All About Tea For One Sets

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Drinking tea is truly an art, and this statement is not just a saying but a real fact for those avid tea drinkers always willing to buy the latest tea mixes and tea accessories available on the market. Tea is a beverage traditionally associated to social activities and traditions, just like the afternoon tea in the Great Britain, but tea lovers enjoy a cup of their favorite drink the same sharing a table with friends that alone at home.

When it comes to solo drinking, tea for one sets are the most sought-after accessories tea lovers want to keep at hand when spending a delightful tea time on their own comes to mind. Individual sets are nowadays more commonly seen in department stores and retailer shops almost anywhere. If you are enthusiast about tea and want to shop around, do not go with the first set coming your way.

There are two different styles of tea for one sets, the traditional style and the innovative sets, characterized for their ingenious designs. Although the items in a traditional set are smaller in size, an innovative set generally includes a larger saucer and a cup that accommodates the teapot resting at the top of these three stacking pieces that come with matching colors and patterns.

On the other hand, traditional tea for one sets come with a tray, like any regular tea set, but the teapot, sugar bowl and creamer are smaller in size as the tray itself. However tea for one sets should not be confused with miniature tea sets, which are more likely toys for children or decorative pieces for collectors. It is believed that traditional teapots produce a superior quality tea according to the British traditions.

Although every person has his / her own style when drinking tea, one main advantage that small-sized sets provides is how well they fit in almost any place, including your work area. Therefore, tea for one sets are handy, decorative and practical to enjoy a tea drink at any time of day or night.

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Source by Andrea M Jones

How to Take Care of Your Art Materials

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Your art materials are the base for your artwork. So why risk your creativity by neglecting your art supplies? It is easy to take care of your art materials. All you have to do is follow some simple steps mentioned below:

Make a Workspace

A workspace will enable you to work more effectively on your art projects. Since you get a separate area to draw and paint, you can focus more on your art work. Secondly, you do not need to search for your art supplies all around your house because they must be in your workspace only.

Another benefit of having a workspace is that kids will not have access to your painting materials. So, you will have minimum chances of misplacing them.

Plan Your Palette

Plan the colors you will be using in advance. Organize the colors in your palette accordingly. This will help you get necessary materials easily while you paint. When you select only the required colors, you can easily get rid of clutter made from using a lot of painting materials. As a result, you will be able to organize your paints and paint brushes properly.

Keep Water Away From Your Work

Since a canvas is also an art material, you should be aware of how to take care of it. If you are using water cups while painting, make sure that you keep those away from your canvas. This is important so that you do not accidentally throw the water on your art work. The more you take care of it, the better it is.

Clean Your Paint Brushes

Paint brushes require extensive care because its bristles can be damaged easily if you do not clean them properly. Cleaning paint brushes too often enhances their durability. Therefore, do not forget to clean your paint brushes as soon as you have completed your painting.

If you have used water colors in your painting, you can clean the paint brushes with water only. However, you have to clean them with thinners if you have made an oil painting. At the end, make sure that you dry your paint brushes to maintain the quality of bristles.

Store Art Supplies Separately

There are different types of boxes that are specifically designed to store materials of artwork. You can buy these boxes to store paint tubes, pastel chalks, and colored pencils in separate compartments. It will help you get access to these materials whenever you need them for your art work.

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Source by Matthew Aldis

Textile Design – A Case Study of Its Significance to Humanity

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Textile design can be defined, to mean the art of making patterns of various types on fabric materials. In a broader view, it as an area of ​​discipline in applied or industrial art had been practiced in different parts of the world at different times. For instance, it was reported practiced in China around 618-906 AD, in Japan around 552-794 AD. It was also recorded by historians that, it was practiced for centuries in South- East Asia, Indonesia, India, Peru and parts of Africa especially Nigeria to be specific. Additionally, it is an embodiment of professional disciplines that are open to different areas of specialization. For example, under it, are the following disciplines, viz; Tie- Dye, Batik, Print and Print making, Weaving and Embroidery.

Textile design has its own usefulness and purpose in mankind, and such usefulness cannot be underestimated in human daily endeavors. To start with, it can be used as a means of utility, that is, it can serve different purposes at a time. For example, it can be worn as cloth, can be used to make handbags, can be used as window blind or curtain for home and office, as table cover, as handkerchief and so on.

Textile design as an area of ​​specialization can serve as a means of employment and source of income to individuals. This implies that, an artist or a designer can explore new motifs, techniques or styles in textile design and by so doing, make himself or herself self employed without depending on government or family member (s) for sustenance. This, on the other hand, tends to reduce, to some extent, the unemployment rate of a particular society. It is also very significant in our daily endeavors in the area of ​​aesthetics.

Aesthetics is defined according to oxford advance learner dictionary as anything concerned with beauty and art, and the understanding of beautiful things. Based on this fact highlighted above, it can therefore be used as both interior and exterior decoration in public and private buildings like hotels, churches, mosque, banks, offices, to mention but just a few. The products of textile designs used for both interior and exterior decoration are usually made into various sizes, with beautiful patterns, framed and hung on the walls of the buildings.

Another vital area where it can play an important role in the daily endeavors of humans is in the area of ​​being an agent or a means to communicate, address and as well, promote cultural values ​​of a particular society. It shall be recalled at this instance that, dressing is one of the main tenets of culture. Fabric materials, to be worn as cloth, can be designed by an artist to portray some historical antecedents of a society so as to showcase such cultural values ​​to the outside world. This can be achieved, through the use of stories and motifs, that are common or identified with such societies, as designs on textile materials. Citing an instance, common folktales of different versions of a society can be made on fabrics, anyone that comes across such works / cloths will be reminded or be acquainted with the cultural values ​​of such society. Similarly, foreigners and those that are not very familiar with the cultural values ​​of the communities involved, can use the works / fabrics as reference points or souvenirs for better understanding of the cultural heritage of the communities concerned.

Economic significance is yet another area, through which the exploration of textile design can be of paramount importance to human daily endeavor. This can be explained through the boost, the sales of textile design products will give to the economy of a nation. This means that, buying and selling of the products and the patronage given to them cannot only make individuals involved to be self- reliant, but also add to the gross domestic products of a nation. It should be emphasized that, on any products sold or bought, the personalities involved in the transactions has directly and indirectly paid some amount of money as tax while buying the products. The tax goes into the purse of the government, this therefore generates some money into the purse of the government, thus, adding a quota to the national development of the nation.

Conclusively, all the points discussed in this essay are just part of a whole of the usefulness of textile design to our daily endeavors as humans.

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Source by Hassan Bamisile

His Most Famous Painting (Midnight Black Wolf) – Robert Bateman

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Canadian naturalist and painter Robert Bateman was born in Toronto, Canada, on May 24, 1930. Since childhood, he has been interested in wildlife and art. He was initially inspired by the famous “Group of Seven,” a club of Canadian ‘Realistic’ painters. Bateman perfected the art of beautifully portraying nature & wildlife on canvas. While he started his artistic stint with creating ‘Abstract’ paintings of nature, he transitioned to ‘Realism’ in the 1960s. His focus was mostly on depicting beauty in its original form, for which he travelled extensively and used his keen observation power to accurately depict the various facets of nature. One of the methods Bateman has applied while painting his works is clicking photographs and using them as models for his creations. Robert Bateman achieved iconic feat with his work “Midnight Black Wolf.”

While Bateman has also sketched and painted people & activities, in one of his interviews, he has indicated that sketching people was as easy as sitting and eating popcorn for him. He has also said that sketching wildlife offered more challenges on the account of it being an extremely diverse area of exploration. One of Robert’s most famous paintings, as mentioned above, is “Midnight Black Wolf” that depicts a black wolf on a black backdrop. Some of Bateman’s other most famous works include “Lawrence of Arabia,” “Lost-Wildebeest,” “White Encounter-Polar Bear,” “Cardinal in Sumac,” “Beech Grass & Tree Frog,” “Clan of the Raven,” “Tadpole Time,” “Awesome Land-American Elk,” “Cries of Courtship,” and “Vantage Point – Bald Eagle.”

Talking about “Midnight Black Wolf,” Bateman himself says that he wanted to “show the ominous presence of a mature, lone wolf,” creating an overall atmosphere of respect and seriousness around the animal, though not the one of threat. From the viewpoint of an artist, Bateman said that he found it extremely challenging to portray a “black animal on an almost black background.” Looking back, although Bateman became a high school art/geography teacher, he never stopped painting throughout his career. However, it was only in 1970s and 1980s that his paintings and talent began getting recognition. His work started gaining popularity with time. Bateman has around ten books, based solely on his paintings. He has been criticized over his decision to allow the reproductions of his work, by people who believe that this act devalues the genuine art market. However, these reproductions have been extremely popular and are sold across print galleries in Canada and internationally. Even today, Robert Bateman continues to paint beautiful scenes from the forests. He has carved a niche for himself in the art world through his wonderful paintings, depicting nature and wildlife such as in “Midnight Black Wolf.”

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Source by Annette Labedzki

Identifying the Signs of an Ill-Fated Relationship

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Many people are so afraid of being left alone that they don’t want to admit that they are in a bad relationship that is doomed from the very start. They strive to make it work and take on an optimistic outlook, but things still seem to spiral downward out of control.

The best policy is to examine the relationship to see if there are any toxic elements present; here are some clues:

• Verbal degradation; your partner puts you down, especially in front of others

• Empty claims of love; your partner claims to love you, but doesn’t back it up with actions.

• Controlling and dominating actions; making irrational demands, “showing up” at places you are just to “checkup” on you, or reading your mail.

• Attempts to make you vulnerable; your partner tries to make you dependent on them.

• Requesting lifestyle changes about yourself; and you have changed those things to please them.

Obnoxious people who are only out for their own ends make you feel sick just to be around them. So why would anyone wind up in a relationship with them? If these types of people make you feel emotionally ar physically damaged, why would anyone want to be with them?

Forbidding relationships have a particular cycle. The honeymoon period is first, followed by an explosive event, then that is followed up by a reconciliation – at which point the cycle repeats itself.

When you first meet someone who becomes your partner things are rosy and sweet, which is obviously the honeymoon stage. It all seems great until you get sucked in further that you realize that the relationship is not so sweet after all. At that point, it becomes difficult to get out.

The single most reason for this is that many people in bad relationships grew up under similar circumstances in unhealthy homes. Because of that, these people copy the habits of their childhood years while not actually realizing they’re doing it, so they may not understand the options of a better way. Others believe that happiness is something that bounds to escape them. Still others find that a companion, any companion, is better than none.

However, the first task at getting out and staying clear of deplorable relationships is to realize that you do have options. You can make your life better. Often, people who choose to stay in these ill-reputed relationships have low self-esteem or struggle with depression.

Once you understand that you have liberties, the next move is to begin standing up for yourself. In most ill-fated relationships, the obnoxious partner has forced upon you the notion that it is all your fault. Once you accept this, it could be quite challenging to walk away from the relationship or set new parameters at healing it.

For many, working with therapy groups can help these individuals and often get rid of as well as redefine these types of unpleasant relationships.

It is good to know that for some people it is possible to break the cycle of the bad relations. Some of these people manage to go on to create new and more stable bonds with other partners.

However, others are able to repair their relationship and remain in it.

In reality, it is possible to savage many relationships. All it takes is creating a little space. In other situations, it takes a measure of counseling. However, if both partners contribute to the effort, it is practical that a renewed bond can develop in a healthy way.

The very first thing that you need to determine is that you are willing to walk away if the relationship does not improve. If you are not willing to do this, then you’ll never be able to recover and heal whatever it is that divides you.

Once you have freed yourself from the habit that is the central part of an ill-fated relationship, you can start to apply yourself to what you need from the connection. Never nag your partner. Instead, say “I need your support,” “I need your truthful opinion,” or “I need your love.”

If you can’t get what you need, your partner should realize that you’re ready to walk.

A bad relationship is a one-way street, which creates all the adverse conditions. On the other hand, a healthy relationship is a two-way street. Everyone has the power to change that, but you must make it a personal issue and take that power into your own hands.

A healthy relationship is a two-way street. In a toxic relationship, the street is only going one way. You have the power to change that, but you must take the power into your own hands.

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Source by Duane Birth

Waste Disposal Management – 3 Methods For Waste Disposal

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Waste disposal management continues to be a rising challenge as population grows and along with the industrial development of countries. Centuries ago, people would have the trash from their homes transported and dumped in the places far away from the city of village. Today, instead of open dumping, usually the trash is collected and transported to landfills and then buried. Of course, over these hundreds of years, processes have certainly become more sophisticated. Instead of just burying the trash in landfills, we also use methods like plasma gasification, ocean dumping, incineration and recycling. Let’s take a look at a few of them.

Landfill

Amongst the many waste management methods, using a landfill is probably the most practiced in more areas of the world than any other method. Landfills are often old and abandoned quarries and mining areas. Considered the most cost-effective way of waste disposal, about 75% of the cost of implementation is attributable to the collection and transportation of waste from residential and businesses to the landfills. The waste is layered in thin spreads and then compacted, with a layer of clean earth covering the waste material before more layers are added over time.

Incineration

Incineration as a disposal method involves burning the trash. Sometimes this is simply referred to as thermal treatment, as a general category of high temperature treatment of trash material. This method can be used to transform waste into heat, gas, steam and ash. One of the advantages of incineration is that with this method, refuse volume can be reduced by half or more and it requires little usage of land. An incineration facility can be built in a small area to process huge amounts of waste. It definitely saves a lot of space compared with using a landfill only. This method is popular in countries like Japan where space is limited.

Recycling

Recycling of waste material means taking the materials and transforming them into new products. This is a key concept in the modern waste minimization philosophy. It’s about lessening the strain on the environment through minimizing the need to fully dispose (eg. by incineration and causing air pollution) of the waste generated and reducing the need to introduce new raw materials into the environment and then having to dispose of them later. In your everyday living, you may already be separating out paper products, aluminum soda cans or glass bottles into different waste containers so that these could be recycled. When bring your own shopping bag to the supermarket instead of using a new plastic bag, that’s another way of recycling.

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Source by Jeni Braxton

Cityscapes in Modern Art

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For many modern artists, one of the most potent symbols of man’s dislocation and separation from nature is the cityscape. For others, the cityscape symbolizes man’s new freedom from the drudgery of agriculture. By the 1930s and 1940s, images of the cityscape had begun to replace landscape art. Additionally, the view from the airplane, or from the Eiffel Tower, or from any of the growing number of skyscrapers around the world, had revealed a flat, patterned cityscape where recession, depth and naturalistic perspective had once reigned supreme.

The slums and wretched conditions were a part of virtually every cityscape and had inspired a new generation of architects to search for ways of building and a means of town planning which they believed would bring about positive social change. The machine was here to stay, and eventually individual artists as well as the influential and socially committed Bauhaus art school proclaimed their positive attitudes towards man’s new cityscape environment filled with both vehicles and machines.

Technology had also created new materials for the architect of the cityscape including steel, concrete and sheet glass, which would result in drastically different designs for public buildings and private homes and grant the much sought-after freedom from the past. Perhaps the anti-individualistic aspects of machine-produced objects could prove to be beneficial rather than harmful. After all, the collective individualism of national pride had resulted in a catastrophic war. A universal, supranational and anti-individualistic style for the new cityscape might help to unite man in a utopian brotherhood.

The materials of the modern age and the new cityscape style went hand-in-hand. Steel frames provided a modular grid which gave an almost unlimited verticality to the new architecture. Reinforced concrete allowed for expressive forms, and sheet glass permitted the creation of pure reflecting prisms described around the world in mystical terms.

The lack of ornamentation in prefabricated designs played a major role in the formation of an art which attempted to become a vehicle for universal values. This lack of ornamentation was further proclaimed as essential for the establishing of the newly spiritualized world order. Adolf Loos (1870-1933), ornamentation’s most virulent critic, insisted that this stylistic change alone would remake society.

According to Loos’ theory, the labor formerly wasted on ornamentation would be unnecessary. Less work would result in higher wages and a shorter workday. Class lines would ultimately be abolished. The simplified designs suitable for mass-production would return the machine to it’s rightful place as man’s servant. The cities of the world would be clean and orderly, with cityscapes built of rectangles and squares.

The aesthetic of mechanical simplicity and right angles in architecture had a direct counterpart in the sphere of painting. Piet Mondrian, a native of Holland, began his mature work with a variation of Cubism which was based on images in nature: the sea, sand dunes, the sky, and trees.

Mondrian’s desire to contribute to the spiritualizing of civilization grew in part from his Theosophical leanings. Like the architects of the International Style, he, too, sought the centrality and essence of an art stripped of peripherals. Beauty was not heavy and monumental like the ponderous public buildings and over-worked paintings of the past, but practical, light and ephemeral.

Mondrian’s striving for spiritual clarification in his work led him to a grammar of shape based strictly on horizontals and verticals. By this means, he achieved a remarkable degree of energy and vibrancy in his art. Mondrian was not threatened by the advent of the machine. The machine had not completely dehumanized man as other artists had prophesied so emphatically. Furthermore, the cities created by industrialization, especially Mondrian’s beloved New York, were not dysfunctional but dynamic and liberating.

Mondrian was part of an idealistic group of artists in the Netherlands known as De Stijl or “the style.” De Stijl’s creed was a combination of total abstraction, a minimum of creative terms, and restriction to the primary colors of red, yellow and blue and the non-colors of black, gray and white. Mondrian’s missionary zeal for a higher level of harmony in art had taken him beyond the bounds of Cubism.

One of Mondrian’s last paintings, “Broadway Boogie Woogie” (1942-3), a large oil on canvas, exemplifies many aspects of his masterful technique. Only the title reveals the reference to the external reality of the cityscape. Mondrian’s interpretation of the New York street grid is joyful and colorful. In Mondrian’s work, the loose spontaneity of other modern artists has been rarefied and ordered.

Man no longer looks at technology as an omnipotent, mystical savior. On the other hand, the dark phantom of man disfigured by his association with the machine has also vanished with the light of the new era.

Man has achieved balance and creativity on a higher level. He is no longer dependent on either the natural world or the manufactured one. Mondrian’s vision is one of abstraction resulting in the revelation of a type of universal electricity which supersedes both organic and mechanical energy.

Mondrian’s grid fills the canvas, but also contains large amounts of space and air. Perhaps the disciplined rhythm of the machine, modern life and the cityscape holds within itself an even greater freedom than the prior vicissitudinous cycles of agrarian living.

The rhythm of Mondrian’s image is accelerated and syncopated, but doomsday fears of life driven out of control by the frenzied pace of the machine and man numbed by repetition, monotony, and noise have not been realized. Man has has adapted to the technological environment and is alive and thriving after all.

Mondrian’s composition is balanced with almost mathematical precision. The space has now been completely flattened. Yet somehow Mondrian’s rectangles and squares flash continuously with a voltage born of almost gymnastic geometry.

Are the squares in Broadway Boogie Woogie intended as symbols of cars or buildings or sidewalks or traffic lights or flashing neon signs? No matter, man has mastered all of the various aspects of his new, technological life. Like a child confidant in a now familiar environment and his own well-developed skills, man can build the future he envisions with the colorful building blocks of his mind and imagination.

Mondrian has reduced life and art to the bare essentials. Variations on a single shape are combined with only three colors and white. He has omitted even the black and gray of other De Stijl artists. Mondrian’s ability to triumph artistically in spite of these restrictions sends a clear and reassuring message of hope.

Although technology has impacted culture irrefutably, the creativity and genius of man has been able to flower even within the narrowest of confines. Technology and subsequent rise of the city has neither destroyed man nor been his savior, but has instead acted as an impetus for the refinement of his ideas about life and his own nature.

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Source by Kathleen Karlsen

10 Shocking Rape Scenes in Shunga

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In the Shunga prints that were produced during the 17th and 18th Century the emphasis of the images was on the expression of excitement, lust and love showing sex on a voluntary basis by both partners. However, at the end of the 18th Century erotic images slowly changed sometimes depicting involuntary sex, in most cases showing ugly hairy men forcing themselves on innocent young girls. The following ten rape designs (a link to the pictures of these designs can be found at the end of the article!) Are striking examples of this specific theme:

Koryusai – Falconer

This chuban design by the great pioneer Isoda Koryusai (act. 1770-1780s) from his celebrated 'Prosperous Flowers of the Elegant Twelve Seasons' published in 1772-1773 was one of first Japanese woodblock prints depicting rape. The image is associated with the eighth month and shows a falconer forcing down a young girl to the ground in the middle of grass and Japanese clover. Koryusai used a somber and lurid tonality in his use of colors which, together with the wild clawing clover perfectly symbolizes the girl's entrapment.

Hokusai – Retard

Katsushika Hokusai (1760-1849) offers a rape scene in the large oban format of near-comedy in his masterful series 'Fukujuso' (aka. 'Lovemaking at New Year's' and 'The Adonis Plant') published ca. 1822–1823. Depicted is a clownish and obviously retarded bath-house attendant assaulting a maiden who he has long lusted for. He's holding a coin in his ear, as was the custom of footmen who didn't possess a purse. A similar scene can be found in Hokusai's 'Kino-e no komatsu' (Pining for Love) which is somehow less comic.

Kunisada – Binded Woman

A horrifying scene from Utagawa Kunisada's (1786-1865) 'Spring, Summer, Autumn and Winter, Prospects for the Four Seasons' -series (late 1820s) with the female victim being crucified and pinioned to a wooden stick with her arms tied behind her back. What enhances the drama is besides the location, somewhere deep in a forest, the fact that her tormentor has deliberately planned his violent crime leaving no ways to escape.

Kunisada – Fox Fires

In another rape design by Kunisada portrays three untractable palanquin bearers holding Ocho, a daughter of the owner of the Karakotoya brothel, to the ground. The restful setting is the surroundings of the Kurosuke Inari Shrine. The 'fox-lights' (fox-fires) indicate the presence of the fox spirits. This book illustration is from Kunisada's 'Shunshoku hatusne no ume' (The Erotic Adventures of Six Women) from 1842.

Shigenobu – Gang Rape

Yanagawa Shigenobu's (1789-1833) oban design from 'Yanagi no arashi' (Wind in the Willows) involves four palanquin bearers struggling to hold down a frantic woman. One of the men (second from the left) sports some detailed tattoos on both arms (in this picture almost invisible). The woman is kicking and resisting strongly, but one has the sense that she might be the one in control here.

Kuniyoshi – Candle

In this famous rape scene by Utagawa Kuniyoshi (1797-1861) from the book 'Byokei ri goyoshi ga' (c.1830), three men in a darkened room have overpowered a woman. The leading man, who is wearing spectacles, is penetrating his victim while holding a candle. It is whispered among shunga devotees that this man is actually Kuniyoshi himself.

Hokusai – Palanquin Bearers

From the shungabook series 'Manpuku Wagojin' (Gods of Intercourse) which Hokusai designed in 1821 this rape scene depicts two palanquin bearers (again!) Ready to rape a courtisan (prostitute). The man holding her from behind has a violent grip around her neck while at the same time licking her cheek.

Utamaro – Attempted Rape

In 1788 one of Utamaro's (1754-1806) most impressive early masterpieces 'Utamakura' (Poem of the Pillow) appeared in a series consisting of 12 horizontal album prints. The concerning misogynistic design of this set is one of the most dramatic scenes with a plebeian maiden being assaulted by a middle-aged workman while fighting with all her might. The two protagonists are set to a dark-gray background which heightens the dramatic effect.

Eiri – Lackey

Chokyosai Eiri's (act. 1789-1801) 'Fumi no kiyogaki' (Models of Calligraphy) , dated 1801, is considered to be one of the boldest sets of oban-size shunga known. It contains thirteen instead of the usual twelve designs and is almost completely inspired by Utamaro's 'Utamakura'. Also this print (see Utamaro – Attempted Rape), which is, compared to Utamaro's classic, a more comic interpretation of a middle-aged lackey attempting to forcibly seduce a servant girl of the same residence.

Hokusai – Post-rape Scene

The 'Gods of Intercourse' -series is concentrated on the tales of the two courtisans Osane and Otsubi who are from various social backgrounds. In this case, Osane, the daughter of a rich merchant, is depicted after a group rape. She's alone, laying against a tree and it seems like she's strangely satisfied by this brutal experience which is emphasized by the number of handkerchiefs around her. The tousled hair indicates her depraved nature and is a sign that she will come to a sorry end. It remains one of the most intriguing rape scenes in the history of Ukiyo-e shunga.

The above list doesn't include Hokusai's famous 'Dream of the Fisherman's Wife' -design and Utamaro's Kappa rape design from his Poem of the Pillow -series (both are described in my other article "10 Evocative Erotic Shunga Woodblock Prints"!) Because these scenes depict fantasies of the female protagonists involved and are not on an involuntary basis.

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Source by Marijn Kruijff

Her Most Famous Sculpture (Maman) – Louise Bourgeois

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French born-American artist and sculptor Louise Bourgeois (born 1911) has been a well-respected name in the art world for over seven decades. She is often counted among the greatest female artists of all times. One of Louise's most powerful creations is the massive sculpture "Maman," which since the last dozen years is amongst the world's largest and most impressive sculpture. Bourgeois created "Maman" as a part of her inaugural commission of The Unilever Series in 1999 for Tate Modern Museum's vast Turbine Hall. Acquiring this magnificent sculpture is considered as one of the Tate Museum's historical moments. "Maman" was first displayed outside the Tate Museum of London in 2000. It was received with the mixed reactions of amazement and amusement.

The sculpture "Maman" is a 9 meter (30 feet) tall female spider made of stainless steel. It is black in color and has a sac under its belly in which she carries 26 pure white marble eggs. Long thin legs support the small body of the spider. The sculpture radiates elegance in entirety. While building the sculpture, Bourgeois paid careful attention to details, such as the placement and the finishing of the legs of the spider, in order to achieve a well-balanced structure.

A work of 'Symbolism' centered on the complications of relationships, the giant arachnid though looks threatening; the eggs she holds in her belly however, give her a sense of vulnerability. The way she seems to cling to her eggs demonstrates her protective maternal instincts. The overbearing size of the spider is intimidating, yet intriguing. Bourgeois gave "Maman" a playful and mystical character. It exudes an emotional power over the sub-conscious. To some it may appear like a magical creature, who accidentally stepped out of some fairy tale, while others find its presence haunting like an old abandoned memory of pain or fear.

Louise created "Maman" in the memory of her mother. Bourgeois' mother was a weaver and ran a business of tapestry restoration. Bourgeois felt the egg-carrying spider was an apt metaphorical symbol for her mother as it displayed a character of strength and nurture. She believed like her mother that the spiders are friendly creatures and are protective, as they eat disease-causing insects. Several bronze casts of the fantastical "Maman" grace various museums, such as Guggenheim Museum (Bilbao, Spain), Samsung Museum of art (Seoul, Korea), Mori art Center (Tokyo, Japan), Jardin des Tuileries (Paris, France) , and the National Gallery of Canada (Ottawa, Canada). The next bronze cast of the "Maman" will be placed in Des Moines, Iowa in August 2009.

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

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Source by Annette Labedzki

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