Albrecht Durer and Johann Mommard: Deception or Flattery?

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If in fact, imitation is the sincerest form of flattery; history does take a very flattering view of an artisan by the name of Johann Mommard. His imitations of Albrecht Durer’s woodcuts from the Small Passion have left history to record these thirty-six copies as nothing more than deception at best.

Very little is recorded in history about the life and work of the Dutch artist. He apparently worked and lived in Brussels.

Aside from this short biography, it is his deceptively precise copies that history remembers and the word flattery is not raised. Therefore, the question needs to be asked if this was Mommard’s intention: to deceive the art world then and now. Since he left Albrecht Durer’s monogram intact, we have to assume that his intention was less than admirable also.

This was not the first time that Albrecht Durer woodcuts have been copied by an artist. The Italian engraver, Marcantonio Raimondi made engraved copies of his woodcuts and by decree from the Venetian Senate, was forced to removed Durer’s AD monogram, even though Durer would receive no financial restitution since the images belonged to all Christianity.

Virgil Solis, a sixteenth century German printmaker, also made copies of Albrecht Durer’s woodcuts but replaced the monogram of Durer with his own VS.

Joseph Meder in the introduction to his catalogue raisonne, Durer-Katalog ein Handbuch Uber Albrecht Durers Stiche, Radierungen, Holzschnitte, Deren Zustande, Ausgaben Und Wasserzeichen, wrote, “No less important to me are the copies of Mommard published after the woodcuts of the Small Passion, with so many individual leaves scattered in collections…with or without intention.

Regardless of Johann Mommard’s intention, the consequences of having these copies distributed commercially as original woodcuts by Albrecht Durer propelled Joseph Meder to devote a great deal of attention in his catalogue raisonne to not only describe the differences between both original and copy, but comparative illustrations as well.

The first edition of Johann Mommard’s copies of the thirty-six Small Passion woodcuts of Albrecht Durer appeared in 1587 (almost 59 years after Durer’s death) and a second edition appeared in 1644 (116 years after Durer’s death).

Again, in Joseph Meder’s own words, “For every collector and every collection there is a danger of confusing the original woodcuts of the Small Passion with the deceptive copies, so even the copies by Johann Mommard have crept into common use.”

Regardless of the intention of Johann Mommard, these after-pieces of Albrecht Durer’s Small Passion woodcuts are the work of a true artisan. However, there is no doubt that this deception borders on plagiarism and any form of flattery is lost because of Johann Mommard’s undefined intention.

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Source by B. Mathew Are

What Is the Definition of Quality for Today’s Organizations?

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I’m sure most of you have an idea about Quality Management (QM). It has proven to be an excellent approach to increase productivity, performance, and profit, along with improved customer and employee satisfaction. This approach has seen successful in various organizations around the world. Companies have being using several quality improvement approaches including ISO 14000, ISO 9000:2000, AS9100, QS 9000, TL 9000, Lean management, Six Sigma, Total Quality Management and several other company-wide quality management systems to improve the quality of products and services.

When I did a quick Keyword research to see how many times “what is Quality” phrase have been searched on the Google, I found that approximately 25,000 to 30,000 times in a month, this phase has been requested. It shows lot of people wanted to know what really quality means is. Several different operational definitions of quality are commonly used in many industries. Quality Management literature says the Scholars mainly Philip Crosby, Edwards Deming, Armand Feigenbaum, Kaoru Ishikawa, Joseph Juran, Robert Pirsig, Walter Shewhart and Genichi Taguchi as the major contributors to QM.

Crosby has defined Quality as conformance to requirements. Both Deming and Ishikawa have defined Quality as customer satisfaction. Feigenbaum has defined Quality as satisfying the needs and expectations of Customers. Juran has defined Quality as fitness for use. Pirsig compared Quality with modern arts and he says we may not be able to define great modern art; but we almost always recognize it when we see it. According to Shewhart quality has two sides. One side is what the customer wants and other side is properties (or features) of a product independent of what the customer wants. Taguchi has bad quality as a loss to society.

If we closely look at the QM definitions from the management Scholars’ perspective, you can see a common phenomenon. Each QM definition begins its quality journey from a different perspective and drives toward the common goal of customer satisfaction. Another common phenomenon is that the time when they defined the definition for QM. These definitions were developed after the Second World War (Mid 1940s) where manufacturing industry dominated the businesses.

Well. Are the definitions still making sense for today’s organizations? The answer is yes. But in a different form. One definition won’t fit into all organizations. For example, if we look at the software development industry, the definition “conformance to requirements” would be a good fit. However, if we look at the Travel industry the definition “satisfying the needs and expectations of Customers” would be more suitable than other definitions. In this way, quality is more specific to the context and that’s why more operational definitions are used in today’s organizations.

OK. Then, how do we define a unique QM definition for an organization? Before discussing that, let us discuss measurement techniques. You might know the two major approaches such as Quantitative & Qualitative measurements which are commonly used to measure a product or a service. In Quantities approach, we use subjective measurements. Let’s say, if you have delivered a product to a customer and the customer found 3 problems within a month of delivery, you can quantify the quality of your product. But in Qualitative approach, we get the customer opinions. For example, in a travel industry, the company might approach the customer and ask “How do you feel about our service”. The customer might say “Oh. Yes. It was fantastic. Thank you! ” Or “I am not fully satisfied with your service. I think you can do better”. In this case, you can’t quantify the quality of your products and services.

Now you can guess how I would define QM for today’s organizations. If an organization can quantify the quality of their products and services, they can use “Quality is conformance to requirements” as a definition for quality. If an organization can’t quantify, they can use “Quality is satisfying the needs and expectations of Customers”. If there is a way to measure a product using both quantitative and qualitative techniques, I would suggest “Quality as conformance to requirements and satisfying the needs and expectations of Customers” when defining quality.

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Source by Dr. Joseline Edward, Ph.D.

Painting With Innate Passion: All Artist’s Are Born, Not Made

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Painting is a form of expression which involves the use of paint brushes to create an image on a canvass. An artist has the option of choosing which paints to use; the most popular though are watercolors and oil paints.

It is impossible for an artist to produce a masterpiece without feeling passionate about his work. It is important that the painter is able to clearly visualize what he wishes to express through his painting, and then be able to bring forth his imaginations with accuracy and vivacity. The ability to express oneself in such a way does not involve skill, but talent. One may argue that art can be learned through practice. However, the truth is that individuals, who do not possess an innate talent of drawing and painting, cannot become exceptional artists no matter how hard they try to learn this medium of expression.

The primary talent of a born artist is the ability to imagine. If one evaluates a number of young children on their imagination skills, it will be quite obvious that while some of them have very vivid and creative imaginations, others lack the originality and the panache that a naturally creative individual has. If one were to reevaluate the children after training the less creative kids to be more imaginative; even after a complete and rigorous training the results will prove that training cannot enable less imaginative kids to compete with those who are gifted.

Being able to visualize creative scenarios is just half the job of an artist. The crucial task is to be able to express what one sees with their mind’s eye on paper. This requires the ability to make the right strokes and use the right colors to create a visually appealing painting. Mixing colors with precision so as to get the right shades is also part of an artist’s skill set. Additionally, an artist needs to be able to keep in mind the aspect of perspective. Perspective is the skill of being able to give the right impression of a three-dimensional object on a two-dimensional surface, such that the height, width, depth, and position are proportionate in relation to each other. These are some of the basic skills of a talented artist, which one may attempt to learn, but will never master unless he has a natural flair and aptitude for painting.

It may seem rather unfair to say that all artists are born, not made. It is not that a person cannot become an artist if he doesn’t have a natural tendency towards art and painting; but the fact is that one cannot produce masterpieces and become a famous painter just by enrolling themselves at an art school. There has to be significant innate talent in order to make a name from painting.

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Source by Shelly Morrison

Makoto – The Samurai’s Watchword

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When I first came to Japan, I was confused by the way some people used the word “sincerity.” They seemed to be using it to mean something very different from what I had always understood the word to mean. To me, a sincere person is one whose words and actions reflect the deepest feelings and beliefs of their better nature–I had certainly never thought of a sincere person as one who would commit violence. But in Japan, I heard the word sincerity being applied to people like the 47 ronin; 47 “masterless samurai” who killed and cut off the head of a shogunal official by the name of Kira as revenge for a perceived insult to their lord.

Their lord had lost his temper, drawn his sword and attacked the man inside the Shogun’s castle in Edo, for which crime he was ordered to commit seppuku. His heirs lost all rights to his ancestral lands, and his samurai retainers suddenly found themselves unemployed. 47 of his former retainers showed their “sincerity” by, two years after the fact, taking lethal revenge on Kira, the man their lord had attacked. For this they are held up as paragons of the spirit of bushido and sincerity.

As my Japanese got better, I came to realize that this odd usage of the word sincerity was a problem of translation. When people told me that the 47 ronin had “sincerity” what they meant was that they had “makoto.” Kenkyusha’s New Japanese-English Dictionary defines makoto this way: “sincerity; a true (single) heart; faithfulness; honesty; fidelity; constancy; devotion.”

But makoto is a difficult word to translate because it carries a lot of baggage. The standard translation, “sincerity” lacks the martial connotations that are part and parcel of “makoto.” For the samurai it had an almost mystical sense, and during World War II, the concept of makoto was put to evil use. It was one of the concepts that spurred both foot soldiers and the kamikaze pilots to hurl themselves into certain death in a misguided demonstration of “Japanese spirit.”

The concept of makoto went out of favor after World War II. For example, a number of revisionist samurai movies were made in the 1960s, the most famous example being Masaki Kobayshi’s 1962 film Harakiri, that took an unromanticized and critical look at bushido and attendant ideas such as makoto because of the way they had been used for control of the individual by the state.

The 1970s, however, saw a revival of nationalism–this time in the form of economic nationalism–and the notion that Japan was somehow a uniquely unique nation with a singular climate, culture and sensibility. Makoto, specifically, saw its rehabilitation due in no small measure to a book written by the British Japanologist and translator Ivan Morris. The Nobility of Failure was written partly in response to the bizarre death of the famous novelist Yukio Mishima–who killed himself by committing seppuku–and dedicated to his memory. Japanese poet Ryusei Hasegawa writes in a review of the book that:

…this book has changed my outlook on life. For years after the war, I have been feeling something fishy and dangerous about the word makoto, sincerity, standing as it did for the ideal of the nation dominating the people. In the name of makoto, it was possible to exact selfless service to the nation for military causes in the past and economic causes now. And yet I realized with embarrassment how deeply attached I have been to the ways of living with makoto. But the weight of makoto is now being reassessed and redefined in my mind. The spirit of makoto can serve as a spring board to live to a ripe old age. I am confident that this concept of makoto can help us to serve not one nation, but all humanity, whether the action itself be effective or not.

I’m not sure what Mr. Hasegawa means by that last sentence, but it’s not an uncommon sentiment among conservatives, especially those who subscribe to theories of Japan’s inherent uniqueness and superiority. Fujiwara Masahiko writes in the introduction to his 2005 bestseller, The Dignity of the Nation, which makes the claim that the Japanese have a sacred mission to save the world by teaching all of mankind the tenets of bushido, that, “We must again be ‘Japan the proud, Japan the different.’ By serving as a model for the rest of the world, Japan can, I believe, make a contribution to the whole human race.”

Professor Saito Kazuaki gives an interesting definition of makoto in a 1987 essay, Heroes and Hero-Worship–Ivan Morris’ Views on the Japanese Fascination with Failure (which has the kanji for makoto written in calligraphy on its title page):

All those heroes, together with the kamikaze fighters treated in the final chapter of Morris’ book, who, incidentally, no longer have to be labeled as ‘crazy’ or ‘mentally disordered’ thanks to Morris, have in common the spirit of makoto, which lends poignancy to their lives of failure. It is the cardinal quality of the Japanese hero, denoting purity of mind and motive, and a rejection of self-serving objectives. It despises pragmatic ways of thinking and doing. It is moral fastidiousness. The rational, not subjective, righteousness of a cause itself is unimportant. What counts most is the honesty with which the hero espouses it…The Japanese respect for makoto tends to assume the presence of readiness for accepting joyfully the final catastrophe in the mind of a Napoleon or any other hero. Makoto is an ethical, religious concept

A historical figure who lived this ideal is Saigo Takamori, the real “last samurai” and one of Japan’s most beloved heroes. He died in a quixotic fight against the recently established, modernizing Meiji government–the very government which he had been instrumental in establishing just ten years earlier. He was fighting to preserve the samurai as a class, but was vanquished by a modern conscript army of peasant soldiers. In their final confrontation, he refused to surrender even though he was outnumbered 60 to 1. He died, along with every last one of his men, in the hail of gunfire that met his final suicidal charge.

But nobody in Japanese history is as closely associated with “makoto” as are the Shinsengumi. The Shinsengumi were a group of samurai swordsmen whose job it was to patrol the streets of Kyoto and to find and kill the many anti-shogunal ronin who advocated returning the Emperor to a position of real power at the expense of the Shogun, during the last turbulent years of the shogunate–from 1863 to 1868. They followed a very strict interpretation of bushido and were merciless when facing an enemy. Both their banner and their uniform were emblazoned with the kanji character for makoto.

“Makoto” can actually be written with three different kanji, or ideograms. The kanji that the Shinsengumi used is made up of two parts that are each full-fledged ideograms in their own right. On its own, the left side of the character means “speak,” and the right side means “become.” So visually, this kanji connotes the opposite of “empty words;” it is an excellent pictograph of “sincerity.” As many imperial loyalist ronin learned in their final moments, the Shinsengumi were deadly sincere about their mission.

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Source by Eric Hilton

Pencil Drawing As A Pastime

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We all need to be able to give our minds a rest sometimes. This is not as easy as it sounds. However, I have the answer for you. Your mind can be put at rest and refreshed, not only by resting, but by using other parts of the mind. It’s not enough to switch off the lights that are on the main part of your mind, a new part must be lit.

It’s no use saying you will lie down and think of nothing. The mind keeps busy just the same. It is only when new cells are stimulated that you will find relief. Choose your pastime wisely and just choose one. Concentrate upon that one.

Drawing is a companion to be enjoyed. Drawing is a friend who makes no undue demands, it can excite you and it keeps pace even when you take little steps. Artists are happy people. Light, color and peace keep them company to the end of the day. To find yourself a new and intense form of interest, is an enriching experience.

I don’t pretend to explain how to draw, but only how to get enjoyment. Even after the age of forty. It would be a shame if you waste your life, wondering what to do, when all the time, there is a new world of art waiting for you. If you start this pastime later in your life, don’t expect too much from yourself. You probably won’t create a masterpiece. You won’t have the advantage of years of training. Don’t give up though, some artists have become famous later in their lives. You could be one of them!

The only thing you really need, is to be bold and adventurous. Don’t let a piece of clean white paper deter you. Experiment. Break the spell of staring at that piece of blank paper. Just remember, you can erase it all away. Drawing is great fun. Try it. It can take a tired mind and turn it into a very productive mind. Pencil drawing completely absorbs the mind. I can’t think of anything outside of the world of art that would compare with it.

To cultivate a new interest is of great importance to any person. We all need escape from the pressures of day to day living. It is an amazing thing to see a group of artists copying the same picture and to see all the different interpretations each artist makes of that picture. You are unique and you can bring your own creativity to the world.

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Source by Kerry Godsall

Koi Fish Sleeve Tattoos – Hot Japanese Sleeve Tattoo Designs For Men and Women

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Koi fish tattoos of course are very popular Japanese tattoo design. These beautiful fish have a deeply symbolic meaning and they are one of the most popular tattoo designs. They have a long history in the tattoo world of Japan and are now becoming very popular in Western tattooing also. One of the best locations to get such a cool tattoo is a koi fish sleeve tattoo.

Size And Location

One of the reasons that koi fish are such a popular tattoo design for a sleeve tattoo is the long rectangular shape that fish naturally have and thus works into the canvas of an arm perfectly. Also since the design is going on the arm it is very easy to depict the fish flopping and curving its body in the water and it looks very natural. Thus the size and shape of the koi is perfect for a sleeve tattoo.

The first thing that you have to consider though is the size of sleeve that you want. Are you going for a quarter sleeve tattoo, half sleeve, or full sleeve design? Thus will make a big difference in the size and placement of the koi fish and it is important to talk about this with your tattoo artist.

Historical Symbolism

Aside from being the perfect shape to fit on the arm koi fish are popular for the deep history and symbolism behind them. They are a very traditional symbol in Japanese culture. In fact you can hardly find a temple that does not have a koi pond somewhere on the temple premises and thus shows the important and deeply spiritual and symbolic nature the koi fish holds for the Japanese. They have integrated their love of the koi into tattoos a long time ago. The myth goes that koi fish will swim upstream fighting their way against the current. This shows their strength and power and the koi fish that can make it all the way to the top will pass through the Dragon Gate and become dragons. So it is traditionally a religious symbol for struggling up stream, going against the current of life to achieve spirituality. However, this symbolism holds true in a more secular and non religious way also. It is a symbol for power, and strength.

Modern Symbolism

The symbolism from the ancient past has been adapted to life of today and essentially is the same but the koi has taken on a few new symbolic meanings also. The story of its struggling against the current has meant to those of us that are less religious to symbolize the struggle to get through life and be different and individual. The koi in this sense is going against the status quo or current trends. This was not the original Japanese meaning since they are a very collective culture but as the tattoo has become very popular in the west some of the symbolism has been adapted and changed. It is also a symbol for protection here in the west.

Things To Consider

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Source by Chris Ryerson

How to Prepare Your Palette for Oil Painting

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In oil painting palette has two meanings. The first refers to the surface on which your paint is mixed; the second meaning is the array of colors employed for painting.

Most artists prefer a wood palette. Some use a thick piece of glass placed atop a sheet of gray paper. But a glass palette is restricted to studio use and working from a taboret, which is a small table that holds the bulk of your painting gear.

My preference is for the wood palette. Wood palettes come in a variety of shapes and sizes; the most popular is the oval shape that is designed to fit in the crook of your elbow and is gripped with your thumb through the hole in the palette. The wood palette can be either a small, dinner-plate size or a large platter. As a teacher I recommend that beginners use the smaller size palette.

Before the palette can be used for painting it needs to be prepared with a sealant. Unsealed palettes will leach the delicate oils from your paint and rob them of their lustre.

There are three different methods for preparing a palette for painting. One can lightly apply a few coats of shellac letting each coat dry thoroughly before the next. Some artists who have invested in an expensive, counter-weighted palette will painstakingly seal it with a French polish giving it the look of a fine antique. There is, however, a serious drawback to these two preparations: the warm, umber hues of varnish make it difficult to accurately gauge color mixing.

The better method is this: invest in a litre of linseed oil. It needn’t be artist grade. Raw linseed oil that is available in hardware stores suffices well.

Pour a couple of tablespoons of linseed oil onto your palette and with a clean cloth rag evenly spread the oil over your palette. Let the oil sink in for about an hour then repeat six to eight times. To keep your palette from warping it is not a bad idea to work both sides evenly.

The goal is to saturate the wood with oil. Once fully saturated set your palette aside and allow it to air dry for several days. Even after a week, however, your palette will still feel oily. This is a good sign. It means your palette is ready to begin its journey.

Even though your palette is now fully laden with oil it will still leach the delicate emollients from your paint. But only for a little while.

At the conclusion of every painting day you should clean your palette. NEVER, EVER use turpentine to mop up your paints. Turpentine is a solvent and it will strip your palette like a thief run amok in a foreclosed housing development.

Instead scrape your paint off with a painting knife and rub the remainder into your palette with a cloth. In a short time a soft, wax-like surface will develop that will literally love your oil paint. This waxy surface also acquires a neutral gray color that enables you to accurately mix and gauge your color’s hue, tone and temperature.

Your painting palette is an indispensable tool and like your brushes should be well taken care of.

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Source by Michael R Britton

Fibromyalgia Chronic Fatigue Syndrome – A 25 Year Battle Before Moringa

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It started with a bad case of the flu. Throughout the rest of that year I visited the clinic because of sleep marathons and strange body aches and each time I was told I had the flu. People just don’t get the flu 5 times in one year. That was in 1986. When I started needing a nap every day I thought it was allergies, the doctor laughed and told me I was a bored housewife. Other symptoms cropped up, a spastic colon and inflamed bowel. Diagnostic tests of upper and lower GI’s failed to find any underlying medical issues.

In 1991, I had a strange feeling in my hands. Within 4 days every joint in my body had stiffened and swelled, I was diagnosed with Rheumatoid Arthritis. Essentially I was disabled for the next two weeks, unable to stand without support, unable to open my hands, and too exhausted to think. It took about 6 months to return to a regular level of health. Muscle and joint pain continued to be a frequent problem. When the RH factor did not show in a blood test I was diagnosed with disrupted sleep patterns and treated with Ambien.

Between 1997 and 1998 I lost two jobs because of problems with memory, and the inability to properly react in a situation involving clients. In 1999, I was physically exhausted and in pain, for a time I had to forgo cooking at the stove because I would get distracted and walk away letting pots boil dry. It was when a pan of oil caught fire that I decided to stick to the microwave for a time. One day I even walked out of a store to find that I had left my keys in the car with the motor running. Another visit to a doctor finally gave me a diagnosis of Fibromyalgia Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.

Of course a diagnoses doesn’t end the problem, it merely gives you the information to help you cope. Once I knew what the problem was I was able to get more information and find ways to better live with the disease. As I became more educated I was able to keep better control of my symptoms. Regular exercise in the form of dancing and walking kept my body in fairly good conditioning. A good diet avoiding fried foods and excess sweets made a big difference. I noticed the increased pain if I indulged is some foods like chocolate ice cream. Keeping hydrated and avoiding stressful situations is also key in controlling the symptoms. However, we can’t always stay in control of our lives. Stress happens and Fibromyalgia Chronic Fatigue` Syndrome can often go into a downward spiral; I was fighting that downward spiral when I found Moringa.

I received an e-mail from a friend telling me to look up Moringa, and the Miracle Tree on line. There was a wealth of information about the amazing tree, its nutritional benefits, and the promising research into its medicinal properties. This plant is said to have properties that inhibit the growth of cancer cells, provide unsurpassed nutrition, are high in antioxidants, speed healing, and can have positive effects on over 300 medical conditions. When my friend stopped by a few days later she brought me a packet of promotional information, and told me about another friend of hers who also suffers from fibromyalgia. The woman had been using the products developed from the Moringa plant and within a month had been able to stop using her cane for the first time in 10 years. In addition to getting relief from the fibromyalgia symptoms, she lost weight, and saw improvement in her glucose levels from diabetes. After hearing that astonishing news and impressed by what I had read on line I decided to go ahead and try the product myself. I don’t believe I have ever made a better decision. Within a week I saw and felt improvement in my concentration, memory, and skin. I was able to sit down and read a book for the first time in a year. My hands which were chapped from the dry winter weather were now well hydrated and healing.

I have continue to take Moringa over the last 4 months and seen an improvement in my moods, my energy levels, my hair, and complexion. I am not cured, I never will be; however the downward spiral of poor health was halted and I am now working my way back to a higher level of well-being with the help of this remarkable product. I plan on continuing the Moringa Daily Nutrients and I am sure my symptoms will continue to lessen as time goes by, hopefully to complete remission.

If you suffer from Fibromyalgia or Chronic Fatigue Syndrome I suggest that you try the practices that gave me relief.

· Healthy diet

· Avoid fried foods and frequent sweets

· Active lifestyle

· A Regular schedule with consistent bed and waking times

· Keep well hydrated

· Avoid Stress

· Try Moringa

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Source by Susan L Morris

How Long to Wait Before Applying Decals on Newly Painted Walls – Can Wall Decals Be Re-Applied?

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Question: I just painted my walls. How long should I wait before applying my new decals?

Answer: First, it will depend on what type of paint you used. Latex paint takes up to 30 days to cure, although we’ve put wall decals on walls that have been painted less than a week. However, in our professional opinion, it would be better to wait 30 days.

If, on the other hand, you are using an oil-based paint (not common in most areas nowadays), you can apply vinyl graphics or decals or stickers within a week or so, as oil paints dry from the outside in.

When making signs using vinyl letters and logos, we always use oil-based paints as they last longer. But if you’re applying wall stickers to a wall in your home or business, it is unlikely in the modern era that you’ll be using oil-based paints.

So, while you may get away with installing vinyl wall stickers on your latex painted wall a week after it has been painted (yeah, we know it’s hard to wait!), it would be more ideal to wait a full 30 days.

Question: Can I reuse Wall Decals after I take them off the wall?

Answer: Wall Decals may not be reusable IF the vinyls used are very thin.

Using thin vinyl doesn’t mean that they are low quality, though. Do note that we don’t sell this brand of decal, but we’ll vouch for them that the thinner the vinyl, the better the quality is. Likely they are using “cast” vinyl, which doesn’t shrink like “calendared” vinyl will.

Most of the time if you remove a wall decal, you will stretch the material, thus decreasing the adhesion of the stretched material. If you put it on a textured wall, often it will lift paint flecks and plaster when you remove the sticker, also decreasing the adhesiveness of the vinyl.

On a general note, vinyl decals are rarely re-useable. If you get a removable decal or a static cling decal, these can be removed and re-used to some degree, although adhesion will tend to decline after the first usage.

Static cling decals particularly loose elasticity over time, and the thinner the static cling material, the sooner it will lose the ability to be re-applied. Static cling materials use plasticizers to maintain a soft and supple surface that will adhere to glass, acrylic, or very smooth painted surfaces. Over time, static cling material loses this suppleness and hence its re-usability as well.

On the other hand, repositionable decal adhesives are also available. The degree of removability varies from 6 months to 3 years. Some decal materials are employed only for interior use, and some for both. Obviously, any decal that can be used out-of-doors can also be used indoors.

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Source by Barry K. Brown

Naked Yoga for Autofellatio and Autocunnilingus – Joining Ancient Practices With Modern Science

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Naked Yoga is a form of erotic Yoga that originally implied that the participants would perform Yoga sans clothing. This type of Yoga was presented in a “class” structure, not unlike other forms of the art, where numerous people would perform their positions in the nude.

This artistic endeavor became most noticeable in the 1960s with the “flower power” movement; at this time, too, an interest in “naturism,” or nudist camps, also became increasing popular in the Western world.

This was the second time that Yogic practices became popular in the West. The first time was in the 1920s and 1930s and was of major interest and exploration to the occultists. Not so much for the exercise/stretching forms of the art, but more for occult-power enhancement and enlightenment through meditation. To this day, one of the best books on the subject is from Aleister Crowley entitled, Eight Lectures on Yoga, from 1939. It is an especially interesting book for the beginner, as it simplifies many of the concepts and procedures. For example, this is the only example I have seen, in book form, that acknowledges that people can use a chair for meditation. This approach is clearly helpful for men and women who have spinal problems which would shy them away from typical Yogic postures due to pain. Many of Crowley’s other manuscripts deal with other forms of this art form, too.

Now the third resurgence of these ancient practices has, once again, crept into the West. Places to practice Yoga seem to be popping up all over the place these days. Everything from Power-Yoga to Naked-Yoga to just about anything that strikes your interest. The “naked” form seems to have become more popular than ever before, with people all over the Western world taking part in these gatherings of self-expressive nudity, exercise, and relaxation.

This leads us to autofellatio and autocunnilingus, as they are inevitable extensions of Yogic practice. It’s doubtful that any Yogi has failed to ponder the possibility of self-sex through oral stimulation of his own penis (auto-fellatio) or oral stimulation of her own vulva (auto-cunnilingus). Nor have people who have witnessed these extensive, seemingly near-impossible, and highly exotic body positions, failed to wonder if these forms of auto-sexuality could, indeed, be performed.

The answer to the curious on-looker, is that these forms of stretches can certainly help men and women perform these intimate sexual acts. Not only that, but other technical applications, using modern-day physical therapeutics and understanding proper stretching techniques and procedures, can help people more than ever before accomplish these wondrous abilities. Thanks to modern science and ancient practices, people now have the opportunity to explore this form of self-gratification much easier than the generations before them.

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Source by Kimi Kalfino