The History of Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu

Part 1

The Beginning

“Where did it all begin?”

I don’t think anyone can answer this question with certainty, but there are plenty of good hypotheses. Every culture has some form of hand to hand combat in its history. Combat without weapons usually appears in the form of wrestling and sometimes boxing. Looking at the history timeline, one good hypothesis is that the wrestling techniques of Jiu-Jitsu could very well have come from Ancient Greece. Olympic games were one of the Greek’s strongest traditions. It is most likely that along with Greek ideas, came one of its most popular sports, Pankration. Pankration was a sport that involved both boxing and wrestling techniques and became more popular to the Greeks than either of those sports individually. Pankration would later be overshadowed by the Roman Gladiators, and then banned from the Olympics by Christian leaders of the Roman Empire. Even though new rulers would come and go, Greek customs and ideas still reached India, where Jiu-Jitsu’s foundation was likely to have been born. During Alexander the Great’s conquests (356 – 323 B.C.), he brought the Greek culture to the areas he conquered. His conquests stretched all the way to India, where he introduced the customs and ideals of Greek culture to the people of that area. Jiu-Jitsu wasn’t being formally taught in Japan for over one thousand years after this. Many say that the Greek influence in India led to the development of Kung Fu or more appropriately, Wu Shu (martial arts) in China.

The Chinese have a great deal of stories to support the history of their martial arts. The general idea embraced by most historians is that systemized martial arts techniques came from India along with Buddhism (Bodhi Dharma). The concept here is that the Shaolin temple was built in the center of China and this is where Bodhi Dharma introduced Buddhism and Boxing (senzuikyo). (ref. Aikido and Chinese Martial Arts, Sugawara and Xing) The story that supports the idea of Jiu-Jitsu coming from China takes place around the time of the fall of the Ming Dynasty. It states that a man named Chingempin came from Japan to live in Tokyo at a Buddhist temple where he met three Ronin (masterless Samurai) named Fukuno, Isogai, and Miura. Chingempin told the Ronin of a grappling art he had seen in China. The Ronin became particularly interested in pursuing the study of this art, so he then began teaching in Japan, and this art became Jiu-Jitsu.

The next theory is that there was many forms of wrestling that had developed in China. One of the most notable is Horn Wrestling, called Jiaodixi. This form of wrestling was practiced by the Mongolians and later evolved into Jiaoli, which was wrestling without the horns. This form of wrestling can be seen in Native American cultures (evident in the typical Native American Buffalo head wear) and most likely arrived there by way of Mongolians migrating through now modern Alaska. Jiaoli evolved and became Xiangpu and it is said that this form of wrestling became Sumo in Japan. Another theory says that there were practitioners of Chikura Karube, a wrestling sport developed around 200 B.C. It is said that Chikura Karube later became Jiu-Jitsu in Japan.

The last story mentioned here is that Jiu-Jitsu is Japanese and from Japan. This story follows the same basic idea but differs in that Chingempin introduced an early form of Jiu-Jitsu (not yet called Jiu-Jitsu) called Kempo in Japan, which consisted mostly of strikes and very little grappling. From there, the Japanese developed it into a more effective grappling art. One thing is certain about these stories, and that is that the Japanese were responsible for refining a grappling art into a very sophisticated grappling system called Jiu-Jitsu.

Tracing the history of grappling techniques for this book was quite interesting. In doing so, I decided to look for some common threads between the stories, which are:

All ancient cultures had some form of grappling and unarmed fighting techniques.

The Greek culture gave its fighters the greatest financial and social rewards. The ancient Greeks conquered quite a bit of territory during the time of Alexander the Great, including the area that Jiu-Jitsu’s techniques were said to have come from.

Wrestling did exist in China and Mongolia before Jiu-Jitsu did in Japan, and it is interesting to note that this is where Native American wrestling most likely came from by way of migration over the Alaskan Ice Bridge.

The pinning and throwing techniques of Jiu-Jitsu are very similar to, and in some cases, the same as those of Greco Roman Wrestling.

Development of Jiu-Jitsu

Jiu-Jitsu itself was developed in Japan during the Feudal period. It was originally an art designed for warfare, but after the abolition of the Feudal system in Japan, certain modifications needed to be made to the art in order to make it suitable for practice. During Feudal times, Jiu-Jitsu was also known as Yawara, Hakuda, Kogusoko, and an assortment of other names. The earliest recorded use of the word “Jiu-Jitsu” happens in 1532 and is coined by the Takenouchi Ryu (school). The history of the art during this time is uncertain because teachers kept everything secret to give their art a feeling of importance and then would change the stories of their art to suit their own needs.

After the Feudal period in Japan ended (Jiu-Jitsu was no longer needed on the battlefield), a way to practice the art realistically was needed, which is why Jigoro Kano (1860–1938), a practitioner of Jiu-Jitsu, developed his own system of Jiu-Jitsu in the late 1800’s, called Judo. Judo was helpful because it allowed practitioners the ability to try the art safely and realistically at the same time. The most important contribution Judo made to the practice of “Jiu-Jitsu” was the concept of Rondori. Rondori was a form of sparing and contained a set of sportive rules that made practice safe, yet realistic. Because of the sportive outlet (rules that made practice safe), students of Jiu-Jitsu from Kano’s school were able to practice more frequently due to the fact that they were not always recovering from injuries. This multiplies the amount of training time for student’s of Kano’s school and drastically increased their abilities. Judo (Kano’s version of Jiu-Jitsu) was watered down from the complete form (of Jiu-Jitsu), but still contained enough techniques to preserve its realistic effectiveness. The one problem that occurred was, in Kano’s opinion, ground work was not as important as achieving the throw or take down, therefore ground fighting was not emphasized in Judo and became weak in that system. Judo also began placing too many rules and regulations on the art to make it more acceptable as an Olympic sport. Leg locks were not allowed, and when a fight went to the ground, a player had only 25 seconds to escape a hold or pin before the match was lost. These are a few of the rules that hindered Judo as a realistic form of self-defense. Then why did Judo flourish and why was it so great? Even with all the rules and restrictions, the time-tested principle of “pure grappler beats pure striker,” still holds true. The fact remains that most fights, even those fights occurring between strikers with no grappling experience, end up in a clinch. You see the clinch in just about every boxing match, and hundreds of punches usually need to be thrown to end the fight with a strike, which gives the grappler plenty of opportunity to take his/her opponent to the ground, where a pure striker has no experience and is at the grappler’s mercy.

After a match-up between older styles of Jiu-Jitsu and Judo at the Tokyo police headquarters, Judo was named the national martial art in Japan. It was the official art used by law enforcement in the late 1800’s, and continues to be popular to this day. During World War II, many U.S. soldiers were exposed to the art of Judo and brought it back to America with them. The first issue of Black Belt magazine here in America (1961), featured a sketch of a Judo throw and was a special Judo issue.

It wasn’t until the birth of martial arts in Hollywood that the mystique of martial arts myths were catapulted to the public eye on a large scale. Here in the U.S. especially, Bruce Lee was one of the greatest catalysts for martial arts in the world today. Bruce Lee was actually a student of Judo and did many studies on grappling while he was alive. He criticized traditional martial arts as being ineffective, but ironically spread more myths about martial arts through his movies than almost anyone in martial arts history.

Jigoro Kano was the founder of Judo, however, Judo is simply a style of Jiu-Jitsu and not a separate martial art. Kano was not the first to use the name Judo, the Jiu-Jitsu schools he studied at, which would be the source of much of his Judo’s techniques had used the phrase before he made it famous in the late 1800’s.

The first use of the name Judo was by Seijun Inoue IV, who applied it to his Jujitsu of Jikishin-ryu. Students of Jikishin-ryu Judo were not only expected to master its ninety-seven techniques, but to also develop into generous and gentle-mannered individuals.

Kuninori Suzuki V, the Master of Kito-ryu (Kito means to Rise and Fall) Jiu-Jitsu, changed the name of Kito-kumiuchi to Kito-ryu Judo in 1714. The most important contribution that kito ryu would offer Judo was the principle of kuzushi (off-balancing), which is the key to the throwing techniques of modern Judo. Jigoro Kano studied the judo of Jikishin-ryu and Kito-ryu, and incorporated some of their concepts into his original system, which he named Kodokan Judo.

Judo is made up of many styles of Jiu-Jitsu whose masters Kano had studied with. The most notable were Jikishin-ryu, Kito-ryu, and later Fusen-ryu would be incorporated for its groundwork (ne waza) as Kano would ask the style’s head master, Mataemon Tanabe for his syllabus. Yokiashi Yamashita (Kano’s Chief assistant) would add his knowledge of Yoshin Ryu ju jitsu and Tenshin shinyo Ryu ju jitsu, both of which, he was a master.

In 1912, Kano met with the remaining leader masters of Jiu Jitsu to finalize a Kodokan syllabus of training and kata. Aoyagi of Sosusihis Ryu, Takano, Yano, Kotaro Imei and Hikasuburo Ohshima from Takeuisi Ryu. Jushin Sekiguchi and Mogichi Tsumizu from Sekiguchi Ryu, Eguchi from Kyushin Ryu, Hoshino from Shiten Ryu, Inazu from Miura Ryu and finally, Takamatsu, a Kukkishin Ryu master, whose school specialized in weapons training.

Before the formal meeting between Kano and the grandmasters of Japan’s greatest Jiu-Jitsu schools, a defining event occurred, which is one of the most historically important pieces of the Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu puzzle. By 1900, the Kodokan had been challenging other Jiu-Jitsu schools in sport competition and winning with throwing (standing) techniques. Much of the Kodokan’s status was built on the throwing skills of Shiro Saigo, a practitioner of Oshikiuchi, the art of Daito Ryu Aikijujutsu. Jigoro Kano had actually enlisted the help of Shiro Saigo in order to win a famous tournament at the Tokyo police headquarters in 1886. This tournament, mentioned briefly earlier in this chapter, was Judo (Kano’s style of Jujitsu) vs. “old” Jujitsu. It is interesting to note that Kano’s champion was not originally a Judo student at all, but a student of an older Jujitsu style, which in reality, defeated the purpose of having a Judo vs. Jujitsu tournament in the first place.

As I stated earlier, Judo was a collection of Jiu-Jitsu styles, once such style was the Fusen Ryu. Fusen was a school of Jiu-Jitsu which specialized in Ground Work (Ne Waza). In 1900, the Kodokan challenged the Fusen Ryu school to a contest. At that time Judo did not have Ne Waza (ground fighting techniques), so instead they fought standing up, as Kano had been taught in both the Tenshin Shinyo Ryu and Kito Ryu systems he studied. Both Kito Ryu and Tenshin Shinyo Ryu had excellent striking skills and effective throws.

When Kodokan Judo practitioners fought the practitioners of Fusen Ryu Jiu-Jitsu, the Kodokan practitioners realized that there was no way they could defeat the Kodokan Judoka standing, thus they decided to use their superior ground fighting skills. When the Kodokan fighters and the Fusen Ryu men began to fight, the Jiu-Jitsu practitioners immediately went to the guard position ( lying on their backs in front of their opponents in order to control them with the use of their legs). The Kodokan Judoka didn’t know what to do, and then the Fusen Ryu practitioners took them to the ground, using submission holds to win the matches. This was the first real loss that the Kodokan had experienced in eight years.

Kano knew that if they were going to continue challenging other Jiu-Jitsu schools, they needed a full range of ground fighting techniques. Thus with friends of other Jiu-Jitsu systems, among them being Fusen Ryu practitioners, Kano formulated the Ne Waza (ground techniques) of Kodokan Judo which included three divisions: Katame Waza (joint locking techniques), Shime Waza (choking techniques), and Osae Waza (holding techniques). This all occurs shortly before Judo arrives in Brazil, and serves as an excellent suggestion as to why Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu contains a higher percentage of techniques on the ground than most styles of Jiu-Jitsu or Judo. Thus, we find ourselves faced with the impending development of Jiu-Jitsu in Brazil.

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Source by Gene Simco

Restaurants in La Manga

Spain has a rich and diverse food history and the restaurants in La Manga offer a range of culinary treats.

Situated on the Costa Blanca, La Manga soaks up all the flavours of the area to create a mouth-watering menu. Many recipes are handed down from generation to generation until they become a part of the region’s character. Like most of Spain the main choice of appetiser is tapas which comes in a variety of different forms, making the most of the Mediterranean’s abundant sea life.

When it comes to a main course rice dishes are the local specialty. Within the dish can be things as diverse as red shrimp, rabbit or snails, but the one thing all of them have in common is that they are delicious. For something a little more substantial, stews are very popular and simmer with all the flavours of the region. Finally for desert, Turron, which is made from honey sugar and white egg, is the local favourite, and would make the perfect La Manga meal complete.

Finding a place to savour these local treats couldn’t be easier, as Cabo de Palos is just ten minutes from the club and has a range of great restaurants. Restaurant La Tana is an ideal place to sample the local flavour, in particular the rice dishes. Their signature dish, Rice La Tana, is rice made with minced squids and shrimps, with no heads and no bones. Restaurant El Pez Rojo is another excellent establishment, located on the harbour which does great fish. A good tip is to try the long and narrow menu which offers many of the dishes in small proportions so you can try a wide range of food.

The local food really is a treat, but don’t think that La Manga doesn’t have a great range of international restaurants. Blues Restaurant has built up a good local reputation and serves a variety of international food, as does Run, which specialises in Chinese, Japanese and Vietnamese dishes. If a pizza takes your fancy then Via Romana has a good menu and food at very competitive prices. German and Argentinean cuisine is also served at Castillo de Mar and El Parador respectively, but don’t worry if you miss the taste of home, Bar el Sol on La Manga beach serves really good fish and chips.

You may feel like creating something using the flavours of La Manga yourself, in which case the local seafood is a must. The regional shellfish have a global reputation and are scintillating when prepared on a hot-dish and served with the local fishermen’s rice dish Caldero. In Cartagena you can find fresh fruit and vegetables and the local lamb is also well worth a try.

No trip to La Manga would be complete without sampling some wine. There is free wine tasting available at Los Belones and you can buy a bottle of your favourite variety. Spain is famous for its red and white rioja and La Manga is no exception. La Manga has a broad range of restaurants, cafes and food outlets and, with an open mind you are sure to have a memorable time.

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Source by Michael J Lee

Sun Tzu Art of War – Momentum & Timing in Strategy

Sun Tzu used two analogies to stress the importance of two aspects and they are momentum and timing. With momentum, even water that does not have a solid shape is able to push big boulders and with good timing, the eagle was able to break the body of the prey without much effort. As seen below, or Chapter Five of Sun Tzu Art of War.

When the gushing torrential water tosses stones pushing boulders, it is because of the force of its momentum. When the ferocious strike of an eagle, breaks the body of its prey, it is because of the timing of the strike. Thus the forces and momentum of the adept in warfare are so overwhelming and ferocious and his timing of engagement is precise and swift.


So where and how can we use momentum in business? One aspect where we can use momentum is advertising. When you are entering into a new market, the first most important thing you should do is to set up your marketing campaign correctly. Your marketing campaign must build up momentum, having constant and continuous exposure of your products and brand to the new consumers. Repetition help consumers to remember your brand and product better. Ways to make the consumers remember your products and brands are logos, jingles, slogans and many more. Many consumers have preferred senses to learn and absorb things. Logos would appeal to people who are more visual in learning, jingles and slogan would appeal more to people who are more auditory. That is reason why most of the marketing campaigns has both. For examples, NIKE, has “JUST DO IT”, HSBC has “The World’s Local Bank” and many more.

So repetition would create momentum for your advance into a new market. With this momentum, you are able to let yourself be noticed in the new market and consumers, who are currently disappointed with what is currently offered in the market, would be willing to try your products or services. Note here is that, you have to do some research on those competitors who are operating in the new markets you are advancing. You have to know whether you are providing any value proposition to the new market at all. If what you are selling is the same, be it the sales process and products, it is unlikely that you are able to maintain the market share that you initially snatch away from your competitors.


So what about timing? Is timing important in business? In an article found in the Business Times, Singapore (23 Feb 2005), many niche restaurants have to close down soon after they opened. This could partly be blamed on the bad timing of the opening of restaurants. They were mostly opened during the bad economics times. So you see, bad timing can kill but good timing can make one prospers. We have seen in investing, if we are able to time our purchase and selling of shares well, we would reap the maximum amount of profits, but this is difficult. In business, the timing of entering a new market is also important, for example, when you enter the new market when the consumers are starting to change taste or bad economics times, you may not be able to gain many sales to sustain your business.

But a note must be made here that, these is good and bad timing to execute business decisions. Bad economic times although results in lower sales, it also means lower costs of expansion as well. SEMBAWANG MUSIC, a listed company in Singapore expanded his branches during the financial crisis because it was only during that time when the six locations that they wanted were cheap and Singapore currency was stable, while regional currencies was tumbling, allowing them to import a lot of Music CDs at a low price. (The Sunday Times, 27 Mar 2005, Page 19). To put it in another perspective, for every time, there is the right thing and the wrong thing to do.

So how are we able to get the correct timing? There are two aspects, one is knowledge and the other is experience. Knowledge allows us to gauge a range of time when opportunities is about to happen as such we can make preparation to take the opportunity. Now, we can gain relevant knowledge on our own but to be able to grasp the timing correctly, it would greatly depend on experience and attitude. Because timing is like shooting an arrow, you can have knowledge of the wind direction, the bow’s strength, the angle to shoot at and many more, but when it comes to practical, which is releasing the arrow, it takes experience. As the common phrase said, “Practice makes perfect” it never says “Knowledge makes perfect”.

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Source by Koo Ping Shung

Places to Find Photo Canvas Frames

Making your photo into a canvas print is a unique way to turn boring pictures into works of art. A canvas print is a photo that has been scanned into a computer and then printed out onto canvas material normally used for paintings. The only thing left to do after receiving your canvas prints is to put them in a frame that compliments the photo and brings out its essence. But where exactly do you get frames to use? There are several places where you can find photo canvas frames that will add life and character to your pictures.

The primary place you should look is a retailer who sells photo canvas frames. These frames are both premade as well as custom made and come in a variety of styles designed to suit just about every taste. A good place to look for a retailer is on the internet. Purchasing frames on the internet allows you to experience the convenience of ordering in the comfort of your home as well as having your items delivered right to your door. Additionally, retail store have knowledgeable staff that can talk to you about your projects and help you select the best frame for your canvas print.

Another place you can find photo canvas frames is at garage sales, swap meets, and antique shops. You can find unique frames that will give your pictures a retro glam look at next to nothing prices. The nice thing about buying frames second hand, is that you can customize them to give them additional flair. For example, if you have a picture of the sea, you can glue seashells and sand to the frame to turn the photo into a 3-d masterpiece. The fact that you can get these frames very cheap means it won’t cost you an arm and a leg to experiment with them.

Putting your pictures into photo canvas frames helps to protect your picture from the elements. That way, your picture will last longer and bring you joy day after day for many years to come. Finding appropriate frames is relatively easy. Getting the right colour combinations that enhance the photo rather than overpower it can be a challenge. Just remember to try and keep the frame, mat and picture in the same colour family. If need be, take a look at the paintings and pictures of other artists to see how they have framed their work so that it looks its best.

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Source by Troy Truman

List of Famous Art Pieces in New Jersey

Artists in New Jersey have used a wide variety of styles to express their skills and ideas. They made art pieces through wax sculpture, watercolor, charcoal, glass, and many other materials. Even the modern art we have today has different variations making them unique as well.

Many notable artists have created art that last for decades, and now many people appreciate each piece. It means that art will never die because it serves as part of our lives. Here are just a few of those you may want to check on the different museums in New Jersey.

Madonna of the Subway

Allan Crite painted this art in 1946. It depicts a black Virgin Mary and baby Jesus ride the Orange Line. His religion inspired many of his works. He uses both the themes of life in Boston’s African American neighborhood as well as the Bible with black characters. He wishes to show the sacredness of humanity through this painting.

Rock and Roll Voodoo

The famous painter Kelly Sullivan created this painting in 1994 at San Francisco’ Warfield Theater. It was for the private Halloween party dedicated for the Rolling Stones during their Voodoo Tour. It is unique because the painting was completed by the Rolling Stones together with their guests. Each of them added their touches of paint and signatures to this canvas.

Fourth of July

Kevin Blythe Sampson created this sculpture. He made this piece to express he and his neighbors felt toward George W. Bush’s “old boy network.” Many residents worried that it would turn out into isolation and aggression, causing the nation to stand alone in the world community.

Steampunk Watch Part Sculptures

The New Jersey-based Sue Beatrice created this interesting sculpture by assembling smallest components from repurposed antique pocket watches and other timepieces. She used to join different parts of an item and make them as human or animal figures.

Portrait of Benjamin Green

This portrait was created in 1956 and is currently displayed in the Montclair Art Museum. It reflects the cultural background of the colonists during the 18th century. It was painted by Joseph Blackburn featuring the soft pastel colors and brushwork which signifies the European rococo painting.

Christmas Morning

Thomas Ball made this sculpture in 1875. This work depicting the innocence of childhood is one of his marble sculptures Ball made. It is characterized as a little girl of about eight years old. The child still wears a nightdress and only one sock. She is up very early to see what has been put into the other sock. She neglects the presents stacked at her feet and prefers to contemplate a crucifix. Therefore, this child is a perfect example of Christian morality and religious virtue.

These art pieces are just a few of the most interesting and notable gifts that the artists have shared with us. Almost all art that became famous came from the old era which means that people will not forget how these things became a part of our culture.

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Source by Lexi Muller

Exploring Musee D’Orsay in France

Paris, the ‘most visited city’ in the world serves home to some famous historical monuments & museums. It is also considered as the hub of many art & cultural renaissances. Many monuments and landmarks that adorn the city are world famous and visited by millions of tourists every year. Musée d’Orsay is one such museum situated in the banks of River Seine; it mainly holds French arts from 19th and 20th century. So when you visit France, along with the famous Eiffel tower, Louvre museum, Notre Dame or Sacre Coeur, take a tour of Musée d’Orsay and enjoy the master pieces created by world renowned painters and sculptors. When you visit Paris, you can stay in Paris hotels which are located in places convenient for tourists to commute between places of interests.

Musée d’Orsay: If you are an art -lover, this museum will surely excite you. It has a huge and extensive collection of paintings, photography, furniture and sculptures from the impressionist and post- impressionist era. The original work of art by famous painters and sculptors like Van Gough, Sisley, Renoir, Monet, Degas, Manet, Gauguin, Caillebotte, Whistler, Cavelier, Rodin, Claudel and many more are preserved here.

The interesting fact about Musée d’Orsay museum building is that, it was originally a railway station Gare d’Orsay which was transformed into museum in the year 1986. The main idea behind the construction of the museum is to link the gap between National Museum of Modern Art and Louvre.

The museum organizes different shows and exhibitions around the year and you can get to know the yearly itinerary in their official website. You can do some shopping as well in the museum shop and treasure the souvenir.

Accommodation in Paris: There are several hotels in Paris that provides accommodation within affordable price and if you want to indulge yourself in this romantic city you can also choose from a bouquet of luxurious Paris hotels. Most of the hotels are situated near the tourist attraction spots and are well connected for the commuting convenience of the visitors. You can either book your hotel online or on-site, though the best idea is to pre- book the hotels online as you can compare the rates and services provided by the hotels in Paris.

When in Paris, you are sure to feel a brush with history of extra-ordinary art & culture, Musée d’Orsay will take you back to the period when such creations took place. The original paintings & sculptures are invaluable pieces of art and definitely worth a visit.

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Source by Soma Piyali Nath

Top 10 Art Galleries of the World

Art galleries are ideal platform for displaying visual arts, be it painting, sculpture, or photography. Art galleries are a collected culmination of endurance, time, effort, and tastes of many generations, in order to depict the diverse arts and cultures of various ages. Therefore, be it contemporary or traditional Fine Arts, art galleries house all. Promoting emerging artists of all ages, art galleries give them too a chance to flaunt their artworks, at times amidst internationally renowned artists. Committed to excellence in art, the top 10 art galleries proffer you a rich, memorable experience. This article tries to picture the top ten galleries of the world.

1. Musee Du Louvre, Paris. The Louvre of Paris is one of the most visited art museums of France. From its beginning as a royal fortress to the public gallery that we see today, Louvre, with it architectural superiority and one of the most stunning artistic collections, has dominated Paris ever since its establishment. The artworks on display in this art gallery have a universal appeal that strike a chord on all their spectators. Some exceptional paintings the museum houses include, Jacques-Louis David’s “The Coronation of Napoleon,” Hyacinth Rigaud’s “Louis XIV,” and Leonardo da Vinci’s “Mono Lisa” & “The Virgin on the Rock.”

2. The National Gallery, London. London’s National Gallery is an enthralling exhibition of the Western European art, where history is depicted and is well preserved. Founded in 1824, the art gallery houses a rich collection of over 2300 paintings belonging to 13th to 18th century. The gallery has always been a centre of criticism and controversy for not planning an effective management of space & on policies considering the preservation and the restorations of the artworks. Some imperative artworks are, Leonardo da Vinci’s “The Virgin Of The Rock” & “Burlington House Cartoon,” Raphael’s “Portraits of Pope Julius II” & “The Madonna of Pinks,” and Michelangelo’s “The Entombment” & “The Manchester Madonna.”

3. Museo Del Prado, Madrid. An art gallery in the capital city of Spain, it displays the stupendous & the royal Spanish anthology. It has an elaborate collection of approximately 5000 drawings, 2000 prints, 2000 decorative & work of arts, and 1000 coins & medals. The gallery houses one of the finest collections of Spanish paintings, especially by Diego Velázquez, Francisco Goya, and El Greco. The artworks are, Velázquez’s “Las Meninas,” Francisco de Goya’s “La maja desnuda,” Roiger Vander Weydon’s “Descent of Christ from Cross,” “Self Portrait” by Albrecht Durer, and Hieronymus Bosch’s “The Garden of Earthly Delight.”

4. The Metropolitan Museum, New York. This North American art gallery has a colossal collection of about 2 million artworks and is considered the largest in its genre. The collection includes but is not limited to, classical antiquity & ancient Egyptian art; sculptures of European masters; American (“Portrait of George Washington” by Gilbert & works of Winslow Homer, George Caleb Bingham, & John Singer); modern art; African; Asian (Chinese calligraphy and painting including Nepalese and Tibetan works); Oceanic (Australian Aboriginal Rock Paintings); Byzantine & Islamic (miniature painting from Iran & Mughal India); & Greek & Roman (Euphronios Krates & Amanthus Sarcophagus) art; and a wide assortment of the musical instruments of the world.

5. Sao Paulo Museum of Art, Brazil. Sao Paulo Museum of Brazil in Latin America is a prominent building that houses an exquisite collection of Latin American works, dating back to World War II. Some of the artworks in the gallery are, Raphael’s “Resurrection of Christ,” Rembrandt’s “Self Portrait with Golden Chain,” Brazilian art (Nicholas Tarsilao Amaral) & Brasiliana, Latin American (Torres Garcia, Gilbert Stuart), & North European paintings.

6. National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne. This gallery is one of the oldest and the largest in Australia, displaying over 63,000 artworks. The art gallery also conducts an art school, which has turned out to be an Alma Mater of many renowned Australian artists. The art gallery includes the works of Gian Lorenzo Bernini, Marco Palmezzano, and Rembrandt.

7. State Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow. A famous pool of Russian fine art in the world, this gallery exhibits the ranges from “Theotokos” of Vladimir & Andrei Rubler’s “Trinity” to the monumental “Composition VII” by Wassily Kandinsky, and “The Black Square” of Kazimir Malevich. The art gallery also possesses a fine collection of socialist realism sculptures such as Yevgeny Vuchetich’s Iconic statue of “Iron Felix.”

8. National Archaeological Museum, Athens. An extended collection of artifacts from the archeological locations of Greece, covering prehistoric art to late antiquity, this great museum is an ideal place for the students of archeology. Established in 1829, the museum is an imposing Neo-classical building, which was quite popular in Europe then. It displays a wide range of prehistoric art, sculpture collections, Santorni findings, Stathatos collection, Vlastos collections, Egyptian art, and Near East antiquity.

9. Art Gallery of New South Wales, Sydney. This public gallery in Sydney exhibits Australian (settlements to contemporary), Asian, and European art. Some famous works on display in the art gallery are, Ford Madox Brown’s “Chaucer at the court of Edward III,” Streeton’s “Fire’s on.” Other Australian works displayed are those of John Glover, Arthur Streeton, Rupert Bunny, and Roland Wakelin.

10. Vatican Museum in Rome. In the 16th century, Pope Julius II founded this Roman Museum, displaying a huge collection of Roman Catholic Church. The notable collections of the art gallery include Caravaggio’s Entombment, Leonardo da Vinci’s “Portrait of Saint Jerome,” and Raphael’s masterpiece, “The School of Athens.”

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Source by Annette Labedzki

Premarital Counseling – Does It Work?

From the latter part of the 20th century, the institution of Marriage has seen a progressive decline. Studies have shown that since 1970, divorce rates have trebled. 20% of all marriages end in divorce. Another 20% of couples living under the same roof are emotionally divorced from each other.

“Getting married is easy,” says Flack, “Staying married is more difficult. Staying married for a lifetime should be considered a Fine Art.”

There are many reasons why marriage has been devalued. Some consider it an “oppressive institution.” It is much more convenient to live-in with a partner, with no shackles that bind. The very concept of permanence is anathema to young people. Changing partners is much more fun.

Yet for those who still believe that marriage is the very foundation of family and society, premarital counseling is an important step to ensure stability, security and permanence of the union. Much money, time and energy goes into planning of a wedding. But no serious time is spent preparing for the lifelong vocation of marriage. The more thought and preparation goes into planning one’s future, the greater the likelihood of growing old together.

Marriage Counselor:

The marriage counselor is a trained professional. He is sometimes a pastor who is theologically sound and is secure in his own marriage and family relationships. The counselor allows the couple to explore different areas of the relationship. He makes them introspect on their fitness, maturity and readiness to make a commitment to each other. Is this attraction true love or just lust or a magnificent obsession?

The counselor listens carefully to both parties and helps them discuss their expectations, disagreements, communication issues and other problems that might crop up after marriage. The counselor brings these issues to light and helps them decide whether they would make compatible partners or whether their attitudes are so divergent that entering into marriage would be a disaster. Counseling would help them realize that they never knew each other well enough.

Scope of Premarital Counseling:

• Compels introspection. Are you ready to face responsibility and mature enough to cope with the otherness of your mate?

• Why marry? Ask yourself the reasons why you want to get married. Is it because your friends have all married? Or do you want to escape from parental supervision? Or you just long to have a home and family of your own? Perhaps the man is looking for a cook and the woman wants a provider.

• Values: Do you have similar values or do they clash? If so, marriage will be a tug of war.

• Character: Manners are important. Is the person you intend marrying over possessive, have controlling behaviour, suspicious, or the type who clings?

Self centeredness is also detrimental to marriage. Is he/she addicted to drugs, alcohol or other substances?

• Determine the qualities you want in a mate. Behaviour traits, relationships, health, ambitions, goals, career plans must all be considered.

• In-law relationships: Take a good look at the family. Is it a stable family? How are women treated? Will you have to live in a joint family? In-laws can often be toxic and create problems for the couple.

• Occupation of the spouse: Absentee husbands, working wives, high-tech jobs, salaries, are some of the issues that must be discussed.

• Understanding your roles. Who will be responsible for what, within and outside the home?

• Culture and religion: If of different religions, decisions must be made regarding expressions of faith. Which faith will the children follow?

• Children: Size of the family, contraception, abortion, family planning, infertility, adoptions.

• Finance: Who will control the purse strings? Insurance, debts, illnesses- how will these be tackled? People with high financial status may be reluctant to share their wealth with their mates. Film stars are notorious for their pre-nuptial agreements. But in most home, keeping money separate- the “yours” and “mine” mentality will lead to tension.

• Dowry: In Eastern and Asian countries, the problem of dowry harassment is a major stumbling block. Wives are tortured or even killed if dowry demands are not met. Many desperate women commit suicide.

• Importance of Sex in marriage: Prudish? Oversexed? It takes time to develop a mature and satisfying sexual relationship. This cannot happen overnight. Time will be needed for adjustments. Both must be aware of the variability of desire.

• Past relationships: Both must be emotionally unencumbered by their past relationships. Bringing the ghosts of past relationships into marriage will invite suspicion and deter bonding.

Outcome of Premarital Counseling:

The couple gets a clear idea of whether or not they agree on major issues. “Can two walk together unless they are agreed?” Are there too many incompatibilities and irreconcilable differences? If so, it would be best not to marry. The counselor will outline the pitfalls of entering such a marriage. If the counselor is a pastor, he will be well within his rights to refuse them a church wedding.

If the differences are minor, they must have a mutually agreed plan on how to solve future disputes. Awareness makes it easier during such times.

In 1992, when a hurricane hit South Florida, buildings were all flattened except for one house that stood upright. TV crew asked the owner how he had managed this feat. He said that he had built his house according to the Florida Building Code which could withstand any hurricane. Obviously the others had not followed the code.

Couples need to follow the Marriage Building Code if they want to weather the storms of life. One counselor called pre-marital counseling a “vaccination against a sick marriage.” Another called it a “marriage boot camp”. Professional guidance is given over a period of five to eight sessions, so that all issues are sorted out. Each is reminded that the responsibility of staying together belongs equally to both.

As the Book of Proverbs says, “Plans fail for lack of counsel.”

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Source by Eva Bell

Fine Arts Forgotten – Better Art Programs for your School

For younger children it helps to have more of a variety–basic supplies can go a long way if you have the right crafts in mind. Do not be afraid to be messy-even in high school art classes they use drop cloths while working. Although you and your students can be very creative with these basic supplies, you want to have more options available for you–and the way to do that is to obtain the best art supplies you can for your shcool there are–and not just the basic ones.

If paints are not on your list of art supplies–they should be. The younger kids can do great things with finger-paints and watercolors. With these kinds of artistic tools the students can learn lessons about the color wheel. For example: using primary colors of finger-paints, show your students how you can mix primary colors to make secondary colors. This way they are learning some of the basics of art at an early age.

For the older groups of children art supplies should also include paints as a priority. As the children get into middle school and high school their artistic skills will be developing and as teachers we want to encourage that artistic development–not prevent them from moving forward with their talents. For example: finger paints just are not going to do the trick if the students are going to be using brushes–watercolors are also out of the question because the students are above that now. Sometimes in high schools advanced upperclassmen, as well as some students in colleges will revert to watercolors for certain projects–but by that time they are in a whole new league. For the older grades–even older elementary students like fourth and fifth graders your art supplies should include acrylic paints and brushes of several sizes. The students will also need easels and paint trays.

As they get even older it is great to have additional art supplies such as oil paints as well as, paint sponges, spray paints or preferably, airbrushes, canvases and frames (or wood for frames the students can build themselves), pastels are great supplies and so are charcoals, as well as clay and pottery wheels–if your budget allows.

I know that obtaining all of this is quite an expensive proposition, however, not an impossible one for all schools. All of these art supplies were provided by the school I attended in tenth through twelfth grade, and because of such resources the art program the school was able to provide was stellar (and still is). Students were able to excel in art immensely if they chose to take the art classes offered as electives. Classes like portraiture, oil painting, landscapes, abstract art, pottery, and so on. Some students even received college credits in art before they graduated high school. But without certain art supplies being provided for schools, schools will never have the option to offer such classes. It is certainly a thing to consider.

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Source by Anne Clarke

Is Giclee Just an Inkjet Print?

What is a Giclee print? This has been typed into search engines millions of times, if you are reading this article you have probably searched it yourself. In which case you will already know that the word ‘Giclee’ is derived from the French word “le gicleur” which means “nozzle”, or more specifically “gicler” meaning “to squirt, spurt, or spray”, but what does this really mean?

By definition, a Giclee print is an Inkjet print, which is correct. But what makes it different to an Inkjet print? Can I produce one on my own Inkjet printer?

Giclee prints are used to reproduce Fine Art to the very highest standards. A well produced Gilee print should be indistinguishable from the original art. This is why they are so popular with artists who wish to produce reproductions of their art for short runs and limited editions.

Although ‘Photo Quality’ inkjet printers can produce excellent results, the resulting prints cannot be compared to Giclee. The first consideration is the printer itself. A photo printer has four inks, CMYK (Cyan, Magenta, Yellow & Black). A printer suitable for Giclee printing would have at least nine different colour inks, some have twelve. The additional colours, subtle variations on the basic CMYK, include Light Magenta, Light Cyan, Light Black etc. This, combined with a printer using print heads capable of placing these colours accurately on the paper, produces prints with a tonal range far greater than a Photo printer could ever achieve. Expect to pay in excess of £1500 for a printer capable of producing A2 prints, £3-7000 for larger sizes.

Although the quality of the printer is of major importance, it is not the only ingredient for producing a Giclee print. The inks used in a Giclee printer will be of ‘Archival Quality’. This means that they have been tested, usually under accelerated laboratory conditions, to determine their light fastness. Claims of 70-100 years display without fading are claimed. I think we need to be objective about these claims. If a Giclee print is hung on a wall which receives direct sunlight for eight hours a day it will fade. What we do know is that it will last considerably longer than a standard photo print. How long, well, we may not be around to find out!

The paper used will also be of ‘Archival Quality’ and will be produced specifically for the production of Giclee prints. The paper may well be ‘Hand Made’, some of the leading manufactures are in Germany. It will of course be ‘Acid Free’ and will comply to the strict requirements for reproducing fine art. A range of weights, usually between 250-350gsm, and surfaces are available to suit all types of art.

The image used to produce the Giclee print must, of course, be of the highest standard. It is possible to photograph your own art if you have the right equipment and knowledge. If you are uncertain that you can produce an image of the quality required, use a professional photographer experienced in photography of fine art. There will of course be a price to pay for this service, but if you are selling your art as prints to the general public, they will need to be of a high quality commercial standard. Paying for professional origination is a good investment in future sales.

Last and not least is the person who prepares the digital image for print. Balancing and matching to the original art is a very skilled process. This will determine how your art reproduces on your final Giclee print.

Always ask to see a proof before you commit to a print run and discuss any concerns you may have with the person that will be producing your print, not the person on reception. If you are ordering online and providing your own image, ask if your chosen supplier will provide you with a free image assessment.

I hope this article gives you a better insight into ‘What is a Giclee Print’. Use this knowledge to ensure that your first prints are stunning, just like your art!

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Source by John E King

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