Briefly, you place the transfer down paper on your art paper, the photograph on top, and you draw around the key elements directly on to the photo. The pressure of your pencil makes a faint line on your art paper.

As with tracing paper, re-scaling is impossible, and I imagine the reference photo takes a bit of a battering.


There are a number of specialist projectors that can be purchased. Briefly, this tool projects an image on to art paper, and allows layout lines to be drawn directly on to the paper (or canvas), using the projected image as a guide. They are fast, and designed to accommodate re-scaling, but they are expensive and aimed at professional artists. The projector is a modern take on a system of layout transfer used by the old Masters.

Finally: trying to do everything by eye alone is foolish and unprofessional. Get an accurate layout down using any technique or device available to you.

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Source by John A Burton

Mural Painting

Mural painting, as distinguished from other forms of decorative artwork is a painting applied directly to a wall. It is a concept that been used by humanity from the most ancient times up until the present day.

The earliest known history of this type of decoration was the cave drawings and paintings of the neo-lithic period. In this way early man used mural art to bring nature or fantastic-nature into his living space. In later times the Byzantines, Egyptians and almost all ancient civilizations used murals to describe not only the nature around them but also their interpretation of nature through sacred myths and stories.

A characteristic of this later, more sophisticated mural art was the use of decorative features such as frames, borders and geometrical patterns, which might accompany the theme of the painting and help it sit comfortably in the architecture that it decorated.

In modern times we still see murals being painted, but now often as political propaganda or commercial advertising. The availability of wallpaper and other commercial decorative features has made painting an expensive option but fortunately there still exists a market for purely decorative murals. In popular culture spray can graffiti has created its own heritage of mural art.

Trompe L’Oeil.

The late Greek and Roman period discovered the decorative the use of trompe l’oeil – that is making a flat wall surface seem as if it is 3D architecture, simply by painting it on with light and shade. Impossible architectural fantasies became possible in the hands of an artist. In Pompeii and Herculaneum there are many surviving murals using fantastic trompe l’oeil. The technique really came into it’s own in the Renaissance period. Ceilings became decorated as skies full of clouds and cherubs, walls had balustrades and pillars giving onto fantastic landscapes with battles raging and mythological creatures roaming. In the hands of the great Italian masters churches and palaces were decorated with masterpieces in this style at which we still marvel today.

Mural Techniques.

The techniques of the earliest painters were not necessarily best for the survival of their works. The cave painters most probably drew directly onto the rock with blocks of pigment or charcoal, using no medium to adhere the paint to the surface. Where examples survive, such as Lascaux in France, the limestone ground has become calcinated with natural dampness over time and has spontaneously adhered the pigment to the wall.

It is known that the Ancient Egyptians had Gum Arabic (resin from the Acacia tree – which we still use as the binder for watercolours). They also used egg tempera (pigment bound with the white of an egg). Most importantly where murals are concerned, they understood how to paint ‘fresco’. That is, painting raw pigment into fresh lime plaster before it dries. Most surviving murals of antiquity and the renaissance have used this technique. The great advantage of this technique is that the pigment colour combines with the natural calcination of the plaster as it dries, so it never fades. Subsequently, the technique of fresco was passed down from Greek to Roman and Roman to the Renaissance, so it has left us with a rich legacy of ancient art with which to understand the psychology and wisdom of our ancestors.

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Source by Paul A Raymonde