Why Choose Spiral Software Development Model Instead of Waterfall Model


The process of developing software is all about bringing an idea to life. An impalpable creative concept in the head is converted into a practical and functional system. This transition, known as the software development life cycle (SDLC) is often an arduous one. It requires a lot of time, effort and most importantly the right skill set, before successful software is developed. The professional developers use different approaches to obtain the final software. Two of the most popularly known models are the Waterfall Model and the Spiral Model of software development. But in the last couple of years, the preference for spiral model has increased manifold. Both the clients and the vendors of software development services find it more convenient to take the spiral route.

For those who are still not able to discover the merits of going spiral, here are the three reasons why waterfall model is now obsolete:

Waterfall model is strictly linear

Like the force of gravity always pulls down, similarly the waterfall model will always proceed downward, from first step to second, to third, to fourth till last step. These steps are similar to the steps in spiral model. They are:

· Capture requirements from clients

· Layout and Design

· Code and program

· Integrate and functionalize the system

· Testing for bugs, errors

· Deliver to client

· Continued maintenance

In waterfall model, suppose if you have reached the testing stage, and you want to add some other codes and tweak the design, it won’t be possible. On the other hand, in the spiral model one can go back and re-visit and re-modify each step. The spiral model has such iterations, and we keep moving in a circular loop, going over all the steps, until we are convinced that we have got just the perfect software. So after the last phase is completed, it goes back to the step one, and again begins the entire process. The desired alterations are made and a quality check is performed during all iterations.

Waterfall model lacks client participation

The involvement of clients is limited to the first phase when they tell all that they need to the software development team. Once their requirements are captured, the development team takes complete charge of the work.

While the clients do get periodic reports about the status of completion of the development work, but they cannot intervene again in the stages of designing or coding and tweak the software. The spiral model however allows the client to advise the team in each phase of development and encourages their participation.

Therefore whenever the clients outsource software development, they should enquire which SDLC model the vendor will use. If the client doesn’t understand all the technical differences between various models, they should try to understand Spiral Model of SDLC in the Layman’s Language. And then make an informed choice. Many vendors like VSD prefer to use the spiral model as it guarantees complete satisfaction of the clients and develops the solution exactly as per their needs.

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Source by Daniel Henry Jose

Forbidden Images Of Homosexual And Lesbian Sex In Shunga


Shunga, literally “Images of Spring”, is the generic term used to describe erotic prints, books, scrolls and paintings of Japan.

  
Prudery  

Only recently (1990s) the study of shunga images depicting homosexual (male-male sex) and lesbian (female-female sex) acts of love have been commenced. This belated research of this “hidden domain” was caused by the official censorship in Japan and also because of the unease and prudery concerning the specific subject-matter in the past.  

 
Male-male  

Homosexuality, in Japanese called nansoku meaning ‘male love’, was not an uncommon phenomenon during the Edo (today’s Tokyo) period in Japan. In the early years of the Tokugawa regime (early 17th century) men greatly outnumbered women in Edo. There were very strict rules imposed by the government inspired by the loyal standards of Confucianism which excluded women to participate in any kind of work with the exception of household tasks. These regulations and the shortage of women can be seen as deciding factors for the huge amount of homosexual activities. The most characteristic feature of the depictions in shunga of male-male sex is the relation between the two involved “lovers”. The leading and dominant male with his shaven head is always the older one, this on the basis of seniority or higher social status, while the subjected passive partner was a pre-pubescent or pubescent boy or a young man depicted with a unshaven forelock. These young boys are often shown in female cloths and therefore easily mistaken for girls. They served as pages to high ranking samurai’s, monks, wealthy merchants or older servants and were most desired during their adolesence especially between the age of 15 and 17 years when the anus was still without hair. There are also several shunga designs on the theme of threesome sex depicting one man (always a young male) in the midst of sexual intercourse with a female partner while being taken from behind by an intruder. In most shunga images representing man/youth anal intercourse, the genitalia of the young man are often concealed focusing the attention of the viewer on the garment and elegant lines of the body.      

Female Secrets  

While there was a Japanese term for male-male (nanshoku) and male-female sex, joshoku or nyoshoku meaning ‘female love’, there was no such word to describe female-female sex or lesbianism. Most of the shunga’s I have come accross as a dealer in the past 15 years regarding explicitly female concentrated designs (approx. 20 various designs!) depicted either isolated women masturbating using her fingers or a harigata (artificial phallus) or two intimate women using this same sexual device. Hokusai (1760-1849), the most famous Ukiyo-e master designed two lesbian ehon (book) prints including one with two awabi (abalone) divers using a sea cucumber. Up to now the only shunga featuring this subject that has been described in literature is Eiri’s famous design from his oban sized series Models of Calligraphy’  (Fumi no kiyogaki) published in 1801. In their book ‘Shunga, the Art of Love in Japan’ (1975) Tom and Mary Evans make an interesting comparison with Eiri’s (they attribute it to Eisho) shunga design and the paintings of the influential post-impressionist Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec:  

“Whereas Toulouse-Lautrec concentrated on the emotional bond between the girls, and the sad emptiness of the way of life which thrust them into each other’s arms, Eisho (Eiri) was concerned with the physical details of their relationship. And while even such an open-minded artist as Lautrec felt that such details were more than could be reasonably presented to his public, for the Japanese they were the central feature of the design”. (Evans – ‘Shunga, the Art of Love in Japan’)  

It must be emphasized that these images of lesbianism in shunga were the result of male fantasies, designed by men and intended for a male audience.

 
Profound View  

Notwithstanding the embarassment the Japanese at first felt for the representation of these suppressed themes within the shunga genre it’s exactly these particular images that provide a profound view into the cultural and historical background of their country during the Edo period.

 
Recommended Literature  

‘Shunga, the Art of Love in Japan’  (1975)         – Tom and Mary Evans  
‘Sex and the Floating World’  (1999)                 – Timon Screech
‘Japanese Erotic Prints’  (2002)                         – Inge Klompmakers
‘Japanese Erotic Fantasies’ (2005)                    – C. Uhlenbeck and M. Winkel

 
Important Shunga Artists  

Hishikawa Moronobu (? -1694)
Suzuki Harunobu (c.1725-1770)
Isoda Koryusai  (1735-90)
Chokyosai Eiri (act. c.1789-1801)  
Kitagawa Utamaro (1753 -1806)  
Torii Kiyonaga (1752-1815)
Katsukawa Shuncho (act. c.1780s-early 1800s)
Katsushika Hokusai (1760-1849)
Yanagawa Shigenobu (1787-1833)
Keisai Eisen (1790-1848)
Kikugawa Eizan (1787-1867)
Utagawa Kuniyoshi (1797-1861)
Utagawa Kunisada (1786-1865)
Kawanabe Kyosai (1831-89)

    

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Fabric Painting As A Career


Fabric painting is not the most conventional of careers to choose from; in fact most would relegate it to the hobbies listing, an obscure craft. Some would ask, “Who would want to spend their career with fabric paint?” But think about it; if the career were not a significant one, we would all be sitting on bland, colorless and design free furniture, we would probably all be dressed up in flour sacks and staring at blank walls. Of course that’s a slight exaggeration, but you get the point, I’m sure.

As a career fabric painter, you have the opportunity to add creative and sometimes colorful value to the world we live in. Although fabric painting can be a laborious pursuit it has become thousands of times easier to reproduce fabric painting on numerous mediums. With the advent of digital art, reproduction artwork can be placed on cups, plates, textiles, shoes, wood and more.

The prospects are actually quite exciting when you think about it. Rather than designers buying that blase fabric for their fashion accessories project, you can now offer them custom fabrics, specially created for their specific use; something unique to their collection. Designers can now say bye, bye to boring; and hello to happy. Their clients will love you for it.

Artists can now create their masterpieces and have them duplicated for short run reproduction just as easy as or perhaps easier than it would have been to process the art through the traditional fabric mills. This is great but there are still some major manufacturing companies that hire artists to create hand painted designs for their new collections. They then take the artists designs and produce them on various types of fabrics.

One career that is easily integrated and is an offshoot of fabric painting is, screen printing, which in itself is a vast field. Traditionally, screen printing has been viewed as the answer to producing tee shirts for schools and casual wear. Today the screen printing industry is booming as artists are getting even more creative and adding flair to their designs.

The sizes of screens have grown from a little bitty square on the front of your shirt to a large format screen designed for all over tee shirt design. Still there are others who use this screen printing method to create custom yardage for sale and for creating their own line of goods.

Such artwork was initially painted on fabric and later printed on garments for toddlers and adults alike. Just as the original was embellished with studs, stones, sequins and glitter, so too are the creations of the silk screen artist. The beauty of course is once the original design has been developed on fabric and screens created, the design can be produced in unlimited colors, sizes and of course quantities.

On the flip side of the screen printing issue are the embellishers who are also fabric painters in their own right. These artists take a generally basic design and customize it, giving it the oomph it may have needed. This is done many times with fabric paint, rhinestones, mirrors, ribbons and a host of other accessories.

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Cortesi Home “Deliberation” by Mario Sanchez Nevado Giclee Canvas Wall Art, 18 by 18-Inch

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Cortesi Home is proud to present “Deliberation” by Mario Sanchez Nevado. Mario Nevado delivers some of the best surreal artworks of the digital era, but it’s his sensitive but caustic approach to storytelling that makes his style to be an unique emotional experience.Giclee artwork, printed on high quality archival grade canvas, made in USA
Stretched and framed, ready to hang
Officially licensed digital print, artist: Mario Sanchez Nevado
Made in USA
Dimensions: 18″w x 18″h x .75″ D



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How To Best Paint A Teak Bench


A teak bench, or indeed any other piece of teak furniture, is a great investment and will look fantastic indoors, outdoors, or wherever some extra seating is needed. The Class 1 hardwood is extremely durable and long-lasting, while its color can range from a light straw to richer, deeper hues. That being said, almost anyone you ask will tell you the same thing: Do not paint a teak bench. However, sometimes if the wood is old, scratched up or has fallen into disrepair, painting is the best and only option left. If you do decide to break out the brush, make sure you do it right. A botched paint job will have wood looking worse than when you started with it.

In addition to covering up the natural grain and tone of the wood, painting teak benches is discouraged because teak is one type of wood that is notoriously difficult to paint. That is because the wood produces a natural oil, which on the one hand preserves and protects it from splitting, fungus and insects, but on the other hand makes it hard for paint and stains to stick to the exterior.

If you’re starting out with a surface that is already finished, clean the wood off using mineral spirits to remove any grease, wax or residue. If, on the other hand, you decide to strip the wood of its finish, you will have to clean the wood with acetone to remove the teak’s natural oils; otherwise primers and paints will not adhere correctly. Next, use a scotchbrite pad or light sandpaper to smooth the surface. After the wood is clean and even, apply a primer, like Zinsser 123. Allow the primer to set, usually for about a day, and then proceed to the paint. Stick with certified outdoor latex paints like Sherwin-Williams and Benjamin Moore for best results. Semi-gloss or gloss paints work especially well to repel dirt. Apply one even coat to teak benches. Once that has dried, apply a second layer. Applying less than two coats will result in weaker color, and depending how much of the second coat is absorbed by the wood, you may be able to get away with a third coat.

Even if you follow all of the necessary precautions, the results of painting a teak bench can be disappointing. Because of the high oil content, the paint you apply, no matter how conscientiously, could eventually lead to peeling and scarring of the wood. Before making a go of it, it would be wise to consult a specialist at your local furniture or outdoors store who can best recommend the right products.

If you are lucky, painting a teak bench can breathe new life into otherwise old and dilapidated furniture. There is also the added benefit with paint of being able to match furniture pieces to your décor and color scheme. In conclusion, the question of “to paint or not to paint” depends on your furniture. New teak furniture really should not be painted. You are already paying more for the specific type of wood, and its grain and color are two of its main selling points. For new furniture, simply use a sealant once to twice a year. Because of its natural oils, a teak bench will continue to look great on its own with little maintenance.

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The Green Palette


Pakistan has inherited many things from the colonial rule when it became the sovereign state on 14th August 1947 as there was no source of developed knowledge and information other than what the rulers have adopted and then left behind for themselves.

The British took control over a state which was very much a monarchist under the Mughals, but when they left, it had to adopt the all famous democratic system of politics; the thrones, where once the emperors used to sit, fastened the governor general, presidents and prime ministers for the time to come. The army, social institutions, music, sports, couture, cuisine, architecture and administration, in short all walks of life absorbed and displayed a prolific plethora of post colonial western influence as this doctrine was considered the best and the most appropriate one owing to its association with the ruling and powerful class.

The language embraced the modern and non traditional style due to a total extrication from Persian, and partially from Arabic; the two pivotal languages which had remained a mark of distinction and wisdom for the Muslim community, from Neil to Kashghar. Modern Muslims, especially after being put in status with the modern politics by virtue of entirely new and liberal policies of Mohammedan Anglo Indian Conference and the academics of Aligarh College, which later became a university, were well aware of the new philosophy, psychology, architecture, sciences and all other branches of literature and arts, this class actually took over after the birth of new state Pakistan on 14th of August 1947. Therefore, what we introduced to Pakistani arts in common was mostly an inspiration of western modern art of the early 20th century; the fragments of post-modern American or post-war European art.

In the early days of Pakistan Anna Molka Ahmed was in Lahore, a migrated artist from THE UK who also cradled the first generation of Pakistani artists at Fine Arts Department of the Punjab University that she had founded in 1940. This department produced the first batch of four teachers who later shaped early years of Pakistani art; they were Anwar Afzal, Zakia Malik Sheikh, Razzia Feroz and Nasim Hafeez Qazi.

On the other hand, there was Zubeda Agha, who was trained under BS Saniyal and an Italian prisoner of war Mario Perlingieri. Later, she received art education in the west so, she was under immense influence of western style and technique. Zubeda rejected the traditional painting style and emerged as the first modernistic colourist despite resistance from the native critique.

At the same time, Anna Molka was trying to capture the indigenous topics related to religion and folklore, but since she was an expressionist in her technique, the local fauna and flora got ablaze after being expressed through the ‘knife and palette’ technique of her. Anna at times, just squeezed the colour tube on the canvas and dragged it with her knife to get the desired spontaneity and embossed texture. Therefore, what she produced was indigenous in subject but very much western in terms of technique.

Given that the native style was attributed to the Mughal school of Miniature painting that later got popularity up on the hill states of Himachal Pardesh (Basohli, Chamba, Guler, Kangra and Bilaspur) until the Sikh era. Ustad Haji Sharif was one of the exponents of the court style painting owing to the long association of his forefathers to the royal court of Patiala, an important Sikh state of the now Indian Punjab. After his migration to Lahore, Ustad Sharif imparted his knowledge and passed on the ultimate skills of book illumination and illustration at the Department of Fine Arts and the Mayo School of Arts (NCA) Lahore.

Another Ustad, Allah Bakhsh, in the line of traditional and realistic style of the east, contributed to the infancy of Pakistani painting. Allah Bakhsh painted the rich culture and folklore along with a touch of romanticism in subject, especially when he put on canvas the folk love-stories like Heer Ranjha and Sohni Mahiwal and at the same time he, under the influence of modern art and romantic painters of the west, put on a show the mystic canvasses like “Talism-i Hoshruba”.

During this process of evolution, the secular style Miniature painting was breathing at Calcutta, where Abhiander Nath Taygore was a great proponent of the gauche technique. This style inspired the free-flowing hand of Abd al-Rehman Chughtai, who evolved the Bengali style of Miniature painting to unmatched heights. Other than Chughtai, no one could, actually retain the standards of that lyrical line-quality, soft layers of diffused pigments and the stylized approach, although few tried to get acquainted with the technique, but the wisdom and education, Chughtai acquired in the field of art locally and from abroad, and the intelligentsia around him in the shape of his renowned friends, made him the sole example of a style of his own; the Chughtai Style.

Later, Pakistan was spell-bound by a Magician from, Sadequian: a painter with theatrical qualities, dramatic themes and very crude line quality that hatched the texture within the frame to give vent to the philosophical and poetic themes the artist was inspired at a great level. The urge to communicate loudly and more clearly made Sadequian to switch to Calligraphic painting, which later became his identity and was displayed on the large scales like the ceilings and murals at the Lahore Museum and Mangla Dam respectively. Ismail Gulgee was the other advertiser for Calligraphic painting style which, being conceived as “Islamic Art” contrary to the figurative art, attained popularity in the religious groups. Ultimately non-figurative art earned acceptance in the market and flourished in the unfavorable circumstances of the military-Islamic rule of the 1980s.

If we look upon the academic inspirations, other than Anna Molka, we may find Shakir Ali standing tall and exclusive in the scene with his very simple and rhythmic paintings in flat shades of reds, oranges and blues along with varied lines. His textures within the flat colour areas were simple but masterly fashioned and skillfully balanced. His presence at the National College of Arts Lahore made many to follow him in acquiring new and modern techniques that he had his hands on, during his academic stay at London.

In western art, Cezanne, Van Gogh and Gauguin are taken, subsequently as initiators of Cubism, Expressionism and Fauvism. On this pattern, we could divide Pakistani art in three dimensions, the followers of Chughtai, Sadeqauin and Shakir Ali. However, since the latter was the principal and teacher of a renowned Art institution, his impact was immense. For that reason, we could see his followers in the shape of Panj Piyare (the five loved-ones), on the pattern of Akbar’s Navratna (Nine Jewels). These were Raheel Akbar Javed, Sheikh Safdar, A.J. Shamza, Ali Imam and Moyene Najmi. Another reason of this popularity was the style and themes that Shakir introduced to the new generation of late sixties and early seventies, which were more practical and corporeal in execution, even to depict the most abstract and intangible ideas, contrary to the Miniatures of Chughtai or the poetically thematic canvases of Sadequain.

Pakistani institutes imparted education on western lines while the old masters of native conventional styles, mostly took their art to their graves with a little exception of a few numbers of their students.

In Calligraphy, Ahmed Pervez and A. J. Shamza are the names who contributed towards the collective shape of Pakistani art on the grounds of their individual style, but some others made a difference at greater degree. Khalid Iqbal is one, who could be called as the maestro in Landscape painting, with his local colours and western technique of creating enchanting foregrounds and depth in the backgrounds by virtue of his control of tonalities formed through diffusing shades. He introduced Modern Realism to Pakistan, which compelled many to be inspired. Khalid’s presence, first at the Department of Fine Arts and later at the NCA, academically inspired a generation of artists under his fatherly attitude. His immersed but yet soft canvases recorded the different shades of Pakistani soil.

Saeed Akhtar, was another talented graduate from NCA, a draftsman of competency who solved his drawing problems by adopting and applying the observations, he came across while molding sculptures; a way to get adept in three dimensional figurative and portrait painting. The realistic and accurate rendering became his mark of respect.

Zahoor al-Akhlaq, with his philosophical and abstract approach, strengthened the conceptual foundation of modern art in Pakistan and caused NCA to adopt modern styles and techniques in painting.

Punjab University produced Collin David, the most talented and undoubtedly, the most controversial student of Anna Molka for numerous reasons, but a wonderful draftsman of divine linearity he was blessed with. His figurative work showed his anatomical expertise that enabled him to introduce Pakistani art with the flair, on an exaggerated note, of Rubens and Raphael.

Zulqarnain Haider, started as an extension of Khalid Iqbal, by adopting Landscape painting in almost the similar style, but gradually, the Kashmiri restless blood accepted new challenges that nature put ahead of him in changing light, intervening twigs and stretched earth; he captured them from his feet to the vanishing point at horizon, or even beyond.

Ghulam Rasul added the stylization in his Landscapes and enriched the colours of his paintings. He also used the small hills of Potohar as the grey backdrop behind the lush green fields.

Contrary to the Modern Realism of Khalid Iqbal and company, Zubeda Javed emerged as a painter with strong imagination. She is one of those rare female painters of Pakistan, who adopted modern technique of painting Landscapes and Cityscapes, in a manner, that was considered by many, as closed to semi-abstract and Impressionistic. She, with an intuitive colour palette and painterly brush, produced a unique and aesthetically strong display of colours, coming out of deep backgrounds. Her painting style encouraged the modern approach towards colour, composition and light.

English Literature inspired Mian Ijaz al-Hassan to think and act in accordance with the new ideologies that were in vogue in the seventies, his thematic and radical paintings based on communist doctrine disturbed the sound sleep in the upper halls. However, he dug out the fragile soil of Pakistani land with the ‘red scythe’ and sowed the seed of the yellow Laburnum (Amaltas) tree; a pivotal symbol of his paintings.

Iqbal Hussian threw light on the burning and rotten issues related to an abode of notoriety; the red-light area. His Cityscapes might take you to the dark alleys and whispering walls of the old city while his portraits of the bulky and carefree looking women, made a social comment on the unaccepted side of the society.

On the other hand, Ghulam Mustafa crafted a labyrinth comprised of the narrow and shady paths of the walled-city and the lush green mountains of the northern areas with his soft pastels on the textured surface of pastel-sheets or on the well stretched large areas of coarse canvases with oil colours.

Bashir Ahmed initiated the Department of Miniature painting at NCA that inspired many young painters to adopt this conventional painting style. Bashir’s strive to restore the tradition of Miniature painting resulted in Contemporary Miniature that revolutionized this genre in Pakistan.

With torches in the hands of all mentioned above, there were many others along with them, passed on the Pakistan palette to the new generation of painters by stepping into the 21st century.

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Source by Nadeem Alam

Contemporary Art: 200 of the World’s Most Groundbreaking Artists

Contemporary Art: 200 of the World's Most Groundbreaking Artists

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This veritable Who’s Who of contemporary art—now in a new format and fully updated—contains 200 of the most influential, widely exhibited, and talented artists. Spanning 40 years, the list ranges from Lucian Freud, Louise Bourgeois, and Jasper Johns to Ai WeiWei, Subodh Gupta, Matthew Barney, Damien Hirst, and Tracey Emin. Insightful biographies, with a special focus on key works, and cross-referencing to linked artists, themes, and movements, make this the essential insider’s guide to the international art scene.



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Mizuhiki – The Japanese Art of Knot Tying


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Mizuhiki is the traditional Japanese art of knot tying. It is made by tightly winding washi (japanese paper) into a thin cord, then using that cord to tie a series of knots.  Sometimes the individual cords are adhered to one another to make a wide strip and then knotted.
The mizuhiki knots and cords create intricate bows and flowers for decoration, and even creative frames or woven/knotted baskets.

In the past, mizuhiki was used as decoration for special cards, letters and gifts for important or high-standing people, and in some cases, to tie the Samurai top knot hairstyle.

Today, mizuhiki is widely used for decorating cards and gifts for occasions like weddings, baby showers, graduations and many other important events. 
Growing in popularity both in Japan and overseas, mizuhiki is also being used for table settings, home decor, and even fashion accessories.

Some mizuhiki artists can create beautiful life-like animals and other creative sculptures for display or as a wonderful addition to gift wrap. 
The most common decorations are flowers, bows, Japanese cranes, butterflies and carp for both beauty and symbolism. For example, the carp and crane are greatly used to symbolize strength, grace and longevity.

By using basic knot techniques combined with weaving or even a crochet style, it is possible to create beautiful pieces of art like floral bouquets, life-sized sculptures (like carp, butterflies and flowers), or even functional items like place mats, utensil rest, baskets, hair and clothing accessories or lovely decoration that wraps around glassware.

Another important thing to consider is the colour combination. In Japan, colour combinations have a specific meaning for many occasions, so mizuhiki decorations must also follow the theme.  For example, special joyous events like weddings use red and white or gold and silver. For births, graduations, house warming and other happy occasions, a simple red and white combination is used, and finally sad events (like funerals) use black, white and silver.

Today, mizuhiki has such a wide range of colours and patterns, it’s simple to use it for anything your can think of from art, decor, fashion and more!

For more information or to see some mizuhiki examples, check out Miho’s mizuhiki page .

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Source by Miho Suzuki

Western Art – Neo-Primitivism – A Contemporary Edge to Primitvism


Neo-Primitivism – The History

After Russian painter and art theorist Aleksandr Shevchenko published his book ‘Neo-Primitivism’ in 1913, a completely new genre in art was formed with the same name. However, other accounts suggest vice-versa. According to them, Neo-Primitivism began much earlier, with its official launching in 1909, at the third ‘Golden Fleece Exhibition.’ The art form is said to span over 1907 through 1912. Although, it was primarily a Russian art movement, it became equally popular in the Western nations. Neo-Primitivism was fundamentally a radical modern sect with primitive style executions and therefore, named so.

The Details

The characteristics of Folk Art, like lubok, embroideries, distaffs, icon painting, and spoons, formed the basis of Neo-Primitive works. The frames were usually one-dimensional, flat imageries with bold color schemes, and visible brushstrokes. The paintings lacked, not only in visual depth, but also in their intricate or visionary representations. The Neo-Primitive works often look like child-art, with the distortions of forms and space.

The Artists

Russian artists Aleksandr Shevchenko’s (1883-1948) publication describes a harmonization of Russian Folk Art with some different art forms, like Futurism and Cubism. French Post-Impressionist and Cubist Paul Cézanne’s (1839-1906) body of work was also a great influence on the underlying philosophy of Neo-Primitivism. The original protagonists of this style were Mikhail Larionov (1881-1964) and Natalia Goncharova (1881-1962), though they were not the only ones. Other famous artists associated with the movement were Kazimir Malevich (1879-1935), Vladmir Tatlin (1885-1943), and Marc Chagall (Russian-French, 1887-1985).

The Artworks

Mikhail Larionov’s, ‘Soldier in the Woods’ (1908-09) is a perfect example of Neo-Primitive elements, where a brightly painted canvas in primary colors, depicts a horse smaller than the soldier is. Similarly, Natalia Goncharova’s ‘The Evangelists,’ (1910), is a set of four, oil on canvas works, 204 cm X 58 cm in dimensions each. This religious work is a leading example of icon painting, which depicts the four authors of the Gospels. The set is remarkable for its straight-forwardness, simplicity, linearity, and colors, in each piece.

Conclusion

An exhibition in Paris, featuring the native art forms of Australia, Oceania, and Africa, popularized Neo-Primitivism in the Western world. The directness of themes, bold expressiveness, striking color combinations, vigor, spontaneity, and innovation, caught the fancy of the Western artists in no time. Neo-Primitivism, in the Western world, has come as a blanket term for various types of art, including ‘Body Art.’ In broader terms, any art, which subscribes to the philosophy of Primitivism, represented with a modern outlook is Neo-Primitivism. Primitivism suggests that the life was more simple and honest for the ‘unschooled’ primitive civilizations!

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Source by Annette Labedzki

HOW TO PAINT A WINE BOTTLE by Peter Kotka


How to Paint a Wine Bottle

Fine Wine Art has been produced by Peter for the past 30 years.

Here he shows you the basics of painting a bottle.

Painting Fine Wine 1

DRAW YOUR OUTLINE WINE BOTTLE IMAGE IN ONE COLOUR. I USED BLUE.

Fine Wine Bottle Painting 2

SELECT A PALETTE OF BURNT SIENNA, ULTRAMARINE BLUE, YELLOW OCHRE AND TITANIUM WHITE. THEN ROUGH IN THE COLOURS.

Fine Wine Art Bottle Painting 3

NEXT, STRENGTHEN THE DARKS STILL USING YOUR LIMITED PALETTE
AND CREATE MORE DIMENSION TO THE PAINTING.

Fine Wine Art Bottle 4

NOW USING A FULL COLOUR PALETTE, PAINT THE BOTTLE TO ITS CONCLUSION.

USING THIS METHOD YOU CAN EXPAND THE PICTURE TO STUNNING EFFECT AS FOLLOWS:

Oil Painting of Wine Bottle and Glass

Fine Wine ArtOriginal Oil paintings of Fine Wine by Peter Kotka

The History of Fine Wine Painting

Fine Wine Paintings have been created for a very long time and has its beginnings in still life paintings dating back many centuries. Very early ‘breakfast’ pieces by the Dutch painter Nicolas Gillis, were followed by Pieter Claesz and Willem Claes Heda, the paintings initially were quite simple and very subdued in colour. Then came Willem Kalf who also featured wine, tall glasses and wine jugs, Roemer glass, candlesticks and fruit, but light seemed to be a big influence on him. Blue and white Chinese bowls with lemons, using complimentary colours to great effect. Then there was Jan Davids de Heem with Nautilus cup, green grapes, lemon and lobster, such evocative pieces to feast your eyes on, how could they not inspire?

All of these painters were superb, their paintings probably influenced fine wine art painters that followed much later. They certainly had a great influence on me and my art.

This article from the website www.peterkotka.com

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg


Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg


Der Immoblienmakler für Heidelberg Mannheim und Karlsruhe
Wir verkaufen für Verkäufer zu 100% kostenfrei
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Source by Peter Kotka