Cityscapes in Modern Art

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For many modern artists, one of the most potent symbols of man’s dislocation and separation from nature is the cityscape. For others, the cityscape symbolizes man’s new freedom from the drudgery of agriculture. By the 1930s and 1940s, images of the cityscape had begun to replace landscape art. Additionally, the view from the airplane, or from the Eiffel Tower, or from any of the growing number of skyscrapers around the world, had revealed a flat, patterned cityscape where recession, depth and naturalistic perspective had once reigned supreme.

The slums and wretched conditions were a part of virtually every cityscape and had inspired a new generation of architects to search for ways of building and a means of town planning which they believed would bring about positive social change. The machine was here to stay, and eventually individual artists as well as the influential and socially committed Bauhaus art school proclaimed their positive attitudes towards man’s new cityscape environment filled with both vehicles and machines.

Technology had also created new materials for the architect of the cityscape including steel, concrete and sheet glass, which would result in drastically different designs for public buildings and private homes and grant the much sought-after freedom from the past. Perhaps the anti-individualistic aspects of machine-produced objects could prove to be beneficial rather than harmful. After all, the collective individualism of national pride had resulted in a catastrophic war. A universal, supranational and anti-individualistic style for the new cityscape might help to unite man in a utopian brotherhood.

The materials of the modern age and the new cityscape style went hand-in-hand. Steel frames provided a modular grid which gave an almost unlimited verticality to the new architecture. Reinforced concrete allowed for expressive forms, and sheet glass permitted the creation of pure reflecting prisms described around the world in mystical terms.

The lack of ornamentation in prefabricated designs played a major role in the formation of an art which attempted to become a vehicle for universal values. This lack of ornamentation was further proclaimed as essential for the establishing of the newly spiritualized world order. Adolf Loos (1870-1933), ornamentation’s most virulent critic, insisted that this stylistic change alone would remake society.

According to Loos’ theory, the labor formerly wasted on ornamentation would be unnecessary. Less work would result in higher wages and a shorter workday. Class lines would ultimately be abolished. The simplified designs suitable for mass-production would return the machine to it’s rightful place as man’s servant. The cities of the world would be clean and orderly, with cityscapes built of rectangles and squares.

The aesthetic of mechanical simplicity and right angles in architecture had a direct counterpart in the sphere of painting. Piet Mondrian, a native of Holland, began his mature work with a variation of Cubism which was based on images in nature: the sea, sand dunes, the sky, and trees.

Mondrian’s desire to contribute to the spiritualizing of civilization grew in part from his Theosophical leanings. Like the architects of the International Style, he, too, sought the centrality and essence of an art stripped of peripherals. Beauty was not heavy and monumental like the ponderous public buildings and over-worked paintings of the past, but practical, light and ephemeral.

Mondrian’s striving for spiritual clarification in his work led him to a grammar of shape based strictly on horizontals and verticals. By this means, he achieved a remarkable degree of energy and vibrancy in his art. Mondrian was not threatened by the advent of the machine. The machine had not completely dehumanized man as other artists had prophesied so emphatically. Furthermore, the cities created by industrialization, especially Mondrian’s beloved New York, were not dysfunctional but dynamic and liberating.

Mondrian was part of an idealistic group of artists in the Netherlands known as De Stijl or “the style.” De Stijl’s creed was a combination of total abstraction, a minimum of creative terms, and restriction to the primary colors of red, yellow and blue and the non-colors of black, gray and white. Mondrian’s missionary zeal for a higher level of harmony in art had taken him beyond the bounds of Cubism.

One of Mondrian’s last paintings, “Broadway Boogie Woogie” (1942-3), a large oil on canvas, exemplifies many aspects of his masterful technique. Only the title reveals the reference to the external reality of the cityscape. Mondrian’s interpretation of the New York street grid is joyful and colorful. In Mondrian’s work, the loose spontaneity of other modern artists has been rarefied and ordered.

Man no longer looks at technology as an omnipotent, mystical savior. On the other hand, the dark phantom of man disfigured by his association with the machine has also vanished with the light of the new era.

Man has achieved balance and creativity on a higher level. He is no longer dependent on either the natural world or the manufactured one. Mondrian’s vision is one of abstraction resulting in the revelation of a type of universal electricity which supersedes both organic and mechanical energy.

Mondrian’s grid fills the canvas, but also contains large amounts of space and air. Perhaps the disciplined rhythm of the machine, modern life and the cityscape holds within itself an even greater freedom than the prior vicissitudinous cycles of agrarian living.

The rhythm of Mondrian’s image is accelerated and syncopated, but doomsday fears of life driven out of control by the frenzied pace of the machine and man numbed by repetition, monotony, and noise have not been realized. Man has has adapted to the technological environment and is alive and thriving after all.

Mondrian’s composition is balanced with almost mathematical precision. The space has now been completely flattened. Yet somehow Mondrian’s rectangles and squares flash continuously with a voltage born of almost gymnastic geometry.

Are the squares in Broadway Boogie Woogie intended as symbols of cars or buildings or sidewalks or traffic lights or flashing neon signs? No matter, man has mastered all of the various aspects of his new, technological life. Like a child confidant in a now familiar environment and his own well-developed skills, man can build the future he envisions with the colorful building blocks of his mind and imagination.

Mondrian has reduced life and art to the bare essentials. Variations on a single shape are combined with only three colors and white. He has omitted even the black and gray of other De Stijl artists. Mondrian’s ability to triumph artistically in spite of these restrictions sends a clear and reassuring message of hope.

Although technology has impacted culture irrefutably, the creativity and genius of man has been able to flower even within the narrowest of confines. Technology and subsequent rise of the city has neither destroyed man nor been his savior, but has instead acted as an impetus for the refinement of his ideas about life and his own nature.

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10 Shocking Rape Scenes in Shunga

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In the Shunga prints that were produced during the 17th and 18th Century the emphasis of the images was on the expression of excitement, lust and love showing sex on a voluntary basis by both partners. However, at the end of the 18th Century erotic images slowly changed sometimes depicting involuntary sex, in most cases showing ugly hairy men forcing themselves on innocent young girls. The following ten rape designs (a link to the pictures of these designs can be found at the end of the article!) Are striking examples of this specific theme:

Koryusai – Falconer

This chuban design by the great pioneer Isoda Koryusai (act. 1770-1780s) from his celebrated 'Prosperous Flowers of the Elegant Twelve Seasons' published in 1772-1773 was one of first Japanese woodblock prints depicting rape. The image is associated with the eighth month and shows a falconer forcing down a young girl to the ground in the middle of grass and Japanese clover. Koryusai used a somber and lurid tonality in his use of colors which, together with the wild clawing clover perfectly symbolizes the girl's entrapment.

Hokusai – Retard

Katsushika Hokusai (1760-1849) offers a rape scene in the large oban format of near-comedy in his masterful series 'Fukujuso' (aka. 'Lovemaking at New Year's' and 'The Adonis Plant') published ca. 1822–1823. Depicted is a clownish and obviously retarded bath-house attendant assaulting a maiden who he has long lusted for. He's holding a coin in his ear, as was the custom of footmen who didn't possess a purse. A similar scene can be found in Hokusai's 'Kino-e no komatsu' (Pining for Love) which is somehow less comic.

Kunisada – Binded Woman

A horrifying scene from Utagawa Kunisada's (1786-1865) 'Spring, Summer, Autumn and Winter, Prospects for the Four Seasons' -series (late 1820s) with the female victim being crucified and pinioned to a wooden stick with her arms tied behind her back. What enhances the drama is besides the location, somewhere deep in a forest, the fact that her tormentor has deliberately planned his violent crime leaving no ways to escape.

Kunisada – Fox Fires

In another rape design by Kunisada portrays three untractable palanquin bearers holding Ocho, a daughter of the owner of the Karakotoya brothel, to the ground. The restful setting is the surroundings of the Kurosuke Inari Shrine. The 'fox-lights' (fox-fires) indicate the presence of the fox spirits. This book illustration is from Kunisada's 'Shunshoku hatusne no ume' (The Erotic Adventures of Six Women) from 1842.

Shigenobu – Gang Rape

Yanagawa Shigenobu's (1789-1833) oban design from 'Yanagi no arashi' (Wind in the Willows) involves four palanquin bearers struggling to hold down a frantic woman. One of the men (second from the left) sports some detailed tattoos on both arms (in this picture almost invisible). The woman is kicking and resisting strongly, but one has the sense that she might be the one in control here.

Kuniyoshi – Candle

In this famous rape scene by Utagawa Kuniyoshi (1797-1861) from the book 'Byokei ri goyoshi ga' (c.1830), three men in a darkened room have overpowered a woman. The leading man, who is wearing spectacles, is penetrating his victim while holding a candle. It is whispered among shunga devotees that this man is actually Kuniyoshi himself.

Hokusai – Palanquin Bearers

From the shungabook series 'Manpuku Wagojin' (Gods of Intercourse) which Hokusai designed in 1821 this rape scene depicts two palanquin bearers (again!) Ready to rape a courtisan (prostitute). The man holding her from behind has a violent grip around her neck while at the same time licking her cheek.

Utamaro – Attempted Rape

In 1788 one of Utamaro's (1754-1806) most impressive early masterpieces 'Utamakura' (Poem of the Pillow) appeared in a series consisting of 12 horizontal album prints. The concerning misogynistic design of this set is one of the most dramatic scenes with a plebeian maiden being assaulted by a middle-aged workman while fighting with all her might. The two protagonists are set to a dark-gray background which heightens the dramatic effect.

Eiri – Lackey

Chokyosai Eiri's (act. 1789-1801) 'Fumi no kiyogaki' (Models of Calligraphy) , dated 1801, is considered to be one of the boldest sets of oban-size shunga known. It contains thirteen instead of the usual twelve designs and is almost completely inspired by Utamaro's 'Utamakura'. Also this print (see Utamaro – Attempted Rape), which is, compared to Utamaro's classic, a more comic interpretation of a middle-aged lackey attempting to forcibly seduce a servant girl of the same residence.

Hokusai – Post-rape Scene

The 'Gods of Intercourse' -series is concentrated on the tales of the two courtisans Osane and Otsubi who are from various social backgrounds. In this case, Osane, the daughter of a rich merchant, is depicted after a group rape. She's alone, laying against a tree and it seems like she's strangely satisfied by this brutal experience which is emphasized by the number of handkerchiefs around her. The tousled hair indicates her depraved nature and is a sign that she will come to a sorry end. It remains one of the most intriguing rape scenes in the history of Ukiyo-e shunga.

The above list doesn't include Hokusai's famous 'Dream of the Fisherman's Wife' -design and Utamaro's Kappa rape design from his Poem of the Pillow -series (both are described in my other article "10 Evocative Erotic Shunga Woodblock Prints"!) Because these scenes depict fantasies of the female protagonists involved and are not on an involuntary basis.

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Her Most Famous Sculpture (Maman) – Louise Bourgeois

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French born-American artist and sculptor Louise Bourgeois (born 1911) has been a well-respected name in the art world for over seven decades. She is often counted among the greatest female artists of all times. One of Louise's most powerful creations is the massive sculpture "Maman," which since the last dozen years is amongst the world's largest and most impressive sculpture. Bourgeois created "Maman" as a part of her inaugural commission of The Unilever Series in 1999 for Tate Modern Museum's vast Turbine Hall. Acquiring this magnificent sculpture is considered as one of the Tate Museum's historical moments. "Maman" was first displayed outside the Tate Museum of London in 2000. It was received with the mixed reactions of amazement and amusement.

The sculpture "Maman" is a 9 meter (30 feet) tall female spider made of stainless steel. It is black in color and has a sac under its belly in which she carries 26 pure white marble eggs. Long thin legs support the small body of the spider. The sculpture radiates elegance in entirety. While building the sculpture, Bourgeois paid careful attention to details, such as the placement and the finishing of the legs of the spider, in order to achieve a well-balanced structure.

A work of 'Symbolism' centered on the complications of relationships, the giant arachnid though looks threatening; the eggs she holds in her belly however, give her a sense of vulnerability. The way she seems to cling to her eggs demonstrates her protective maternal instincts. The overbearing size of the spider is intimidating, yet intriguing. Bourgeois gave "Maman" a playful and mystical character. It exudes an emotional power over the sub-conscious. To some it may appear like a magical creature, who accidentally stepped out of some fairy tale, while others find its presence haunting like an old abandoned memory of pain or fear.

Louise created "Maman" in the memory of her mother. Bourgeois' mother was a weaver and ran a business of tapestry restoration. Bourgeois felt the egg-carrying spider was an apt metaphorical symbol for her mother as it displayed a character of strength and nurture. She believed like her mother that the spiders are friendly creatures and are protective, as they eat disease-causing insects. Several bronze casts of the fantastical "Maman" grace various museums, such as Guggenheim Museum (Bilbao, Spain), Samsung Museum of art (Seoul, Korea), Mori art Center (Tokyo, Japan), Jardin des Tuileries (Paris, France) , and the National Gallery of Canada (Ottawa, Canada). The next bronze cast of the "Maman" will be placed in Des Moines, Iowa in August 2009.

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Exterior House Painting Can Be Hard Work

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When it comes to painting the exterior of a house, many people are not up to the task and do not possess the appropriate skill and experience to accomplish the job in a satisfactory manner. It takes hard work and dedication to finish the project in a timely fashion leaving a good finished product. It may even be a good idea to hire a professional to accomplish this task for you so that you an rest easy that your house is in good, capable hands.

The first thing one should remember when taking on an exterior house painting job is that it is tough work. One's hand and wrist may begin to cramp and the work itself can be exhausting and seem never-ending. A tiring effort may not be enough in the end to leave a job well-done. In fact, it can be frustrating for the amateur homeowner trying to paint their house all by themselves. Do-overs and redoes can be frustrating and cause a great deal of stress to the homeowner as they try their best and fail. This is why hiring a professional when tackling an exterior house painting project is a good idea.

Not only can the homeowner rest easy knowing that their home is in capable and skilled hands, but they should be happy that they do not have to deal with the complicated task themselves. Exterior house painting can be a huge headache for anybody trying to take on the project themselves. Finding a trustworthy individual to perform the project for you should not be thought of as a copout, but as a wise decision that benefits your home.

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A Glossary of Archery Terms A to Z

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Armguard: A leather pad worn on the inside of the forearm of the bow hand to protect the arm from the slap of the bow string.

Arrow Plate: An inlay just above the handle on the side of the bow where the arrow passes as it leaves the bow.

Ascharm 'A cabinet in which Bows, arrows, and archery tackle are stored.

Back: The surface of the bow farthest from the archer when the bow is held in the shooting position.

Backing: Various materials including: fiber glass, cellulose products, raw hide, etc. glued to the back of the bow to improve its cast.

Backed Boiv: A bow to which a backing has been glued.

Barb: A projection on a hunting head which prevents its easy withdrawal.

Barreled Arrow: An arrow whose shaft is tapered from the middle toward each end and having its greatest cross-sectional area in the middle of the shaft.

Boss or Bast: The twisted and coiled straw back of a target to which the face is attached.

Bow Stave: A billet of wood from which a bow is to be manufactured.

Bowyer: A maker of bows.

Brace: To string the bow.

Belly: The belly of the bow is the side that you see when you hold the bow in shooting position.

Bend: The act of bracing or placing the string in the bow nocks.

Bobtailed Arrow: An arrow that has its greatest cross section at the pyle and tapers toward the nock.

Bodkin: A three bladed broadhead arrow.

Broadhead: A flat triangular shaped hunting head made of steel.

Butt: A backstop to which faces are attached, such as bales of straw.

Carriage Bow: A bow that has its two limbs joined under the handle in a ferrule. It can be disjointed to permit easy transportation. (Takedown).

Cast: The inherent ability of a bow to propel an arrow.

Chested Arrow: An arrow that has its greatest cross-section toward the nock and tapers from this point toward both the nock and pyle.

Chrysal: A compression failure ie, a fracture of the fibers usually appearing as a line across the belly of the bow.

Clout Target: The standard four foot target enlarged twelve times and laid out in a horizontal position on the ground.

Cock Feather: The feather on the arrow which is at right angles to the nock. Usually the odd colored feather.

Crest: Colored bands of varying width and spacing, painted on the arrow for identification purposes.

Crossbow: A short bow set crosswise on a stock, drawn by mechanical means, and discharging a dart by trigger release.

Cross Wind: A wind blowing across the target.

Curl: A swirl in the grain of a bow stave.

Down Wind: A wind blowing toward the target.

Draw: The act of pulling the bow string the full length of the arrow.

Drawing Fingers: The first three fingers of the hand used in pulling the string.

Drawing Weight: The force in pounds required to bring a bow to full draw.

Drift: The sidewise movement of the arrow as it travels toward the target due to a cross wind.

End: A unit number of arrows used in scoring. In target com¬petition six arrows constitute an end.

Eye- 'The loop or loops in a bow string.

Field Captain: The official in charge of a tournament.

Finger Tips: Leather finger stalls used to protect the tips of the three shooting fingers.

Fistmele: The distance from the base of the clenched hand to the tip of the extended thumb. Used as a measure of the proper distance from the handle to the string when a flat
bow is braced or strung.

Fletch: Placing the feathers on an arrow.

Fletcher: A manufacturer of arrows. Arrow maker.

Fletching: The feathers which guide the arrow in flight.

Flight Arrow: A long, light arrow with very small fletching or vanes. Used in distance shooting.

Flirt: A jerky or jumping movement of an arrow from its theoretical flight line.

Follow the String: A bow that has taken a permanent set in the drawing direction.

Floo Floo: An arrow used in wing shooting. It is generally fletched with a complete spiral. The size of the fletching is such that the flight distance is short.

Footing: A hardwood splice at the pyle end of a wooden shafted arrow.

Gold: The bulls-eye in the regulation four foot circular target. A circle nine and three-fifths inches in diameter.

Grip: The part of the bow held in the shooting hand.

Hen Feathers: The two feathers, generally of the same color, which are not at a right angle to the arrow nock.

High Braced: When the fistmele distance exceeds seven inches.It is better to high brace a bow than to low brace one.

Hold: The pause at full draw position prior to release of the arrow.

Home: When the arrow is fully drawn with the pyle even with the back of the bow it is said to be "home".

Horns: Tips of the bow made from animal horn in which the bow string nock is cut.

Jointed Bows: Same as a carriage bow.

Kick: A jar which is felt when a bow is shot. Generally due to unevenly tillered bow limbs.

Lady Paramount: A lady assistant to the field captain. In charge of the women's shooting line or division in a tournament.

Laminated Bow: A bow that is built up in layers. It may consist of different kinds of wood, wood and metal, wood and
fiber glass, etc.

Limb: Half of the bow. From the handle or grip to the tip.Upper and lower limbs.

Loose: The act of shooting. Letting the drawn bow string slip
from the shooting fingers.

National Archery Association. (NAA): National Association of Target Archers.

National Field Archery Association. (NFAA): National Asso¬ciation of Field Archers.

Nocks: The grooves at the tips of the limbs of a bow into which the bow string is fitted, also the slot at the feathered end of an arrow.

Nocking Point: The point on the bow string where the arrow nock rests.

Overbowed: A bow with a drawing weight in excess of that which the archer can shoot properly.

Overdraw: To draw the bow beyond the arrow length for which the bow is designed.

Overstrung: When the fistmele is exceeded by the use of too short a bow string.

Pair: Two arrows and a spare, also three feathers.

Pennant: A small flag with the fly longer than the hoist. Placed at the line of targets on a staff to indicate the direction and velocity of the wind at the targets.

Petticoat: The border outside of the last or white ring of the target.It has no scoring value.

Pyle: The metal tip attached to the head of the arrow shaft, the point of the arrow. Anglo-Saxon (pil) meaning dart, also spelled pile.

Pin: A very small knot in bow woods, especially yew or osage.

Pinch: To crush the fibers of the bow by compression. See Chrysal.

Pinch: To squeeze the arrow between the drawing fingers.

Pin Hole: The center of the gold of the target, ie, dead center.

Point Blank: The act of aiming directly at the target.

Point of Aim: An object at which an archer aims by sighting over the tip of the arrow.

Quiver: A container for arrows. Shape, size and materials vary.They may be carried at the waist, over the shoulder, on the bow, or on the bow arm.

Quiver, Ground: In the simplest form, a metal rod approximately 18 inches long, pointed at one end and a loop formed at right angles to the stem at the other end. Inserted
in the ground, arrows may be dropped through the loop and withdrawn one at a time.

Range: The terrain used in archery competitions. Also called a Field Course.

Recurved Bow: A bow that is bent back from a straight line at the ends of the limbs.

Reflexed Bow: Unstrung and held in a shooting position, the limbs of the bow curve away from the archer.

Release: Same as Loose.

Round: A fixed number of shots at a given distance or set of distances.

Rover: An archer who engages in field shooting. See Roving.

Roving: Shooting over fields and woodlands at natural targets.

Run: When a single one of the strands which make up a bow string frays, stretches, or breaks, the string is said to have a run.

Sap Wood: The wood immediately underneath the bark.

Self: Used in reference to a bow or an arrow made from a single piece of wood, ie, self bow, self arrow.

Serving: The winding or wrapping around the bow string at the nocking points to protect the bow string from wear.

Shaft: The body or main section of the arrow. The term "feathered shaft" is frequently used in print to designate an arrow.

Shaftment: That section of the shaft to which the feathers are attached.

Shake: A longitudinal crack in a bow stave.

Shooting Glove: A three fingered glove used to protect the shooting fingers.

Shooting Tab: A flat piece of leather designed to be worn on the shooting fingers for protection.

Spiral: The curved position in which the feathers are attached to the arrow shaft.

Spine: The quality of resiliency in an arrow which permits it to bend as it passes the bow in flight and then recover its original shape.

Stacked Bow- 'A bow with an oval cross section. One in which the thickness of the limbs is little greater than the width.

Steele: Same as shaft.

Tab: See shooting tab.

Tackle: The equipment of an archer: bow, arrows, quiver, tabs, strings, etc.
Takedown: See Carriage Bow.

Tiller: Shaping the bow to proper curvature. To tiller a bow.

Toxophilite: One fond of, or devoted to, archery. Derived from the Greek toxen meaning bow and philos meaning loving.

Turn: A term used to describe a bow that has a twist to right
or left of the string. Underboived: A bow having too little drawing weight for the

Unit: Fourteen targets of a field roving course.

Upshot: The last shot in an archery contest.

Vane: The web or flat expanded part of a feather. The flat extended plastic surfaces attached to a shaft to serve as fletching.

Wand: A wooden stick two inches wide, standing upright in the ground. Six feet in height. Used as a mark at which to shoot.

Weight: The weight in grains of an arrow. See also Drawing Weight.

Whip Ended: A bow which has limbs that are too weak at the tips.

Whipping: See Serving.

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Betty Boop Figurines – How to Find and Value Them

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Betty Boop Figurines – Beautiful Art and Valuable Investment

Collectibles have long been a popular pursuit for fans of television shows, cartoons, movies and comic strips. Collecting memorabilia from these forms of entertainment makes for a fun, exciting and frequently profitable pastime for many fans.

Even once the obsession or fascination with a particular show or character passes, a collection can often be sold off to fund the latest intrigue or to provide some extra and much needed cash. In this article we’ll explore this phenomenon with a stocking clad sex symbol who has been with us since he 1930’s.

Background Of The Sultry Songstress

Ever since she first appeared on movie screens on August 9, 1930, the diminutive Betty stole the hearts of fans worldwide. Created by animator Myron “Grim” Natwick, her popularity has endured now for over 80 years, and it is clear that she has become and will remain an enduring icon and sex symbol for a long time to come.

Combining the best qualities of two 1920’s icons – screen siren Clara Bow and sultry singer Helen Kane – Betty won fans through her rare combination of outrageous sex appeal and a sincerely huge heart.

Her popularity crossed over from the big screen to the homes and hearths of collectors everywhere as fans clamored for a chance to take Betty home with them in the form of a wide range of Betty Boop merchandise.

One of the most collectible categories of these products is Betty Boop Figurines.

Why Are Betty Boop Figurines So Popular?

While many forms of Betty Boop Memorabilia have proved worthy of collecting, including plates, mouse pads, signs, music boxes and cookie jars, one of the most enduring incarnations is the Betty Boop Figurine.

Our guess is that figurines have gained so much in popularity and collectability because they present Betty in all of her three dimensional glory.

Rare Figurines date back to the 1930’s when Betty was at the height of her popularity. Committed collectors search far and wide for these rarities which can be very hard to find.

While these almost century old figurines can bring a dear price for those who find and deal in them, Betty Boop statues can be enjoyed by collectors of much more modest means, making Betty within reach of any collector’s budget.

This affordability combined with Betty’s natural appeal have made her one of the most popular collectibles with a rabid and avid fan base.

Where Can You Find Betty Boop Figurines?

It’s not hard to find these figurines. They abound online, at Amazon, eBay and myriad specialty shops. You can also usually find these collectibles in vintage and curio shops.

They are generally affordably priced commonly ranging from $15 on the low end to $40 or more on the high end.

There are also a few “special edition” collectibles available such as the “Calendar Girl” series. Special editions are typically all are hand brush painted, with certificates of authenticity.

One statement of caution for beginners, there are many inferior Betty Boop figurines out there. As always, be careful, check certificates of authenticity, receipts (if available) and gather any information you can from collectors’ forums.

Determining the Value Of Your Betty Boop Figurines – How Much Are They Worth?

While value is in the eye of the purchaser and ultimately any collectible is worth whatever a willing buyer will pay a willing seller in an arms-length transaction, emotion inevitably comes into play whenever passionate collectors are involved.

To get a thumbnail idea of what your figures are worth, the easiest and quickest way is to just login to your eBay account and do a “completed items” search for Betty Boop figurines.

This will show you what real people have paid in real life transactions buying and selling these collectibles. Be sure to check the listings though because authentic vintage Betty statuettes will go for significantly more if you sell them through a collector’s channel as opposed to an eBay auction.

So, use the eBay search results as a guide, but not as a bible for values. Remember, all you have to do is find someone who is looking for the figurine that you have and you’ll get a much better price.

An ’80s Revival

Betty enjoyed a resurgence of popularity in the 1980s, becoming ubiquitous on bags, belts, t-shirts, belts, towels, key chains, blankets and especially in art prints.

This resurgence was most likely a result of Betty’s appearance in three movies that decade, including the wildly successful “Who Framed Roger Rabbit” (1988), as well as “The Romance of Betty Boop” (1984), and “The Betty Boop Movie Mystery” (1989).

Light-Hearted Collectibles To Brighten Your Days

If you enjoy Betty Boop, and how could you not, then take a look at her figurines and other memorabilia and capture some of the innocent naughtiness and nostalgia she represents.

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Source by Roland Frasier

Types of Business Correspondence in the Contemporary Office

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We live in the computer era, and modern businesses have access to many more different means of communication than businesses used to have say 20 years ago.

In the beginning people thought that computers will eliminate (or at least almost eliminate) paper … Now we use much more paper than before the computers. Paradoxes of everyday life …

The types of business correspondence we use nowadays are:

  • business letters
  • memos
  • faxes and
  • email

When someone mentions "business correspondence" around you what is the first thing that comes to your mind? If you are like most of us, you would probably immediately picture business letters. In spite of the fact that business email nowadays is used much more than letters. But business letters have been the only type of business correspondence for much longer than any of us can remember, so "business correspondence" is still associated with them more than with its any other type. And as anything that "has been there" for a long time business letters just have to have very well established rules and regulations. So none of us is surprised when students nowadays are taught to use phrases like "this is to remind you", "in respect of the above", "I am writing to advise" during their communications classes.

And then students become employees who need to write business letters and of course they write them the way they have been taught with no doubts whatsoever. "If everybody does it, if my teachers do it that way then it's the only way." "Creativity is not for writing business letters!" And business letters become "work of art" in the worst sense because people seem to compete in stuffing them with as many pompous ambiguous phrases as possible.

This is gradually changing though. More and more we try to write business letters using clear and concise language, natural style and conversational tone. People even use "I" instead of "we" in writing business letters lately, which makes the letters less flowery and allows to see the person behind the letter.

Business memos are not studied at school as profoundly as business letters. They are probably considered a by-product of business letters and are treated as something secondary. Besides, they appeared around 1920s and are much "younger" than business letters. This is probably the reason why they tend to be less formal and usually sound more human. Every business uses lots of business memos, and a lot of them nowadays are sent by email which makes them even more ubiquitous.

Business faxes became common during the 1980s. Actually, they have been around longer than memos but for a long time very few people had had access to fax machines. So, most of us would say that faxes have been a part of business environment for about 30 years which is nothing compared to the life span of business letters. Consequently, there are not very many rules established for writing faxes. Everybody wrote them the way they considered appropriate. And now faxes are dying a slow death. There is such a thing as faxing via computer of course, but it is so close to email it should probably be treated like one. But don't hurry to throw away your fax machine. Faxes are still very widely used, in some countries more than in others, and will be at least for a few years.

Business e-mail … the most recent and the most common type of business correspondence in today's office. How could we have lived and even conducted business without it ?! How can there be people that don't use email at all … there still are some eccentrics like that, you know? Email is the blessing and the curse of modern life, modern businesses included. It is very helpful as a means of instant communication but becomes a burden for those who have thousands of unopened messages sitting in their inbox. Spam is also a very big issue though a little less so lately when there are ways to harness it (more or less). Email is still in its infancy though we all know it is here to stay and it will be used more and more … if nothing better comes up, of course. The good thing is that we are gradually getting used to treating email with care and realizing that though it is very close to a phone conversation, it is still a type of business correspondence, "business" being the operative word.

Business letters, emails and memos will be for quite a while very widely used types of business correspondence. Faxes are still there, too, and the following 10 years or so will show whether they will totally blend with email. Who knows, we might even have new types of business correspondence a few years from now.

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Source by Alya Leuca

How Many Tattoos Does Lil Wayne Have?

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Along with Lil Wayne's astounding musical career, much conversation about this famous rap star has focused on the stunning tattoos that brand his body. Some people do not like the tattoos and many others find them a work of art. Whatever your opinion may be, one thing for certain is that he definitely generates a lot of controversy along with album sales.

When searching the internet blogs and websites, you will find many different answers to the amount of tattoos Lil Wayne actually has. Reports have included 59, 103, and 364. He definitely has a lot of tattoos. Perhaps keeping the total number of tattoos unknown provides more intrigue to the rapper.

There has been much discussion about the meaning of the three teardrops which he has tattooed directly below his eyes. These tattoos have had a number of interpretations. Some people say that the teardrops represent the number of people the person has killed. However, Lil Wayne has clearly reported that he has never killed another person. Others have suggested that the teardrops may represent three of his close friends who have died, given that he has two tears below one of his eyes and one tear below the other eye. It may represent two separate instances when his loved ones died. The other meaning of a tear tattoo is the number of years one has served in prison. Lil Wayne has served time in prison.

Lil Wayne has a tattoo of a letter "C" tattooed in between his eyebrows. Some people have said that it means Carter which is his last name. Others have said the C represents 'Cita', for his mother. Some people suggest that the C may also mean that he is a Christian. He got the C tattoo right after he got out of jail. There is a cross above the "C" that may indicate that he believes in God.

He has the word "fear and God" on his eyelids. He also has a red tattoo above his right eyebrow which reads "I am music." Lil Wayne has said that he has a deep love for music and he owes his success to a lot of people who work in the business.

Other Lil Wayne tattoos include:

-Apple and eagle on his stomach
-A gun on his palm
-A bird on his right shoulder for Birdman
– "Cash Money" on his stomach which is his record label
– "17" on his abs which represents 17th ward of New Orleans.
-The New Orleans symbol on right ear which is the Fleur de Lis
– "Hot" on one hand and "Boy" on the other hand which is a group that he was a member before going solo.
-A prayer on his back
– "Lucky Me" under his left ear
-The initials BM and then JR on either sides of his navel mean Birdman Junior
-The names "Baby" and "Slim" on each shoulder representing the two people who helped him into rapping.
-A Rolls Royce symbol on his left bicep.
– "Nae Nae" on each of his forearms representing his daughter.
– "W" and the name "Weezy" on the right side of his neck which represents his nickname.

Lil Wayne is one of the most famous rappers and his music and tattoos represent his emotions, opinions, and experiences. His fans around the world love his unique style and talent.

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg
Der Immoblienmakler für Heidelberg Mannheim und Karlsruhe
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Source by Amy Nutt

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