Japanese Prints: The Art Institute of Chicago (Tiny Folio)

Japanese Prints: The Art Institute of Chicago (Tiny Folio)

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Another in the Abbeville’s Tiny Folios series, this little book is a real gem. The Art Institute of Chicago houses one of the world’s most beautiful and comprehensive collections of Japanese woodblock prints in the world. Clarence Buckingham, of the famed Chicago family, donated 12,000 prints alone. The book covers this exquisite collection of work from the 17th to 19th centuries in four sections: Primitives, Courtesans, Actors, and Landscapes. It includes work by well-known masters such as Hiroshige, Hokusia, and Utamaro, as well as lesser-known talents such as Shun’ei, Shunko, and Kiyonaga. While the trim size is small, none of the subtle colors, delicate paper texture, or intricate fabric design is lost.



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A Letter to Science About the Antidote for Cancer


The 1937 Nobel Laureate in Medicine, Szent-Gyorgyi was the co-founder of the American National Foundation for Cancer Research. His ‘Letter to Science’ in 1974 stated that the accepted criteria for applying for crucial government cancer research funding was counterproductive. From his political-medical science perspective, the funding for a cure for cancer was prevented because the accepted criteria for substantial research was itself carcinogenic in nature.

As a Hungarian citizen during World war II he avoided capture by the Gestapo for holding political science theories offensive to the Fascist government. After the war he declined the political theories of Russian communism to pursue his cancer research in America. His letter to science made use of political ideas belonging to the ancient pagan Greek atomic Science for Ethical Ends. The pagan concept of the 28 day moon movement resonating emotion-forming mathematical information to the atomic metabolism associated with the female cycle, had been taught at the Epicurean University in ancient Athens.

These ideas however, go beyond the limitations belonging to modern day science residing within the legal systems of Christianity, Islam and Judaism. We hope that science can resolve the problem and that this might be of practical future value to all three by providing a cure for cancer and bestowing upon them a more benevolent global scientific culture.

Szent-Gyorgyi saw the ancient Greek ideal to develop a political science to guide ennobling government for the health of the universe, in order to avoid the extinction of civilization, as a medical issue. It is the very opposite of the prevailing global scientific thermodynamic culture, which in fact demands the extinction of all life in the universe. This death cult concept of reality clearly belongs to a carcinogenic scientific mindset.

The idea of American Democracy contains aspects of the ancient Greek ethical political science. In 2017 this concept of democracy was clearly revealed to be a plutocracy: government by the wealthy. We can argue that within a culture driven by thermodynamic chaos this current plutocracy might well be a common sense prerequisite for immediate economic tribal survival, inspired by moral democratic values. However, its intrinsic scientific, carcinogenic nature must sooner or later bring about a repeat of its well recorded cyclic destruction of tribal societies. Carcinogenic science is now helping to accelerate this process toward a terminal state, in obedience to the prevailing thermodynamic extinction law.

All that is needed to evolve beyond that situation is just to place the plutocratic know-how alongside relevant survival antidote logic within a computer set up to generate human survival blueprint simulations. Such simulations will outline new technological guidelines to accrue unimaginable wealth, together with the administration guidelines to benefit the people. This model is in contrast to the illusory anticipations existing within a society based upon the present global inflow of dysfunctional information.

This crucial research methodology had already been enacted this century, but the apparent cancer cure knowledge was, as Szent-Gyorgyi predicted, completely ignored. In 1979 China’s most highly awarded physicist, Kun Huang, provided Australian Science-Art researchers with the methodology to measure the existence of the life force. He suggested that by using Szent-Gyorgyi’s understanding of ancient Greek mathematical geometry, it should be possible to develop a scientific program to generate simulations demonstrating the evolution of seashell growth and development through space-time.

If the simulations matched perfectly with seashells recorded within the fossil record then the physics laws governing the evolution of life would have been discovered. During the 1980s, this experiment was successfully carried out in Australia. In 1990 the world’s largest technological research institute, IEEE in Washington, reprinted the discovery from published papers by Italy’s leading scientific journal, Il Nuovo Cimento. IEEE acclaimed it to be one of the 20th Century’s great optical mathematical discoveries, placing it alongside such names as Louis Pasteur and Francis Crick.

In 1995 this mathematical discovery was transposed into a physics format by the President of the Institute of Basic Research in America, to discover new physics laws governing the evolution of life forms. The prevailing thermodynamic mathematical logic was shown to generate futuristic distorted carcinogenic life-form simulations. Szent-Gyorgyi’s cancer research observation about dysfunctional thermodynamic information was activated to completely negate the Australian project to obtain a human survival blueprint. Scientists around the world had no choice but to agree that seashells did indeed carry crucial evolutionary survival information because it was clearly written down on mechanistic seashell fossil objects. None of them realized the simple truth, that living life-forms within the seashells had transmitted that information to the growing shell formation. Szent-Gyorgyi, who had predicted such a nonsensical situation had written a book about it, entitled ‘The Crazy Ape’. The scientists refused to allow the living process to use infinite mathematical logic because their obsolete non-sensible thermodynamic culture had already sentenced all life in the universe to extinction.

The Nobel Laureate’s description of a crazy ape mindset, however, had defined a entirely natural state of mathematical schizophrenia existing at the dawn of civilization. This reality only highlights the incredible technological potential of humanity if a great political leader bothers to encourage the generation of the human survival blueprints mentioned above. From such designs completely new technologies can be quickly developed to benefit the human condition.

Ancient Sumerian astrological mathematical intuitions evolved from celestial movement wonderment, a fact compatible with the scientific research process acclaimed by Szent-Gyorgyi. From these ancient research intuitions we inherited a 7 day week of 24 hours a day, with each hour of 60 minutes. Their sense of direction gave us a circle of 360 degrees. Both their time and directional guidance systems are now used to explore the nature of outer space universal reality. However, during the time of the Sumerian civilization, their intuitions about the nature of infinite reality was neither mathematical nor scientific. It was based upon religious concepts belonging to argumentative gods and goddesses, one in particular was Inanna the goddess of sex and war.

The religious non-mathematical persuasions of the Sumerians to wage war was a natural expression of a survival of the fittest instinct to guard against their falling prey to some other tribe intent of committing violence against them. The Sumerian astrological mathematical knowledge and the worship of warlike deities was later absorbed by the Babylonian Kingdom. Ancient clay tablets record the Sumerian gods from a dark abyss declaring ‘Let there be light’ prior to the creation of hybrid humans from clay. Their gods argued about the bestowing of eternal life to keepers of the Ark during the Great Flood. Mathematics then became an unethical Babylonian instrument to terrorize the populace to wage war. The Babylonian priests developed the mathematics to be able to predict eclipses, Inanna the goddess of sex and war became Ishtar the Babylonian goddess of prostitution and war and the bestowing of immortality to the keepers of the Ark escalated into violent chaos.

This unethical use of mathematics is made clear by the discovery of a baked clay tablet written by a Babylonian priest to his king. The message reads to the effect that the gods demanded that the 673 BC lunar eclipse be used by the king to terrorize the population to ensure that they became sexually anxious to advance the art of waging war to increase the power of the Babylonian Kingdom.

The 19th Century champion of American Democracy, Ralph Waldo Emerson wrote about the enslavement of the American people by a plutocracy that had inherited aspects of the unethical Babylonian legal system. He did not realize that such a state of government at that time was a biological necessity for American survival amid a global society of warring tribes seeking to dominate each other. Nonetheless, his mathematical solution involved new technologies alluded to within ancient Sanskrit mathematics, which were based on a similar scientific logic that Szent-Gyiogyi used later to derive his cancer-free science belonging to ancient Greek political mathematics.

The carcinogenic cycle of the destruction of future civilizations fighting to the death over which deity, or set of mathematical laws, provided personal access to infinity followed from the Babylonian social system. Szent-Gyorgyi’s description of the scientific crazy ape with a carcinogenic mindset can now be seen as belonging to a form of mathematical schizophrenia being an integral aspect of a primitive tribal evolutionary process. The process of dysfunctional emotional information governing modern plutocracy has now been classified by government appointed epidemiologists as a global 3D epidemic. The mass manufacture of dysfunctional information and communication devices is now understood to be causing severe damage to global society.

To better understand the nature of this global dysfunctional information epidemic it can be seen to be similar to the use of mathematics programmed within a poker machine, employing sound and colour vibrations to bring about a heroin-like addiction. This compulsion is designed to bring about a state of moral and financial bankruptcy. The unethical use of mathematical manipulation involving illusory emotional anticipation, echoes the global stock-market excitement. That game is destined eventually to cause economic collapses for the benefit of the players running global plutocratic battles of wits. Nonstop artistic colour advertising instills a trivial sense of excitement to the masses referred to in terms of market confidence.

This global economic existence is eventually paid for by massive casualties on battlefields, with people fighting for the right of some deity or honour philosophy to grant both victims and survivors some beneficial access to infinite realty. The mathematician, Plato, classified the associated artistic rhetoric, pomp and ceremony involved in such a form of government, as unethical art, lacking a substantial spiritual purpose.

The philosopher, Immanuel Kant, researched the difference between Plato’s definition of unethical art and and human survival artistic wisdom to establish the ethical basis of the electromagnetic Golden Age of Danish Science. The philosopher of science, Emmanuel Levinas, agreed with Kant’s conclusion that the missing artistic spiritual component within Plato’s condemnation of art, was an asymmetrical electromagnetic inner-vision existing within the creative artistic mind. The relevant asymmetrical electromagnetic potential technology belonging to that concept was predicted by the inventor of the alternating electric industrial motor, Charles Proteus Steinmetz. He actually wrote, specifically stating, that such a spiritual electromagnetic motor technology would be far greater that the technology associated with the present physical electromagnetic one.

In 2010 the Australian seashell life force discovery theories were fused with quantum biology by the Department of Medicinal Chemistry at the Italian University of Pavia. In association with Quantum Art International based in Italy they jointly worked together to research for an antidote to the global dysfunctional epidemic. They were aware that Isaac Newton within his long forgotten, but nonetheless published, 28th Query Discussions, insisted that ancient Greek science considered that gravity was not caused by the functioning of a mechanistic universe. Newton wrote that the mass of objects in space was not the first cause of gravitational force as modern quantum mechanics had falsely pretended otherwise.

Although the previously mentioned living evolutionary seashell mathematics had been recorded on mechanical seashell objects, modern quantum mechanical science was unable to reason about the crucial living information being transmitted to the shell by the living creature within it. The Italian-Australian team, free to reason otherwise, began to research how quantum mechanics needed to be completed by linking it with living information. In 2016 they achieved their objective. Their Science-Art antidote discovery was awarded an international First Prize at the XX International Exhibition & Competition of Contemporary Art, Central House of Artists, Moscow. The World Fund for Arts, Government of Moscow, Artist Union of Russia and the European Art Union sponsored this competition.

Recent DNA discoveries have allowed us to consider that humans now belong to one species. In that case, the prevailing carcinogenic thermodynamic scientific culture, which demands human extinction, depicts the human species as suffering from some sort of scientific carcinogenic neurological disorder. That echoes the conclusion that the greatest mathematician in history, Georg Cantor, whose work upholds most of modern science made. He wrote that the modern scientific mind was suffering from a myopic fear of infinity, as alluded to by Waldo Emerson and Szent Gyorgyi.

The author of ‘The Crazy Ape’ held that there is a link between molecular electromagnetic processes and fundamental aspects of cancer growth and development. The scientist, David Hilbert, working with Albert Einstein on mathematical research embracing that field of knowledge, fully supported Cantor’s observation that an ignorance of infinite mathematical reality governed the modern scientific mind. With the aid of several other great philosophers of science, it was not difficult to discover the antidote to bring scientific research into a far greater perspective than one obsessed with human extinction. Very eminent scientists around the world hailed the antidote discovery as being a major historical achievement of the 21st Century.

During 2016 the Australian Prime Minister, the Governor General, the Minister for Art and Communications, the Leader of the Opposition and several senators received copies of the prize-winning antidote documentation. On November 15, 2016, the Department of the Minister for the Arts and Communication advised that the Australian Government’s principle arts funding body makes decisions on grant applications at arm’s length from Government, through a process of peer assessment.

It is not rational to use peer assessment about a internationally accepted unique important discovery of crucial government importance. The cancer antidote document was dismissed in a way that Szent-Gyorgyi had very clearly described as belonging to a counterproductive cancer research methodology. Not one senior Australian politician saw fit to allow any opportunity for critical evaluation of this research for the betterment of the global human condition.

To compound this illogical way of thinking the Macquarie University in Sydney, acting on behalf of the Commonwealth Visual Arts Board, arranged for a phone interview which would have been about the antidote situation. The University mailed copious protocol directions to guide the discussion, which were ultimately counterproductive to the antidote thesis. Therefore, the non-sensible proposal associated with the Australian Visual Arts Board was dismissed out of hand.

The greedy unethical plutocratic nature of Australian politics became evident during the writing of this letter to science. The resignation of the Minister for Health concerning the misuse of pubic monies for personal gratification made front page newspaper headlines. This was followed by more front page headlines, in which similar ‘misuses of funds’ scandals were associated with other senior Australian politicians. The plutocracy; government by the wealthy, can be considered scientifically unfit to care about the health and wellbeing of democratic government and explains why its appointed epidemiologists are unable to find an antidote to the prevailing 3D dysfunctional information epidemic.

In conclusion, the pharmaceutical empire in the hands of powerful multinationals, continues to conduct brilliant research resulting in incredible discoveries, alleviating the spread of cancer. However, it is surely warranted that the antidote discovery be critically examined as soon as is possible.

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Source by Robert Pope

Progress Live [Blu-ray]

Progress Live [Blu-ray]

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Il documento della grande reunion! Il tour che ha superato ogni record in Inghilterra con oltre 1,8 milioni di spettatori!!! Uno show monumentale, come quello visto in Italia allo stadio di San Siro. Per la prima volta insieme dopo 15 anni, Robbie Williams, Gary Barlow, Howard Donald, Jason Orange e Mark Owen si esibiscono spettacolarmente nelle hit della loro carriera, e nei nuovi brani dell’album Progress. Un allestimento senza precedenti, con un sensazionale corpo di ballo, cambi di costume, laser, video proiezioni e un robot di 22 metri!



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History of Kokeshi Wooden Dolls from Japan


Little is known of the early history of Kokeshi Japanese Wooden Dolls. One school of thought believes that Kokeshi dolls have their origins in the practice of spiritualist religion. Wooden dolls were thought to contain the spiritual essence of the dead and were often made for honorary remembrance.

The modern history of Japanese Kokeshi dolls began in the latter part of the Edo Era (1603-1867). Originating in the Tohiku region of northern Japan, famous for it’s hot springs and rejuvenating spa waters, Kokeshi Dolls acted as an important source of extra income for local artisans known as Kijiya (which means woodworker in Japanese), who specialised in wood work and the production of household utensils such as trays and wooden bowls. In severe winters these Kijiya craftsmen began making “Kokeshi Dolls” to sell as souvenirs to visitors who frequented the local hot springs. The dolls acted not only as souvenirs but also as massage tools used by the bathers to tap their shoulders whilst enjoying the warming benefits of the hot springs.

The Kokeshi dolls were very simple in design, originally made on hand-powered lathes. Traditional Kokeshi dolls had common characteristics that consisted of a basic cylindrical limbless body and a round head. Though the first dolls might have been unpainted, today most Kokeshi are painted in bright floral designs, kimonos, and other traditional patterns. Colors used were red, yellow and purple. As all the dolls are hand painted, no two faces are alike. This is perhaps the greatest charm of the Kokeshi. Some dolls are whimsical, happy and smiling, while others are serious.

Soon their popularity spread throughout Japan and they became favoured as wooden toys for those unable to afford porcelain dolls. In addition the simple rounded shapes of the dolls lent themselves as early teething rings for young babies.

Kokeshi dolls traditionally represented young girls and they quickly became popular for their depiction of feminine beauty. In addition their simple charm and association with childhood meant that they were often given as gifts when a child was born, as birthday presents or as symbols of remembrance when a child died. In addition Kokeshi Japanese Wooden Dolls were popular with the children of farmers as it was widely thought that they would promise a good harvest, as it was believed that it would create a positive impression on the gods if children played with the dolls.

The woods used for Kokeshi vary. Cherry is distinguished by its darkness. Mizuko or dogwood is softer and used extensively. Itaya-kaede, a Japanese maple is also used. The wood is left outdoors to season for one to five years before it can be used to make a doll. Today, Kokeshi is recognized as one of the traditional folk arts of Japan.

Despite their common features two schools of design exist, Traditional Kokeshi and Creative Kokeshi.

Traditional Kokeshi are for the main part still only produced in the six prefectures of the Tohoku region. The twelve schools of design here all exhibit distinctive features that allow experts to tell exactly where they have been produced and often by whom.

Creative Kokeshi do not follow the traditional designs originating from the Tohoku region and instead have an unstructured inspiration which is completely free in terms of shape and painting, the only traditional constraint being their manufacture by means of the lathe. Unlike traditional kokeshi, they do not display any of their distinctive local colour nor the techniques that had been passed down through the generations. They simply represent the creative thought and ability of the craftsman.

Traditional and Creative crafted dolls have become a cause for celebration in Tohoku and across Japan. Every year, in early September, people gather in Naruko Onsen where craftsmen from across the nation gather to honor Kokeshi in a competition where the number one prize is an award from the Prime Minister.

There are many different styles of Kokeshi, but there is one philosophy that all Kokeshi dolls share, and that is the pursuit of beauty and artistry through simplicity. This philosophy is extolled at the website: http://www.dollsofjapan.co.uk

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Source by Ivor Conway

Treasury of Japanese Designs and Motifs for Artists and Craftsmen (Dover Pictorial Archive)

Treasury of Japanese Designs and Motifs for Artists and Craftsmen (Dover Pictorial Archive)

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A profound sense of the aesthetic beauty in all things pervades the whole of Japanese culture, finding perhaps its clearest expression in the decorative, applied, and pictorial arts. Characterized by a mastery of line and composition, and noted for lyrical scenes of exquisite beauty, the genius of Japanese art has bequeathed to the world a remarkable and distinctive design legacy.
This exceptionally versatile collection of traditional Japanese designs and motifs presents the working artist with a treasury of 360 copyright-free designs. All have been especially adapted by noted artist Carol Belanger Grafton for ready use by illustrators, designers, and craftspeople. Painstaking effort has been made to preserve the original spirit and subtlety of detail while simultaneously sharpening the lines and enhancing the reproducibility of the designs and motifs.
There are several lovely ceramic and textile patterns. However, most of the design motifs in this compendium were taken from woodblock prints. This particular medium was invented in China and introduced to Japan before 1000 A.D., flourishing thereafter and reaching its zenith in the Ukiyo-e (“floating world”) school of the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries. Accompanying these depictions of people in traditional garb, and accessories such as fans, keys, kites, and umbrellas, are many charmingly decorative family crests arranged in mostly circular configurations. Also included are full-page compositions of bold geometric design, vignettes of ethereal delicacy, as well as a generous sampling of nature’s bounty: cherries, radishes, plum blossoms, lions, elephants, dogs, cranes, parrots, turtles, butterflies, even demons and dragons, and much more―often in several arrangements, many with reversed images.
Artists, designers, illustrators, students, and teachers will find this indispensable collection of 360 traditional Japanese designs and motifs rendered in clean, crisp, black-and-white, copyright-free illustrations to be a remarkably fertile source of illustrative inspiration and design solutions.

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IMAX 82136 Pongo Spots Oil Painting

IMAX 82136 Pongo Spots Oil Painting

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Pongo spots oil paintings comical oil painting of pongo’s spots being blown off by a fan make a great conversation piece for fellow animal lovers! finished by hand with exemplary detail, there may be slight variations in size, color and texture. These variations are a reflection of the authenticity of the piece and signal the originality of the artisan. Care instructions: dust with a clean, dry cloth. Brought to you by IMAX- one source, a world of choices.Your whole family will love this whimsical work of art
Expertly handcrafted of plastic, canvas, and manufactured Wood
Measures 49.75-Inch high by 37.75-Inch wide by 1.5-inch
Due to the artisan crafted nature of this product, no two will be identical
IMAX Worldwide-One source, a world of choices



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Oil Painting With a Palette Knife


Impasto is a painting technique in which the artists preferred pigment, which is most often oil painting, is applied so thickly to the canvas that the brush strokes or palette tool marks are clearly visible to the viewer. Only a very small number of artists ever attempt to take this type of technique to the extreme of using only the palette knife, and not the paint brush, to apply their paints to the canvas. It is an even rarer few who master this type of expert technique. It can take an artist of even advanced expertise many years to become proficient using this technique in this way.

Palette knife painting can be accomplished using acrylic paint pigments but oil painting with this type of tool really takes the technique to the highest level. Because of the longer drying time associated with this style of painting the artist is able to go back into the piece and rework sections and add deepening layers of pigment and detail to the fine art piece. Oil painting using the palette knife offers a unique way to add in both varying textures and colorful layers of paint rich in pigment and color while still expressing a rare energy. Fine art painting, because of the freedom it offers the artist, creates dramatic works of art that recreate movement and light in a way that few other painting techniques can hope to match.

Utilizing the palette knife in this unique way when oil painting offers the artist a freedom few can achieve when using the more conventional painting techniques. It frees the hand, as well as the mind, opening the painter’s ability to express themselves and allowing them to tap directly into their subconscious. Using the technique in painting for the past forty years, since being a student at the world renowned Vitebsk Art School, and credits palette knife painting with making it possible for the artist to capture his personal optimism and positive life perspective in his fine art landscape paintings, flower paintings, cityscapes, and music paintings which are all available in worldwide art gallery settings, at art auction, and as limited edition art prints. He has become such a well known master of the palette knife oil painting technique that his work is instantly recognizable and never imitable. It is impossible to mistake an palette knife oil painting for anything else.

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Source by Leonid Afremov

Live Laugh Love Modern Abstract Metal Wall Art Home Decor Decoration 28″h, 21″w

Live Laugh Love Modern Abstract Metal Wall Art Home Decor Decoration 28

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28 inch updated traditional bronze finish iron open design live, love, laugh scrollwork wall sculpture, Fleur de Lis and winged foot finials.Item color: Bronze
Item finish: textured
This product is Made in China



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His Most Famous Illustration (The Peacock Skirt) – Aubrey Beardsley


English illustrator, caricaturist, and author Aubrey Vincent Beardsley (1872- 1898) was born in Brighton, Menton, France on August 21, 1872. The frontrunner of ‘Aestheticism’ and ‘Art Nouveau,’ Aubrey’s accentuation for erotic components is displayed in many of his drawings. The most daring and audacious representation could be seen in his famous illustrations Lysistrata, and Salome, especially “The Peacock Skirt.”

Beardsley’s art styles were phased, differentiated by his unique signatures, dedicated to each phase. For example, beginning with leaving artworks unsigned, the subsequent six years carried his peculiar signatures, while in the year 1891 and 1892, he accustomed his work with his initials A.V.B. Aubrey Beardsley belonged to the group of artists called ‘Art Nouveau.’ ‘Art Nouveau’ was a manner of art and architecture that reached its popularity in the twentieth century. The word ‘Art Nouveau’ is a French word, which means ‘New Art.’ ‘Art Nouveau’ usually exhibited dark and villainous pictures. The main theme of Aubrey Beardsley’s later works however, were erotic illustrations inspired by the Japanese ‘shunga’ (love making techniques, positions, heterosexual or homosexual behavior, and possibilities), history, and mythology. Aubrey Beardsley effected numerous illustrations for the magazines, and books as well. His most famous illustration was “The Peacock Skirt” for Oscar Wilde’s play ‘Salome.’

Oscar Wilde was a close and a beloved friend of Beardsley. Aubrey procreated “The Peacock Skirt” in 1894. The play Salome was first published in 1893 in French and the next year in English, to be performed eventually in Paris in 1896. In this illustration, the beautiful Salome, the daughter of Herod and Herodias, tries to lure the Syrian Captain of the guard. She uses her beauty for this act, so that the Captain can release the prisoner John the Baptist. At the end of the play, Salome kisses John’s head. As per the renowned myth, John the Baptist does not accept Salome’s love. Therefore, Salome uses her beauty and power to get John the Baptist executed.

“The Peacock Skirt” was a black and white illustration, created using pen and ink. This illustration was inspired from one of the works of James McNeil Whistler ‘The Princess from the Land of Porcelain.’ The black and white lines resembled the style commonly used by the Japanese artists. In this illustration, Salome and the Syrian Captain of the guard are exhibited facing each other. The image on the right side is wearing a long and full sleeves wrapper. The image on the left side of the illustration has his hair adorned with the legions of peacock feathers. He is wearing heavily embroidered apparel on his back. The embroidery is confined literally to the lowermost section of the apparel. On the extreme left side, a peacock’s pattern is also manifested.

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Source by Annette Labedzki

Japanese Samurai Culture


Word samurai usually refers to warrior nobility nowadays. But in the preindustrial age samurai meant a Japan warrior. During Tokugawa era, samurais lost military functions and became bureaucrats, as they had to be literate. They followed a strict codes and rules, which were called bushido. Samurai culture ranged from a spartan Zen Buddhism influence to Kano-style culture.

Samurai were aristocrats for long centruies and they developed their own codes and culture, which had big influence on whole Japanese culture. Most known is their monochrome ink painting, japanese scissors, rock gardens and tea ceremonies, which have been used before for Buddhist monks to stay awake during meditation. Samurai had high literacy rate in Kanji and skills in math, similair to other arictocrats and priests. Toward the end of Kamakura period, general skill and literacy rate improved further.

Names of samurai were combined from one kanji of his father and new one. Their full names were long, so they often used only small part of their name. Names were composed of clan name, title, father’s name and first name, which samurai were able to choose. Many samurai later changed their names when they were adopted into other clans. When the clan leader dies without a son, but had a daughter, common thing was to adpot other clan’s samurai trough marriage with the daughter. Although samurai had a lot of children, times were harsh with wars and dieaseses which could lead to destruction of entire clan. To avoid this adpotion of samurai were practiced.

Samurai were expected to have marriage arranged by someone who had same or higher society rank than those marrying. Most of the samurai married women form other samurai families, but for lower ranks samurais it was not uncommon to marry a commoner. Samurai could have a mistress, but had to be checked by someone of higher rank. If mistress was a commoner, note with money to her parents was sent. Most of parents accepted it, because if the child could become a samurai, thus a higher rank than commoners. Samurai could also have divorce with an approval from a superior, although it was very rare. If samurai’s wife would be cast off, she was allowed to commit suicide.

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Source by Janes Pool