Ways To Find And Buy Modern Art

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Every art lover invests in artwork for a multitude of reasons. There are those who buy a painting for its aesthetic appeal while there many others who choose to pick one according to the artist and its value rather than mere attractiveness. Whatever the reasons you have in mind, there are different means by which you can lay your hands on beautiful, modern art pieces. Modern art is quite versatile and can include anything from contemporary subjects, collages, abstract, nature and even people among others. The selection is more of a personal decision based on taste and desire.

Modern Art Galleries

Modern Art Galleries have increased in number over the last few decades. They can be found primarily in urban centers and cities. The galleries showcase a variety of modern art pieces, some of which are reproductions of famed art pieces and collections. You will also find a variety of other services from such galleries to work with including framing and delivery of the items you settle for. In addition to paintings, you can find other artistic pieces such as carvings and weavings, depending on what the gallery deals with.

Online Galleries

They are by far the easiest way to find modern art pieces as it allows you to choose artwork from different parts of the world without going there in person. Unlike the physical stores that serve the needs of interested art buyers within their vicinities, online galleries reach out to both local and international markets. The online stores will have all pieces categorized in relation to their artist or subject. This has made it very easy for everyone coming across the galleries to find what they are most interested in without the need to go through every piece that is available. The searching process has been eased by the online option and so has the purchase of the pieces.

Modern Art Fairs

They are usually organized by renowned galleries, companies or artists to give interested buyers access to a good collection of art in one location. The fairs can be very advantageous for connoisseurs of art as they stand a chance of enjoying better prices thanks to the discounted art pieces that feature prominently in these fairs. The fairs provide the best platform to get a mix of everything that is considered artistic and hence the buyers can buy different pieces that mean the most to them without wasting too much time trying to locate what they need from one place to another.

To make the search for the best art pieces easy and the purchase of the same even easier, it is best to target the right platform depending on what comes in convenient for you. But perhaps the most important thing to do is to be clear about what modern art you are interested in or the artist whose works you desire the most. This way, you will be in a position to choose a platform that is bound to be rewarding to you in terms of getting what you deserve and desire.

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Source by Shalini Mittal

Contemporary Art – The Importance in Today’s World

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Contemporary art has gained a lot of importance in modern households. It has become one of the most sought after household items and it has been recognized in every aspect of human life. Modern art is nowadays a tool for interpersonal communication and has far reaching effects. The increased number of persons visiting exhibitions and art galleries clearly signifies the rise in contemporary art importance. It is an indicator about the awareness of art amongst the people.

Large appreciation of masses and easy understandability are the main reasons of success of modern art. The accessibility of these arts are easy as it is released in numerous copies and forms like disks, e-books etc. Original paintings, which were hard to get in the old days, are now easy accessible through art galleries, which eventually increased the number of admirers of modern art.

However, contemporary art critics raised an argument that some arts should be reserved for certain group of people. They argued that true appreciation of art can come from people who can understand modern art. In other words, only an artist can understand the value of an art. It is true in some cases, but an artist would like to get appreciation from as many people as possible. Contemporary art will continue to express publicly understood ideas so as to get the maximum appreciation from the public.

There are various ways of acquiring modern art today. Online auctions are one of the ways where by abstract arts, oil-based painting, and impression arts can be purchased. But before you make a purchase, it is important that you do some homework on what art you would like to collect. One way of collecting required information is to make extensive research work in the internet. Other sources include libraries, magazines etc. which can give you your desired information on art.

But you have to be careful when buying a contemporary art work as there are lots of fakes in the market. But you can appoint an appraiser for the art you want to purchase. Online art auctions generally keep a track record of the art seller’s sales history and can help you determine whether the seller is a reputable person.

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Source by Sam D’costa

Explore Singapore, the Fascinating Mosaic of Cultural Diffusion!

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Singapore History:

It would not be an exaggeration to say that millions of global tourists, flocking to Singapore in search of fashion, shopping, glitz and glamor hardly know the proper history of this island city-state located on the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula. It is a wonder, that being the smallest country in Southeast Asia, Singapore happens to be the site of several ancient port cities and a possession of several empires in its "not-so-well-known" history.

To start with, when Singapore was colonized by the United Kingdom in the 19th century, it was nothing but a small Malay fishing village, the first records of its existence being made in the Chinese texts as early as the 3rd century. The island which then bore the javanese name "Temasek" and which happened to be an outpost of the Sumatran Srivijaya (an ancient Malay kingdom on the island of Sumatra) empire, gradually rose to become a significant trading city. However, throughout history, it had to bear the brunt of several political conflicts, which altered its destiny in course of time.

For example, Singapore was a part of the Sultanate of Johore, until it was set ablaze by portuguese troops in the Malay-Portugal wars in 1617. Again, in 1819, British East India Company made a treaty with the Sultan of Johore and established Singapore as a trading post and settlement. Later, seeing instant growth and immigration from various ethnic groups to Singapore, it was declared a crown colony by Britain in 1867. Its status was soon raised to that of an entrepot town by the ruling British empire due to its strategic location along the busy shipping routes connecting Europe to China.

Destiny had written a few more dramatic twists and turns for Singapore, "The Lion City", as it also called. Further occupied by the Japanese Empire in World War II, it finally became part of the merger which formed the "Federation of Malaysia. Finally, after much tussels with the Federal government in Kuala Lumpur, the nation ultimately acquired independence in 1965.

However, what we see today as a tousists' paradise was for many years, a fledgling nation struggling for self-sufficiency. Overburdened with mass unemployment, housing shortages and lack of land and natural resources such as petroleum, it was a sociopolitically volatile and economically undeveloped nation, relying massively on foreign investment and government-led industrialization. The situation started changing after Lee Kuan Yew joined as prime minister in 1959. Within three decades, his administration curbed unemployment, raised the standard of living and developed Singapore's economic infrastructure, thus elevating Singapore into a developing nation and subsequently to developed status.

In the recent years, the country has tackled various disasters, the major ones being the 1997 Asian financial crisis, the SARS outbreak in 2003, and terrorist threats posed by the Jemaah Islamiah (JI).

Singapore Economy:

It is really heartening to know that with 63 surrounding islets and with a total land area of ​​682 square km, the main island of Singapore, with its market-based economy, has grown into a thriving center of commerce and industry in just 150 years. Successfully increasing its manufacturing base after being a 'backward fishing village' for many years, Singapore today thrives on various industries including shipping (Singapore today is the busiest port in the world with over 600 shipping lines sending super tankers, container ships and passenger liners) , electronic components manufacturing and above all its booming travel / tourism industry. The island city state located at the tip of the Malay Peninsula that has suffered various political and economic onslaughts is now home to four million people, also boasting of one of the highest per capita gross domestic products in the world. The economic progress of Singapore as a nation can be an enriching example of how a mere "fishing village" and a British naval base for decades can be reborn as an important financial, commercial and educational center for South East Asia.

The credit for this resurrection goes to the PAP Government, who, assisted by a far-sighted Dutch economic adviser, realized the need of maintaining its colonial inheritance by attracting foreign capital from the developed world to establish export-oriented industries, while at the same time building up a modern service sector in Singapore based on banking and financial services. Needless to say, this economic strategy proved a phenomenal success, producing real growth that averaged 8.0% from 1960 to 1999. Thus, relying on foreign investment and expertise, while at the same time building up strong state enterprises, the provision of infrastructure, housing , transport and other basic services for the local population began increasing notably, and the old Singapore consisting of overcrowded and unsanitary slums was demolished strategically.

In recent years, the trade policies of the Singapore government which included commitment to free trade, active export promotion strategy, the 'open arms' policy towards multinationals and the support of trade liberalization have made Singapore an economically stable nation. In due course of time, Singapore has also developed an export trade that thrives on medium and high-technology electronics components. Such trade undoubtedly focuses on the key-strengths of Singapore, including "hi-tech" sectors as information technology and bio-technology.

Singapore Culture / Religion:

A cosmopolitan society with harmonious interaction among various different races, the inherent cultural diversity of the island is a source of one of the prime attractions of the nation. To be precise, this cultural diversity is the ultimate result of the diversity of the population, the intermingling of various ethnic groups and the amalagamation of Chinese, Malay and Indian immigrants. It is not unnatural for one to witness a Malay wedding taking place beside a Chinese wedding at a void deck, on the ground floor of a HDB apartment block in the Singapore city. Infrequent intermarriage between the Chinese and Indians are not unusual occurrences in Singapore. Besides indigenous Malay population, Singapore houses a majority of third generation Chinese as well as Indian and Arab immigrants. Thus, the diverse mix of races result in a significant degree of cultural diffusion with its unique combination of ethnic groups. Maybe that is one of the reasons why one would find very little culture that is specifically Singaporean. However, there exists a Eurasian community and a community of Peranakan or "Straits Chinese," (a community of mixed Chinese and Malay descent).

Such a significant degree of cultural diffusion has given Singapore a rich mixture of diversity for its young age. One of the prime examples is the Singapore's cuisine, a massive cultural attraction for tourists. Chinese, Indian, Malay, Indonesian, Italian, Peranakan, Spanish, French, Thai and even Fusion tops the menu. To speak of art and culture, Singapore is identified globally an emerging cultural center for arts and culture, including theater and music. Often called the "gateway between the East and West", it has seen the emergence of several performing arts groups, especially in theatrical arts. A number of productions were staged successfully and several groups, including TheaterWorks, have performed overseas too.

As a cosmopolitian and multi-racial society, Singapore has also been the seat of major festivals from various ethnic groups associated with their respective religions. Those again, reflect the diversity of races residing there. While the Chinese are predominantly followers of Buddhism and Taoism, there are even Christians, Catholics and "free thinkers": ones who don't confirm to any religious faith. Thus, in today's Singapore, religions tend to cross racial boundaries and even merge in unusual ways, combining a little of the mysteries of the older generation with the realistic world of today.

Singapore Travel / Tourism:

Celebrated and renowned worldwide as a delightful haven for tourists, Singapore has been able to earn major revenues courtesy its booming tourism industry. With the rise of tourism in Singapore, there is a stiff competition among hotels to run for the best slot. There are cheap airline travels to Singapore today, including apex fare, discounted royalty to Singapore and the like. A seat for the world's most delectable seafood, awe-inspiring sea-beaches, impressive bird-parks and night safaris that account for wonderful wildlife adventure, Singapore today happens to be a little dynamo in Southeast Asia, embodying the finest of both East and West . Truly, the dynamic city rich in contrast and color captures the hearts of millions of global tourists with its harmonious blend of culture, cuisine, arts and architecture and above all, its unbridled energy.

While on entering this cosmopolitan, multi-cultural city, one experiences the mélange of flavors from around the globe, the multicultural heritage of the nation is bound to sweep one off his feet as he discovers an ever-changing mosaic of fascinating contrasts. Thus, the amalgamation of ancient beliefs and contemporary culture, of rich legacies and sleek modern living makes Singapore an ever-youthful, ever-enchanting nation for tourists.

Tourist interests in Singapore: While tourism is continually infesting ChinaTown, a cultural section of Singapore, with shops and street vendors offering a glimpse into the days of old, the Asian Civilizations Museum (a diverse cultural museum) is there to exhibit antiques like a ninth -century Buddha and a Chinese snuff box. For lovers of art and architecture, the Thian Hock Keng Temple (Historic Taoist temple near Singapore's waterfront) happens to be a "must watch" religious site. Another wonder is the unforgettable Singapore Art Museum, which, since its opening in 1996, offers an immense rotating collection of Singaporean and Malay sculpture and art. If you are a connoisseur of shopping and fine dining, there is Orchard Road, the ritzy shopping and dining area, often referred to as the "Park Avenue" of Singapore. For the lovers of spectacular underwater beauty, there is the Underwater World of Sentosa, showcasing the awe-inspiring beauty of a whole different world beneath the seas.

All said and done, the strategic location of Singapore, its cultural contrasts and diverse tourist attractions contribute to its success as a leading destination for both business and pleasure.

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Source by Lopa Bhattacharya

Take Control: Master The Art Of Self-Discipline And Change Your Life Forever by Michael A Janke

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I happened to find a used copy of “Take Control: Master The Art Of Self-Discipline And Change Your Life Forever” by former SEAL Michael A. Janke, and I’m very glad I did. Obviously, I enjoy books that relate military, martial art, and warrior themes into business and everyday life, because that is the same kind of teaching and writing I do. The skills Janke teaches in “Take Control” are key elements to succeeding in any endeavor, and if you act upon the lessons and suggestions in this book, you will undoubtedly improve your life and experience better health, and more success, all based on being more self-disciplined. It really is a positive and motivating book, and I enjoyed reading it and used it as I made some of my 2011 goals, and will look back at it during some of my planning sessions.

The first chapter focuses on the power of control, and how each of us can use the techniques in this book to develop the discipline and control to improve the various areas of our lives. I really like how Janke motivates and describes how you can improve self-discipline and be responsible for the success in our lives. Chapter two deals with goal management, and for those that already set goals, it will be familiar, but for others it may be the spark that starts the fire of goal setting.

The next chapter, three, is on personal management. Things like time discipline, self-control, and character construction. If you implement what is taught in this chapter, you will for sure improve your life. Chapter four deals with the brain and concepts like mental discipline and focus. Again, these are important areas for those who want to succeed.

Chapter five focuses on physical discipline and staying in shape. Chapter six continues with some basics on nutrition. Yes, there are books on these topics, but these chapters have some good basics and I also believe fitness is extremely important, and having the discipline to stay in shape is important for all areas of life, so I liked the inclusion of these chapters.

Chapter seven is on professional discipline. It provides some good tips for succeeding in the business world, regardless of your profession. Chapter eight is a bit different. It contains 100 secrets of power living. There are 100 ideas with a paragraph each on why they are important and why you should do them. Things like “Develop Yourself One Hour A Day,” Breath in Life,” and “Control Desire.” These 100 ideas are great to stimulate thinking of how to make your life better. The more you incorporate into your life, the better your life will be.

The book concludes with an Appendix of quotes organized by subjects such as Achievement, Determination, Perseverance, and many more. If you like quotes, this is a nice little bonus. I enjoyed reading through them. Appendix B also includes some recommended reading and other resources. It’s a pretty good list of resources over seventeen pages.

Janke’s “Take Control” is a motivating book on self-discipline. You can find the same information in other sources, but Janke’s take on the topic is direct and enjoyable. Read it and take control of your life and pursue greatness.

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Source by Alain Burrese

The Meaning of Elephant Tattoo Designs Will Surprise You

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Animal tattoos are very popular nowadays since they portray characteristics that most people are fond of. Although favorite animal tattoos are usually about the untamed jungle cats – lion, tiger – elephants are steadily claiming the attention of tattoo enthusiasts.

Elephants are strong animals that are respected by ancient cultures of India and Africa. Their strength is legendary and combined with their massive size; it is not unusual that ancient civilizations have likened them to great rulers. During war, they were used as psychological weapons, instilling fear in enemies even before the battle has begun.

These animals are worshiped in India. For them, elephants represent divinity and kindness of spirit. Ganesh, an Indian God is even depicted as having the head of an elephant. During Hindu rituals, elephants pose as prominent parts of the occasion. They are usually bathed and anointed in special oils as part of the ritual.

Unlike most tattoo designs, the elephant's color is not always subject to the person's choosing. The animal's natural color is the one majorly used by tattoo artist. An albino elephant also holds great meaning for those who use it. For starters, it is a symbol for the Gods and is thought to be the most sacred of all elephants. Those who have seen it are considered to be lucky with the gods in their favor.

Aside from their religious connotations, a tattoo enthusiast may also choose an elephant tattoo in reference to the animal's characteristics. For example, when an elephant dies, other elephants will remain beside the body for a few days as though in mourning. For some, this could be a representation of loyalty. Longevity and fidelity are also other characteristics associated with the elephant that may be used by tattoo enthusiasts when looking for the next best ink.

With elephant tattoos not as popular as other animal designs, women can be less inclined to use this particular pattern. After all, there are very few signs that suggest a feminine side to the strong and powerful beast. Males are more welcoming with this pattern because of the masculine connotation to the symbol. Since elephants are normally large in size, you will often find these tattoo designs encompassing a wide expanse of skin. Two of the most common locations for elephant tattoos include the arms and the back. However, if a good tattoo artist is capable of downsizing the symbol without lessening its quality, then you may have it inked on your wrist or ankle.

Unusual choices for a tattoo, those who choose to brandish an elephant design usually do so because of their attachment to the interpretations of the animal. Mostly, decisions leading to an elephant tattoo are based on logical, spiritual and personal reasons that go beyond its aesthetic value. For those who are contemplating using this design, then it might be best to research all the meanings that attach themselves to the elephant. Try to remember that tattoos last a long time and you must be entirely sure of your choice before proceeding.

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Source by Steve Salvatori

Interesting Facts I Learned About Barbers and Barber Clippers Based on My Readings

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Barber clippers are primarily used by barbers and hairdressers.

Barbers and hairdressers are licensed usually in other countries unlike here in the Philippines where barbers can be found anywhere and cut hair without having any license.

In previous times, barbers are also surgeons and don’t just cut hair, they can also shave beard, trim hair, color hair, etc.. They previously act as dentists too. The red and white spiral color in the barber pole signifies their two crafts; red signifies surgery, and white signifies barbering.

It was during the war when the surgeons were paid more and given more emphasis than the barbers because of their importance for the health of those people in the ship.

Henry Martyn Leland invented the electric barber clippers, he also invented the Cadillac which is later bought by General Motors, and the Lincoln which is later bought by Ford Motor Company.

Nikola Bizumic is the one who invented the manual barber clippers in which is an alternative for scissors in cutting hair but is also operated by hand. The use of these manual clippers decreased significantly due to the emergence of electronic barber clippers. these manual clippers has not yet been phased out though for there are still users of these stuff throughout the world.

Matthew Andis built an electronic barber clipper that undergo a wide range of performance test, manufactured a large number of these electronic barber clippers, and he sold it to numerous barber shops throughout Wisconsin. Then after a year, he founded Andis Clipper Company that still operates as a family-owned business today. Andis became a famous brand for barber clippers even up to present.

There are a lot of brands that followed Andis and some has even improved Andis’s design flaws like the Wahl Clippers by Leo J. Wahl and the Oster Clippers by John Oster who owns the famous Oster Classic 76 clippers which is regarded for its durability and interchangeable metal blades or different sizes.

Wahl introduced the Trim and Vac, a beard razor that can be used without a cape since it has a vacuum that automatically absorbs the cut hair giving ease of use for the user.

There are also clippers used for pet grooming particularly dog grooming that has different sizes of blades used for trimming. Different blade sizes determines the length of hair that will be cut from dog’s body. You should not use a barber clipper (used for human) to a dog since pet clippers are custom designed for pets since they have thick fur to protect their body from hot or cold weather and other irritants. This is one reason why pet clippers use more powerful motors and torque than a regular barber clipper.

Barber clippers are widely used to cut human hair and it helps reduce a great amount of time in cutting hair. With faster results, it makes a barber shop businesses more profitable since you can serve more customers.

Professional hair clippers are more expensive than a regular one only because of its durability since it will be used extensively for commercial purposes compared to barber clippers intended only for personal use or home use only.

Barber clippers would usually cost about $25 to about $130 depending on the use of your clipper.

There has been a lot of innovations in the clippers from different companies and it has been really a slugfest between Andis, Wahl, and Oster for the hair clipper manufacturing crown. Sallybeauty.com has been a successful online store for beauty products including hair clippers and care kits for these clippers.

When a clipper is not functioning well, one reason could be that it has not been oiled properly or it has not been used for some time.

You can clean this by removing the screw and putting the blade into a bowl with isoprophyl alcohol.

Afterwards, clean and wipe off the rust or you can use a sharpening stone to sharpen the blade by scratching the blade to the stone going to one direction only.

If your barber clipper blade is cheap, professional sharpening is not advisable but if you have an expensive blade, you can go for professional sharpening for best results.

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Source by DJ Dimaliuat

When Managers Become Hamlets

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This alludes to the famous play “Hamlet” by Shakespeare. Hamlet was a character who was highly indecisive about what he wanted to do and always mulled over things while taking a decision and many a times avoided or delayed taking decisions. This could mean disaster if applied in case of a working manager as he has to be on his toes and take fast decisions. This is more relevant today when the whole world is a market and even a momentary indecisiveness could result in millions being lost in the trade.

Decision Making

We all make decisions of varying importance every day, so the idea that decision making can be a rather sophisticated art may at first seem strange. However, studies have shown that most people are much poorer at decision making than they think. An understanding of what decision making involves, together with a few effective techniques, will help produce better decisions.

What is Decision Making?

1. Making a decision implies that there are alternative choices to be considered, and in such a case we want, not only to identify as many of these alternatives as possible but to choose the one that best fits with our goals, desires, lifestyle, values, and so on.

2. It should be noted here that uncertainty is reduced rather than eliminated. Very few decisions are made with absolute certainty because complete knowledge about all the alternatives is seldom possible. Thus, every decision involves a certain amount of risk.

Kinds of Decisions

There are several basic kinds of decisions.

1. Decisions whether. This is the yes/no, either/or decision that must be made before we proceed with the selection of an alternative. Should I buy a new TV? Should I travel this summer? Decisions whether are made by weighing reasons pro and con. It is important to be aware of having made a decision whether, since too often we assume that decision making begins with the identification of alternatives, assuming that the decision to choose one has already been made.

2. Decisions which. These decisions involve a choice of one or more alternatives from among a set of possibilities, the choice being based on how well each alternative measures up to a set of predefined criteria.

3. Contingent decisions.

Most people carry around a set of already made, contingent decisions, just waiting for the right conditions or opportunity to arise. Time, energy, price, availability, opportunity, encouragement–all these factors can figure into the necessary conditions that need to be met before we can act on our decision.

Decision whether … select criteria … identify alternatives … make choice

The Components of Decision Making

The Decision Environment

Every decision is made within a decision environment, which is defined as the collection of information, alternatives, values, and preferences available at the time of the decision. An ideal decision environment would include all possible information, all of it accurate, and every possible alternative. However, both information and alternatives are constrained because time and effort to gain information or identify alternatives are limited. The major challenge of decision making is uncertainty, and a major goal of decision analysis is to reduce uncertainty. We can almost never have all information needed to make a decision with certainty, so most decisions involve an undeniable amount of risk.

Delaying a decision as long as reasonably possible, then, provides three benefits:

1. The decision environment will be larger, providing more information. There is also time for more thoughtful and extended analysis.

2. New alternatives might be recognized or created.

3. The decision maker’s preferences might change. With further thought, wisdom, maturity.

The Effects of Quantity on Decision Making

Many decision makers have a tendency to seek more information than required to make a good decision. When too much information is sought and obtained, one or more of several problems can arise. (1) A delay in the decision occurs because of the time required to obtain and process the extra information. This delay could impair the effectiveness of the decision or solution. (2) Information overload will occur. In this state, so much information is available that decision-making ability actually declines because the information in its entirety can no longer be managed or assessed appropriately. A major problem caused by information overload is forgetfulness. When too much information is taken into memory, especially in a short period of time, some of the information (often that received early on) will be pushed out.

The example is sometimes given of the man who spent the day at an information-heavy seminar. At the end of the day, he was not only unable to remember the first half of the seminar but he had also forgotten where he parked his car that morning.

(3) Selective use of the information will occur. That is, the decision maker will choose from among all the information available only those facts which support a preconceived solution or position. (4) Mental fatigue occurs, which results in slower work or poor quality work.

The quantity of information that can be processed by the human mind is limited. Unless information is consciously selected, processing will be biased toward the first part of the information received. After that, the mind tires and begins to ignore subsequent information or forget earlier information.

Decision Streams

A common misconception about decision making is that decisions are made in isolation from each other: you gather information, explore alternatives, and make a choice, without regard to anything that has gone before. The fact is, decisions are made in a context of other decisions. The typical metaphor used to explain this is that of a stream. There is a stream of decisions surrounding a given decision, many decisions made earlier have led up to this decision and made it both possible and limited. Many other decisions will follow from it.

As example, when you enter a store to buy a VCD or TV, you are faced with the preselected alternatives stocked by the store. There may be 200 models available in the universe of models, but you will be choosing from, say, only a dozen. In this case, your decision has been constrained by the decisions made by others about which models to carry.

It is important to realize that every decision you make affects the decision stream and the collections of alternatives available to you both immediately and in the future. In other words, decisions have far reaching consequences.

Acceptance. Those who must implement the decision or who will be affected by it must accept it both intellectually and emotionally.

Acceptance is a critical factor because it occasionally conflicts with one of the quality criteria. In such cases, the best thing to do may be to choose a lesser quality solution that has greater acceptance.

For example, when cake mixes first were put on the market, manufacturers put everything into the mix–the highest quality and most efficient solution. Only water had to be added. However, the mixes didn’t sell well–they weren’t accepted. After investigation, the makers discovered that women didn’t like the mixes because using the mixes made them feel guilty: they weren’t good wives because they were taking a shortcut to making a cake. The solution was to take the egg and sometimes the milk out of the mix so that the women would have something to do to “make” the cake other than just adding water. Now they had to add egg and perhaps milk, making them feel more useful. The need to feel useful and a contributor is one of the most basic of human needs. Thus, while the new solution was less efficient in theoretical terms, it was much more acceptable. Cake mixes with the new formula became quite popular.

Thus, the inferior method may produce greater results if the inferior one has greater support. One of the most important considerations in decision making, then, is the people factor. Always consider a decision in light of the people implementation.

A decision that may be technologically brilliant but that is sociologically stupid will not work. Only decisions that are implemented, and implemented with thoroughness (and preferably enthusiasm) will work the way they are intended to.

Approaches to Decision Making

1. Authoritarian. The manager makes the decision based on the knowledge he can gather. He then must explain the decision to the group and gain their acceptance of it.

2. Group. The group shares ideas and analyses, and agrees upon a decision to implement. Studies show that the group often has values, feelings, and reactions quite different from those the manager supposes they have. No one knows the group and its tastes and preferences as well as the group itself.

There are two types of group decision making sessions. First is free discussion in which the problem is simply put on the table for the group to talk about.

The other kind of group decision making is developmental discussion or structured discussion. Here the problem is broken down into steps, smaller parts with specific goals. Developmental discussion (1) insures systematic coverage of a topic and (2) insures that all members of the group are talking about the same aspect of the problem at the same time.

Some Decision Making Strategies

1. Optimizing. This is the strategy of choosing the best possible solution to the problem, discovering as many alternatives as possible and choosing the very best. How thoroughly optimizing can be done is dependent on

1. Importance of the problem

2. Time available for solving it

3. Cost involved with alternative solutions

4. Availability of resources, knowledge

5. Personal psychology & values

Note that the collection of complete information and the consideration of all alternatives is seldom possible for most major decisions, so that limitations must be placed on alternatives.

2. Satisficing. In this strategy, the first satisfactory alternative is chosen rather than the best alternative. If you are very hungry, you might choose to stop at the first decent looking restaurant in the next town rather than attempting to choose the best restaurant from among all (the optimizing strategy). The word satisficing was coined by combining satisfactory and sufficient. For many small decisions, such as where to park, what to drink, which pen to use, which tie to wear, and so on, the satisficing strategy is perfect.

3. Maximax. This stands for “maximize the maximums.” This strategy focuses on evaluating and then choosing the alternatives based on their maximum possible payoff. This is sometimes described as the strategy of the optimist, because favorable outcomes and high potentials are the areas of concern. It is a good strategy for use when risk taking is most acceptable, when the go-for-broke philosophy is reigning freely.

4. Maximin. This stands for “maximize the minimums.” In this strategy, that of the pessimist, the worst possible outcome of each decision is considered and the decision with the highest minimum is chosen. The Maximin orientation is good when the consequences of a failed decision are particularly harmful or undesirable. Maximin concentrates on the salvage value of a decision, or of the guaranteed return of the decision. It’s the philosophy behind the saying, “A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush.”

Decision Making Procedure:

1.Identify the decision to be made together with the goals it should achieve.

2.Get the facts.

3.Develop alternatives.

4.Rate each alternative.

5.Rate the risk of each alternative.

6.Make the decision.

Risk Taking Metrics:

1. Only the risk takers are truly free. All decisions of consequence involve risk. Without taking risks, you cannot grow or improve or even live.

2.There is really no such thing as permanent security in anything on earth. Not taking risks is really not more secure than taking them, for your present state can always be changed without action on your part.

3.You are supposed to be afraid when you risk. Admit your fears–of loss, of rejection, of failure.

4. Risking normally involves a degree of separation anxiety

5.Decide whether the risk is necessary or desirable. Spend some careful thought before acting, so that you will not end up taking unnecessary risks.

6. Risk for the right reasons and when you are calm and thoughtful. Don’t take a risk because you are angry, hurt, depressed, desperate, or frightened. Don’t take risks just to get revenge or to harm someone else. Don’t risk when you are incapable of rational thought.

3. Have a goal. When you take a risk, have a clear purpose in mind so that you will know, after the fact, whether you succeeded or not. What will taking the risk accomplish?

4. Determine the possible loss as well as the gain. That is, know exactly what the consequences of failure will be. Unless you know pretty accurately what both loss and gain will be, you do not understand the risk. There is a tendency either to underestimate or to overestimate the consequences of risk. Underestimation can result in surprising damage, cost, setbacks, pain, whatever. But overestimation is just as problematic,

It’s a good idea in fact to list all the good expected effects of a successful outcome and all the bad expected effects of an unsuccessful outcome.

5. Try to make an accurate estimate about the probability of each case. Is the probability of success one in two, one in ten, one in a hundred, one in a million? This can be sometimes difficult to do, but usually you can guess the probability within an order of magnitude.

6. When possible, take one risk at a time. Divide your actions or goals wherever possible so that you are not combining risks unless absolutely necessary. Simultaneous risking increases anxiety, creates confusion, and makes failure analysis very difficult.

7. Use imaging or role playing to work through the various possibilities, successes and failures, so that you will be mentally prepared for any outcome. Think about what can go right and what can go wrong and how you will respond to or adjust to each possibility.

8. Use a plan. Set up a timetable with a list of steps to take. Use the plan as a guideline, but be flexible.

9. Act decisively. When you have evaluated the risk and decided that it’s worth it, act. Go for it. Don’t hesitate at the threshold or halfway through. Once you get going, be courageous. Grit your teeth and move forward. Don’t procrastinate and don’t act half heartedly.

10. Don’t expect complete success. You may get it, of course, but chances are the result of your risk will not be exactly what you had imagined and there will be more a degree of success than absolute success or failure.

Decision Making

The key take-away is that all of us, when making a decision, need to carefully think through what we absolutely need to know in order to make a good decision, rather than delaying decision making and leaning on the crutch of more time to gather………There where managers become Hamlets

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Paintings of Modern Art – "The Scream"

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If any single painting exemplified the concepts of modernism, and how the philosophy influenced art, it's "The Scream" by Norwegian artist Edvard Munch. The painting, which depicts an agonized figure against a blood red sky. There are those that say that the painting depicts the hopelessness inherent in modernism. Others call "The Scream" a symbol of modern man overtaken by an attack of existential angst, the moment in which the existential crisis occurs.

As a matter of fact, some people believe that the painting depicts some kind of mental illness, supported by the fact that Munch's own sister was hospitalized with what was probably manic depression at the time. Others insist that the painting depicts some kind of dissociative disorder, in which there's a feeling of distortion of the environment and one's self.

There have been all kinds of attempts to explain different aspects of the painting. The red sky, for example, could've been inspired by the weather conditions in Oslo during the time that Munch created it. There was a powerful volcanic eruption of Krakatoa in 1883, and the ash that was ejected from the volcano left the sky tinted red in much of the eastern United States and most of Europe and Asia from the end of November 1883 to February 1884. dispute this theory, however, stating that Munch wasn't a descriptive painter and tended to not depict things literally.

Another theory that advances the depiction of mental illness in this painting is the setting of the painting itself. The landscape in the background of "The Scream" is Osloford, viewed from the hill of Ekeberg, near what's now Oslo, Norway. The bridge the subject is standing on happens to be nearby both a slaughterhouse and a mental institution. Munch very well could've gotten some existential vibes from both buildings.

At any rate, "The Scream" seems to be one of those modernist paintings that have captured the public, to the point that by the late twentieth century, it held almost iconic stature. In 1983 and 1984, pop artist Andy Warhol created a series of silk prints of Munch's works, including "The Scream," making it into a mass-reproducible object. It's now one of the most recognizable pieces of art, and has been used in cartoons, movies, and advertisement.

Munch created at least four versions of "The Scream," held by various individuals and museums all over the world. Two of them have been stolen. The first was in 1994, from the National Gallery in Oslo, the same day as the Opening Ceremonies of the Winter Olympics in Lillehammer. The four thieves left a note to replace the painting they stole: "Thanks for the poor security." It was recovered in 1994 in a sting operation. Another version, along with another of Munch's paintings ("Madonna"), was stolen in 2004, from the Munch Museum in Oslo. It was damaged, but was able to be restored after the police recovered it after a huge investigation.

"The Scream" by Edvard Munch, is an important piece of modern art. Many believe that it has garnered so much attention because it depicts not only the spirit of modernism, both as a philosophy and an art movement, but the angst and detachment of the modern world.

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Top 10 Films About Contemporary Art

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Visiting art galleries and reading art magazines and books is great. But sometimes you just want to lie on your sofa with a cup of tea and relax watching a good movie. Now that it’s winter, you might feel this desire more often. A movie can be an art form and when it is a movie about great artists and art, it’s like watching ‘art squared’, so to speak. So don’t miss out, give it a try – you won’t be sorry.

Here is a list of movies about contemporary art to get you started. Some are old, some new, but all are really inspiring. I have listed the movies alphabetically, and I haven’t given any of them a personal rating since as far as I’m concerned, all of them are worth watching. This is just to inspire you to watch these films, and perhaps move on to others afterwards.

Art School Confidential

Who said anything about talent?

IMDb rating: 6.3

Director: Terry Zwigoff

Production year: 2006

This movie is a comedy rather than drama, and it focuses on the story of an art student who had spent all his life dreaming about being a great artist. Although the film makes fun of the contemporary art world in many respect, it also shows its attractive side, and gives an idea of the dedication artists can feel to their work.

Basquiat

In 1981, A Nineteen-Year-Old Unknown Graffiti Writer Took the New York Art World by Storm. The Rest Is Art History

IMDb rating: 6.8

Director: Julian Schnabel

Production year: 1996

This is an absolutely unforgettable movie about American street artist Jean-Michel Basquiat. It gives you a deep view of Basquiat’s world, his life, friends, love and works. Julian Schnabel is an artist himself, and so has personal experience of the world he’s looking into, something that adds an unusual and meaningful level of validity to the movie.

Exit Through the Gift Shop

The incredible true story of how the world’s greatest Street Art movie was never made…

IMDb rating: 8.2

Director: Banksy

Production year: 2010

It is brilliant movie, which keeps you guessing and puzzling right through to the end. At first sight you may think that the film is about street art documentary filmmaker Thierry Guetta, but actually it is about world famous graffiti artist Banksy. I won`t be surprised if after watching this film you want to hit the streets with a spray can.

Factory Girl

When Andy met Edie, life imitated art

IMDb rating: 6.1

Director: George Hickenlooper

Production year: 2006

Although the movie is dedicated to the life of underground film star Edie Sedgwick, and this aspect of it is certainly interesting, much of the appeal comes from his explored relationship with Andy Warhol. Watching the movie will give you the a fairly comprehensive impression of the Factory, a place where artists of any genre met and created what became a game-changing part of modern art.

Frida

Prepare to be seduced

IMDb rating: 7.3

Director: Julie Taymor

Production year: 2002

This is a fantastic biographical story about the life and work of an extraordinary and immensely strong woman, the well-known Mexican artist Frida Kahlo. The film is like her works: colorful, full of love, powerful and unique.

Fur: An Imaginary Portrait of Diane Arbus

IMDb rating: 6.2

Director: Steven Shainberg

Production year: 2006

This is a sincere look at the iconic American photographer Diane Arbus and her real love for Lionel Sweeney, who helped her to become an artist who came to help define photography in the twentieth century.

The Great Contemporary Art Bubble

IMDb rating: 7.3

Director: Ben Lewis

Production year: 2009

This is an extremely interesting BBC production, by a UK art critic, Ben Lewis. It will take you on a journey into the contemporary art world, with all its secrets. You will visit world famous auction houses and galleries, and even the homes of art collectors.

How to Draw a Bunny

IMDb rating: 7.2

Director: John W. Walter

Production year: 2002

This is a documentary about Ray Johnson, who has been called “New York’s most famous unknown artist,” and is about the mysteries of his life and art, and of course his influence on the Pop Art world.

My Left Foot

A film about life, laughter, and the occasional miracle

IMDb rating: 7.8

Director: Jim Sheridan

Production year: 1989

This is based on the fantastic true story of Christy Brown, painter and author, who could control only his left foot. It is the only film in this list that won 5 Academy Awards, – Best Actor (Daniel Day-Lewis), Best Supporting Actress (Brenda Fricker), Best Director (Jim Sheridan), Best Picture and Best Screenplay (Shane Connaughton and Jim Sheridan). With that recommendation, how can you fail to give it a go?

Pollok

I thought I knew all the outstanding artists in New York and I don`t know Jackson Pollock

IMDb rating: 7.1

Director: Ed Harris

Production year: 2000

Wonderful movie about world famous American painter Jackson Pollock. This film demonstrates his great talent and difficult nature, and the way he tried to combine the two.

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Why Taekwondo Is So Popular

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First, let me set the scene. I am not a Taekwondo Master. Nor even a Black Belt. In fact, I don't have a belt at all. Indeed, I have never had a Taekwondo belt. So why, you are entitled to ask, am I writing an article about Taekwondo?

The reason is simple. In my day job at a leading UK team building company, a surprisingly large number of our wider event team members over the years are Taekwondo practitioners. Most of them are of black belt status and two of them have actually got on their martial arts CV that they have represented England. The reason for this is simple. One of the two is our Client Services Manager and she has roped in some of her Taekwondo friends. Basically, I feel qualified to write this through multiple third-party connections.

So here is what I have gleaned from them. In keeping with the majority if not all martial arts, Taekwondo offers a mixture of activity, self defense and approach to life in general – a philosophy if you will. One factor that mas made it so popular around the world and far from its Korean roots is that it is a very social activity, bringing together people from all walks of life and even generations. While it is an Olympic sport involving experts and watched by millions, it is also a very participative activity that can be enjoyed by all. The tenets of the art encourage camaraderie and even teamwork, so there's a link to my day job there!

So what is it? Well, it is a martial art that originated in Korea. Its literal translation is "the way of the foot and the fist", with Tae meaning to break with the foot, Kwon meaning the same but with the fist and Do supplying the way. Interestingly, it was born in the same year as me. 1955. It is certainly wearing its years better than me! Choi Hong Hi, a South Korean General and martial arts expert. I gather that Choi is something of a controversial figure within Taekwondo and not all factions view him as its creator, but I'm going with the local flow here.

When I say it was born in 1955, that isn't strictly true. It gained its name then, but actually it has been around for well over a thousand years. Back in that day it was called Taek-Kyon. Basically, the people who unified Korea from the original three kingdoms that existed managed to do so largely by force and the force in question had Taek-Kyon at its disposal. The martial art helped the relatively young (by age of its members) army of the Hwarang-Do unify Korea. Once they had achieved this, they began to spread the word and get people across the kingdom engaged with the marital art.

It survived a near extinction event when the Japanese occupied Korea in Yi Dynasty times shortly after the turn of the 20th Century (1910 to be precise) and really took off once the occupation ended in the mid 1940s.

As I write, Taekwondo is enjoyed in an organized fashion by people in almost 70 different countries. Including this one, of course. And if the spirit and camaraderie of my colleagues here is anything to go by, it isn't going away any time soon. So in answer to the question I raise in the title, it seems to me to be a martial art for all that engenders a great spirit among those who practice it together. Even those who have never taken a lesson in their lives can benefit from that if they know people who are already into it.

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Source by Alan Hunt

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