The Use of X-ray as Art


In my younger years I was Professor of Surgery at the Louisiana State University School of Medicine with a research interest in  wound healing.  I was also a serious photographer and had studied with local photographer Eugene Delcroix; it was thrilling to attend one of the last workshops that Ansel Adams,  the American master, actually taught.

My medical research attempted to speed the helaing of wounds. When an incision is made thousands of blood vessels are cut; fortunately only the larger ones usually bleed,  and they have to be closed off by ligation with thread or fulguration  with an electrosurgical machine. Part the healing process is regrowth of  arteries, veins, and capillaries into the wound. I decided to study this phenomenum, hoping to find a way to accelerate the process.

This  type of  research is now a large field called angiogenesis.  In the 1960’s  it had no name and I called it Vascularization of wounds. I  decided to use an X-ray technique (micoaangiography) to visualize the very small blood vessels ( arteries and veins  down to 100 microns in diameter); capillaries are too small to be seen by this technique.

My early work1  showed that new vessels appear in as early as 3 days, and can completely bridge  the wound in as little as 7 days, possibly adding some strength to the wound. My images were striking, and reminded some of Jackson Pollock’s abstract art.

I then began to make X-rays of  flowers and shells, thinking I was the first person in the world to do that.

There is an old saying in academic surgery “If you think you have discovered a new procedure (operation, way to tie a knot, etc.), all it means is that you have not read the German literature”. That was true in the 1920s and 30s as at that time Germany was the undisputed leader in the evolving field of  operative surgery, now unquestionably held by the USA.

For X-ray art  the originators were French and American,2,3. In 1913 2 an article was published in the French literature about the use of X-ray in biology. In the article there is an image which appears to be an X-ray of a leaf; the image is not labeled, and  there is no description of the equipment or technique used to make the image.

In 1914 Edwards3 published X-rays of flowers as art, but I was not aware of that work until I began researching the literature for a book I was writing on X-ray Art4

           My early images of shells and other “hard” objects were good, but I realized that to image “soft” objects like flowers or textiles ,I I would need “soft X-rays” , obtainable only from special machines designed for operation at low kilovoltage and with a beryllium window to let the radiation out. Such units are used in modern hospitals mainly  for the study of  breasts , both of the intact breast (mammography) and specimen radiography, mainly of breast biopsies taken at surgery.

I Since I needed the “soft” Xrays to obtain the best microangiograms of  healing wounds, I applied for and received  an NIH grant to purchase a Faxitron, a precision X-ray machine made for specimen radiography. I used it mainly for the microangiograms of wounds, but also was able to use it on flowers and other objects.

Although modern X-ray machines are digital, all of my images have been made on film and developed in trays. In my early work I had problems with uneven backgrounds—streaks of lighter densities. This was solved by using rotating drums for development. Using conventional trays, the problem can be ameliorated, but not eliminated, by presoaking the film in plain water before development.

All X-ray images, whether recorded on film, paper, or digitally are negative, meaning that the background is black, and the object white. In my early work I placed the X-ray films in an enlarger and made positive images on photographic paper. Such images have white backgrounds and black images.

Most physicians were trained to read the original X-ray film negatives and to many of them only negative images look right.  As art either positive or negative images can be used, and I generally prefer positive ones. I find that when physicians purchase my prints to decorate their offices or homes, they generally want negative images. This however is changing; with digital radiography, it is easy to produce positive images, and many radiologists are finding it easier to interpret such images.

  1.   Myers, M.B. and Cherry, G. Blood supply of healing wounds:  functional and  angiographic  Archives of Surgery 62:49-52 1971

2.. Goby  la microradiographie  et ses applicatios a l’anatomie vegetale Bull Soc. Franc Photogr 4:310-312 1913

3.J. Hall-Edwards The Radiography of Flowers  Arch. Of Roentgen Ray 19:30-31 1914

4. Myers, Bert The Inner Beauty of Nature X-ray Photography Applejack Art 2007

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Source by Bert Myers

Music and Art of the Philippines

Filipino music and art have both been influenced by the cultures that have migrated to this nation. The first type of music that developed in the Philippines was indigenous music brought here by native tribes that migrated from Taiwan. There are three basic groups of indigenous music styles: southern styles, northern styles and other styles. The southern style of music usually involves five different instruments including the kulintang, the agung, the gangdinagan, the dabakan and the babedil. The northern styles of indigenous music reflect Asian gong music. Their music usually features the unbossed gong called the Gangsa. In addition to the instruments used by southern and northern music styles, other instruments used in the Philippines include log drums, flutes, bamboo zithers and the Kudyapi.

Hispanic cultures from Spain and Mexico have greatly influenced the development of Filipino music. These cultures have introduced musical forms like the Harana the Kundiman and Rondalla. Most of these music forms developed as a result of the fusion between tribal music styles and traditional Spanish and Mexican music. Today the influence of Spain and Mexico is still present in modern Filipino music. Modern popular music in the Philippines still has a Hispanic flavor.

Filipino Art has its roots in indigenous traditions and colonial imports. Like most cultures, the Philippines have their own style of plastic arts like sculpture and painting. However, they also have their own style of movement arts like dancing. Some of the most notable artists from the Philippines include Fernando Amorsolo, David Cortes Medalla, Nunelucio Alvardao, Juan Luna, Felix Hidalgo and Rey Paz Contreras.

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A Brief History of Sculpture

The art form of sculpting has existed since the prehistoric age, with the earliest artists making use of materials such as ivory and clay. However, for many people, they think of the Egyptians or the Greeks as the initial creators of sculpture. It is widely known that the ancient Egyptians created a number of sculptures developed for both purely aesthetic reasons, as well as to observe rituals. The early Egyptians created sculptures of Sphinxes and Pharaohs, some of which are still in existence today. In fact, sculpture has often been used in religious practices or to honor those who were highly regarded in religious or political roles. The Greeks are also recognized for having created beautiful and lasting pieces that demonstrate the values of their time. Many of these pieces have proven their capability to survive and are able to observe even today.

Many of the most famous pieces of ancient sculpture have been attributed to the Greeks. Most often the pieces created were of people, especially those in positions of power. While the Greeks generally favored painting as the chosen art form, the sculptures were the pieces that survived to be observed and studied. These pieces were generally made of stone (often marble) and hand carved using metal tools or they were made from bronze. Bronze was considered to be of a higher stature than the stone sculptures, but not as many pieces lasted because the bronze was often melted down and reused for other purposes.

During the Middle Ages and Medieval periods, European artists utilized sculpture to represent the Gothic and Roman periods symbolized by religious architecture. The cathedrals and churches displayed intricate works of art and in some cases, provided a platform for sculptors to gain notoriety and influence. In the latter part of the Medieval period, many famous Renaissance sculptors emerged. In 16th and 17th century Italy and France, the baroque art style emerged and became the widely accepted norm.

Neoclassicism emerged in the 18th century and was characterized by a return to simplicity and restraint, a direct contrast to the extravagant baroque style that had been popular previously. This style of sculpture retained its popularity well into the 19th century as well.  

The modern sculpture of the 20th century provided a break from the realism and traditional Greek style of creating sculptures. Artists were influenced by work from many different parts of the world, including Aztec and African art. The modern sculpture movement also made use of nontraditional materials to create pieces that were not designed to last indefinitely (as it often had been in the past) but only to use the best materials to represent that piece of art for the time being. Modern sculptures also began to use everyday items to create pieces of art, known as the “pop art” style.

The current, contemporary style of sculpture is not easily defined. Artists use a variety of materials and methods for creating sculptures. Many traditional rules have been lifted and the artist is no longer limited by the popular, accepted style as they have been historically.

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Contemporary Ghanaian Verbal Arts

In contemporary Ghanaian societies, various forms of verbal arts are practiced. The indigenous verbal art forms are practiced together with the contemporary ones though with little modification in their presentations and functions. Some of these verbal art forms include Storytelling, Oath swearing, Poetry recitals, Appellations etc.

Oath Swearing

In contemporary Ghanaian societies, oaths are taken by those who take up leadership positions in the communities and the nation as a whole. Presidents, members of parliament, assembly men and women take oaths concerning how diligent, true and efficient they would be in discharging their duties without embezzling state funds and be law abiding in all their dealings with the general public. In the traditional settings too, newly appointed kings and queen mothers also take up oaths that binds them with their newly assigned responsibilities.

In the law courts, accused persons and petitioners swear and take oaths that they would speak only the truth with respect to the cases for which they have been summoned. Usually, the oaths are taken with the individual concerned holding items like the Holy Bible or Quran, ceremonial swords, leadership staffs etc.

There are also some professions in Ghana today where newly appointed persons to the job are mandated to swear oaths of allegiance to serve the people. An example is the Hippocratic Oath sworn by new doctors, pharmacists and those who work in the medical field.

Oath wearing is supposed to bind the person who engages in it to be true, loyal and efficient to whatever course for which he or she swore.


Stories with contemporary themes or subjects are told to members of the general public during church programs, school activities, funeral and wedding ceremonies. They are usually narrative and descriptive in nature. They include stories about the birth of Christ, the journeys of Mohammed and other religious themes which are told at the churches and mosques. Stories of the bravery and courage displayed by our forefathers are narrated to the general public so that the members of the society can pick moral lessons on how to mimic their sterling examples. This usually takes place during visits to historic sites and museums, schools and at other social gatherings.

Stories that reflect the Ghanaian belief in life after death is usually narrated during funeral and mortuary services of deceased persons in the Ghanaian community. Moreover, stories of successful and unsuccessful marriages of some known figures in families and communities are narrated to newlyweds as a form of advice on how to play their roles effectively as husbands and wives in the marital union by parents and other well meaning people in the communities.


During state functions and other social gatherings in contemporary Ghana, appellations are said to welcome dignitaries and other important persons. Sometimes, the achievements, bravery, academic prowess and applaudable behavioural traits are narrated by a good orator who may be a grown up or usually young girls.

Also, appellations of historic figures who have passed on are sounded at occasions where their contributions are recalled and reckoned as basis for societal growth during talks, seminars and programs held for societal development in specific areas where their contribution is indispensable.

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Contemporary Art Concepts

The term ‘contemporary art’ denotes art that are current or produced in recent times. Art from the post World War II is often considered contemporary art. However, as an artwork stands through the test of time, it does not remain contemporary any more. It is then known as historical art. Generally, works of art are considered contemporary if they are produced from 20th Century onwards. However, it should not ideally always be the case. How would piece of art, which was produced well after the 20th Century, be considered an instance of contemporary art if it has an ancient theme and originated via orthodox methods? Well, it would be hardly considered a piece of contemporary art.

In order to consider an art as contemporary, a few factors have to be kept in mind. The first one of them is of course the idea or theme of the art. The idea of art needs to be contemporary in order to get it recognized as contemporary. A study of the evolution and history of art would reveal much about how the idea of contemporary art came about. The technology, techniques, concepts and media adopted for producing art largely defines if an art is contemporary or not.

Contemporary techniques like single brush strokes, that is, producing a form of art with the help of a single brush stroke, help to complete the artwork in a much lesser time. Speed is the prime factor that helped this contemporary artwork technique to become popular. Newer technologies are often used to create 2D and 3D models which are more defined than the traditional ones. Acrylic paints, which are water-based, non-toxic and fast drying, are the contemporary choice of paint medium for many artists in the present times.

All these examples prove only one thing. The three main factors that contribute towards coining art as contemporary are simplicity, speed and convenience. However, when it comes to concepts, the contemporary sense becomes a little confusing. “Contemporary concepts” is a relative term. What seems to be contemporary to some might not be the same for others. In order to remove this confusion, the date and age of the artwork are taken into consideration. This provides the line that distinguishes contemporary artworks from the traditional.

So we can see, it’s not only the timeline that is considered while coining a work of art as contemporary, rather contemporary art is a combination of modern techniques, choice of medium, simplicity, speed and convenience.

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The Art Of Love: Sun Tzu’s The Art Of War In Romantic Endeavour

Military historians have often speculated that Napoleon Bonaparte may have utilized Sun Tzu’s timeless treatise The Art of War in his victorious campaigns, losing only when he failed to follow its rules. Certainly, his often stunning mobility would indicate that perhaps he did. One thing is certain; The Art of Warwritten over two and a half centuries ago, had been translated into French in 1782 by the Jesuit, Father Amiot and was available to the Emperor. But if he did read and apply it, he wisely kept it to himself. Mao Tse-tung however made no secret that Sun Tzu formed the source of his copious works on military strategy, tactics and guerilla warfare and his writings follow the master almost word for word. And, clearly, the fingerprints of Sun Tzu are indelible when one examines the military defeat of France at Dien Bien Phu ending their role in Indo China, and, in what may be his shining hour, the defeat of the United States of America in Vietnam. The Art of War is probably the finest treatise on the conduct of warfare ever written. But what about its application in other fields, other endeavours?

In recent years we’ve seen a spate of books applying Sun Tzu’s rules of war to business strategy which includes most notably Mark McNeilly’s Sun Tzu and the Art of BusinessDavid H. Li’s Art of Leadership by SunTzu and The Art of War for Executives by Donald G. Krause. And by all accounts they work very effectively. But this should be no surprise. By any measure, The Art of War can be applied and lead to victory in many battlefronts, international relations, politics, business and in our personal struggle for survival in the socio-economic conflicts we daily face. But what about love? What about the sexual battleground?

My father was a British professional soldier. He caught the tail end of the Second World War serving in the Burma campaign at Imphal and Kohema. He returned to South East Asia in 1948 for the Malayan EmergencyBritain’s victorious 12 year battle to defeat communist insurgency in what is now Malaysia. And it was there that my father came into contact with Sun Tzu’s The Art of Waran encounter that altered the course of his life.

The final years of my father’s military career were spent in what he called the “backwater” of NATO, a military organism he learned to despise as an expensive tax free social club for well connected civilian and military elites. He referred to it as “America’s Foreign Legion. His experiences there led him to firmly believe that in a confrontation with the armies of the Warsaw Pact, NATO would have been swept aside like a flimsy cobweb.

Throughout his career, my father made no secret of his belief that Sun Tzu should be on the curriculums of all military colleges and even schools and universities and that military promotion should be contingent on a high passing grade in knowledge of Sun Tzu. Unfortunately, as Sun Tzu was obligatory in the political and military organisms in the Soviet Union and of course China, it was considered part of the philosophy of the Warsaw Pact, I believe my father’s open advocacy of him cost him dearly in terms of promotion.

When he retired with the rank of Colonel, he moved back to England and took up his love of fly fishing. But military history was his real passion. And he enjoyed re-visiting historic battles and applying Sun Tzu’s rules of engagement to the great battles of the past.

Visiting dad was, for me, always a pleasure in itself. But it was especially enhanced by the many delightful and lovely ladies who shared his life. My mother died when I was young, a schoolboy, and my father never re-married. Yet he had an endless coterie of lovely girlfriends. I was always puzzled since my father, while a charming and intelligent man, was no film star. Nor was he, strictly speaking, a ladies man. But he was a very successful lover. And his greatest conquest was Tam.

Tam was Eurasian, born in Saigon to a Vietnamese schoolteacher mother and a Danish diplomat father. A lawyer, Tam specialized in international law and worked in SHAPE, the headquarters of NATO’s Allied Command Operations in the Belgian town of Mons. She was employed in the civilian section of NATO and it was there that my father, working in military intelligence, met her. A woman of great beauty, very well educated and of independent means, she was also a linguist in fluent command of Danish, Vietnamese, French, German and English. When I first met her in Brussels she was working on Flemish (Dutch). At 35, she was closer to my age than my father’s and for a while I was jealous. I wondered how he was able to woo such a lovely, young woman, a speculation that was only answered after his death.

After he passed away, as his only offspring, I took on the responsibility of winding up his estate. I had known since childhood that he kept daily journals, but only after his death did I come to know how copious a diarist he had been. Fascinated, I steeped myself in the volumes of neat handwritten records that filled his library shelves. And it became clear that, for my father The Art of War was more than just a military text. For him it was about an overall life strategy for overcoming obstacles, a tool to attain specific goals. Consequently he applied it to most aspects of his life. And this included matters of the heart.

In his diaries my father wrote frankly on the methods used to win the ladies who attracted him. He was not always successful as sometimes the ladies were simply not interested, and not even Sun Tzu could overcome that. But in the cases where he had a glimmer of a chance, but where the conditions were difficult or unfavorable, the application of the Sun Tzu’s Rules won the day. This was especially true in the case of Tam.

As they moved in very different circles and worked in different areas, he saw her rarely and then usually in dry, stuffy meetings in the company of others. She had a luxurious home in Brussels in the exclusive suburb of Uccle, while dad rented a simple Mons flat. But whenever he encountered her alone as he occasionally did, such as in the office cafeteria, she offered a ready smile and he made a point of joining her. Sensing he had a chance, he moved quickly. Above all else, he needed to know everything about her. And so he used spies.

He hired an expensive, high quality and very discreet private detective agency and set them to task. And they were more than thorough. Apart from their normal surveillance they penetrated Tam’s citadel by replacing her cleaning lady for a single visit and that was enough. They handed my father everything he needed. He now knew her tastes in music, literature and art as well as her favorite foods and sports: she was an accomplished and keen sailor and sea kayaker. An accomplished pianist herself, she loved classical music and was an especially fond of Elgar as well as being a jazz buff and a Stan Getz fan. He knew where she shopped for clothes and even the brand name of her underwear. She had been married once to a Danish business man, was now divorced, and had a teenage son in school in Denmark. With photocopies of her diary in his hands, dad had her social itinerary for several months ahead. He also now knew something about the men in her life: his adversaries and how formidable they were. She had many men friends and, it appeared, four serious suitors: an American Major-General in NATO, a senior French Diplomat with the French Embassy in Brussels, a successful Belgian artist, a painter of impressive quality, some of whose works hung in her apartment. The fourth was a rich Swiss socialite. My father’s next step was to know more about them, specifically about their foibles, weak points and vulnerable areas. He was well aware of his own, particularly with reference to the ground where the contest would unfold. Sun Tzu said: “If you know the enemy and know yourselfyou need not fear the result of a hundred battles.” My father would often quote the Polish writer Witold Gombrowicz who said: “Do you want to know who you are? Don’t ask. Act. Action will delineate and define you.” As Sun Tzu said: “All warfare is based on deception.” And so it was with father’s winning of Tam. He began laying plans.

He steeped himself and became erudite in her interests. He developed a taste for jazz and the Big Bands of the ‘forties; he learned to appreciate Miles Davis and enjoy Stan Getz. He attended a sea kayaking symposium in England and took courses in the sport. And having knowledge of Tam’s social itinerary, he was able to surprise her and appear when he was not expected; such as at music concerts. Often he would bring another lady, but just as often he would appear alone

It was at one such “surprise” encounter, a Mozart event, that he hit her for a date and she accepted for dinner and an evening of jazz in a Brussels club the following week. His foot was in the door. He was in her network. He had joined her club.

My father was entirely objective and quite pitiless in the handling of his adversaries. The French Diplomat was a handsome, charming, smooth tongued roguish character. My father found him, very likable. He was also a roué with a secret vice: a penchant for occasional sex with low class underage hookers in a rough Brussels immigrant quarter whorehouse. A police raid found him with two of them one well under age. Faced with arrest he tried bribery: it failed forcing him to use diplomatic immunity. This worked, but resulted in publicity, embarrassment and his fast recall to Paris. And, of course, the news did not pass Tam by and he was out of her life.

Shortly after the demise of the Frenchman, Tam celebrated her thirty sixth birthday. Dad gifted her a boxed set of CD’s, Stan Getz: The Bosa Nova Years – and a nice bound copy of Sun Tzu. She threw a party in the garden behind her home. According to my father it was an impressive event which included an excellent jazz trio, a great buffet prepared by Tam and superb wines. And, according to dad’s diary entry, it was there he began his campaign to dismantle and discredit the American General in Tam’s eyes. Dad engaged him on the American’s hobby horse – Vietnam. Influenced by drink the General became unpleasant and offensive to dad. Tam diplomatically suggested he apologize which he did, and he then left the party early.

My father learned that despite his high tax free salary, the General had a gambling problem and considerable debts, in consequence of which he had engaged in serious black market dealings with a Belgian group based in Liege. A Financial Police raid on a warehouse revealed the General’s connection. To save face, not to mention his pension, and because of his profile, he was allowed to resign his NATO post ahead of his time and quietly moved back to America.

It turned out the Belgian painter was no threat at all, dad discovered; he was never more than a good friend of Tam’s. My father met him, liked him and bought a small painting from him. But the Swiss playboy was another matter.

Tam and he were old lovers and dad could see why. In his early forties, Hans had everything: a friendly outgoing personality and an infectious smile, good looks, a great athletic physique – and money to burn. He’d never worked or had employment of any kind. He played fine tennis and often coached Tam with her game. But his big passion was motor racing and he drove well and with panache, winning many races. He’d wanted to be a world class professional, but lacked the required discipline and commitment. And it was at a race meeting at Spa Franco-Champs that my father met him. Tam took my father to watch Hans race a Porsche in a sports car event. Unfortunately he crashed out of the race at the complex and infamous Eau Rouge corner while in contention for the lead and ended up in hospital with broken bones and concussion.

My father had no wish to share his women and Tam was no exception. He liked Hans and wished him no ill but he needed to move him from all proximity to Tam’s bed. He was working on that when fate took a hand. Hans suddenly announced from Zurich that he was going to be married for the first time. The lady was a lovely young French fashion model of 21 years. He sent out invites to all his friends including Tam and my father. Tam declined. Instead, she sent him a card signed by her and dad.

Tam remained with my father for many years. I last saw her after his death when she came over to England for his wake. No longer young, but still impressively beautiful, she had retired to live in Denmark. She invited me to visit, but I never took the offer up. She remains to this day one of the most beautiful women I have ever known. I was given my first copy of the Art of War on my sixteenth birthday, a gift from my father. I didn’t read it then and it lay neglected on my bookshelf. Dad would often quote Sun Tzu, reminding me of such wisdom as: “If you know the enemy and know yourself you will not fear the result of a hundred battles.” He would also often quote the Polish writer Witold Gombrowicz who said: “Do you want to know who you are? Don’t ask. Act. Action will delineate and define you.” Father would ask me questions could not answer. This disappointed him, so to keep the peace I got down to it and studied Sun Tzu. And I’m glad I did; what a wonderful it is. It certainly helped me in life.

Did The Art of War work for me in romantic endeavor? Well, yes it did. Following my father’s lead, and being already well aware of its potency in overcoming conflict and achieving victory, using The Art of War as a tool in developing romantic relationships came natural to me. Using the 13 Rules of Engagement to win on the sexual battlefront was remarkably easy. I have also come to believe it has been used this way by many other people. And not just by men. I believe that the great divaPamela Harriman, probably the 20th century’s most prominent courtesan used Sun Tzu in her many conquests. I once read an article on her and the writer mentioned seeing The Art of War on her book shelf. And reading of her exploits suggests she applied deception in her strategic and tactical drive to get the men she wanted. But if she did use him, like most people who utilize SunTzu, she took the secret to her grave.

There is no question that the Art of War provides us with powerful tools that can be applied to deal with conflict and difficulties in business or personal objectives. In sexual relationships, for men and women both, it excels no less.

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Source by Michael J. Villiers

Marigold – Art Galleries Selling European Art In India

Marigold is one of the finest art gallery in Delhi, Introducing the Art lover to the Contemporary European art work in India, We have assembled literally thousands of famous works of art from the classics like Leonardo Da Vinci and Claude Monet, to more contemporary European Art work in a convenient and shopping service.

Our Fine Art Gallery have the Vast Collection of  Modern european art, Pop Art, Fine art oil Painting, and abstract oil paintings. Our delicate artists hand-paint everything from famous oil paintings to custom oil painting. All our oil paintings are made in the traditional way, Our artists hand paint each oil painting painstakingly and beautifully. You have pick our all artists names from mfa website.

Marigold Gallery hopes to bring to you the best in contemporary art of Indian & European period. We have an extensive collection of art works from around the World; Our aim is to give people round the globe easy access to good Indian & European Contemporary Art. The positive response is equally spread among art collectors, art lovers, those who are simply eager to see such unique and new art in their country and art students.

The Gallery aspires towards meaningful showings of European art work and discerning fresh artistic ideas with a view to making connections with the wider audience

The Marigold Group is continuing their expansion plan in bringing Luxury art to the Indian Retail segment with the introduction of the Marigold Fine Art Gallery. Paintings, sculptures and lithographs by these artists are available at their gallery at The Claridges Hotel, New Delhi.

Our professional Art Team will be happy to assist you with advice and offer information on the Artists, their works and make your visit an unforgettable experience.

Our Gallery Timing is : 12 pm to 8 pm – All Days a week.

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Why Art and Music Education is Important

For the past ten years, public schools have had trouble funding school programs such as art class and music class. Not having at least some kind of music or art education gives kids a severe disadvantage when they enter college and the work place. In art and music classes, children learn to be creative and use other parts of their brain besides the logical part of the brain used in most school subjects. Also, studies have shown that music and art help kids in other subjects like science and math. Studies have shown, too, that art and music class can help kids gain confidence needed to succeed in school and in the professional world. Finally, in art class, students learn how to use tools like drafting chairs and drafting tables that many professionals use, such as architects and graphic designers. Therefore, it is essential that public schools make sure they get the funding they need to keep these programs alive.

Music and art classes teach kids about creativity. When children are being creative they are using a different part of their brain that they don’t use in regular classes, like math and science. It is important to develop this creative part of the brain, so kids have a better chance at being successful in their chosen career path. For example, a child who wants to go into advertising as a career choice will need to have creativity to come up with new and innovative ads for a company. If kids only have an education in science, math, English, and social studies, then they will not be prepared for life after school.

There have been many studies that have proven that art and music education help kids do better in their regular classes. It is a fact that a good music education leads to better math grades. Art education helps teach children to be creative, which then helps them learn to come up with creative solutions to problems given to them in other classes. For example, in science class being creative would help the student come up with innovative and new hypothesis in class, which may result in better grades. Art and music class are important in helping teach children tools that can be applied to other classes.

Tools that are used in the art classroom and instruments used in music class teach kids how to be responsible for expensive equipment that they will most likely be working with for future employers. For example, having a child be put in charge of a musical instrument helps teach the child responsibility and it helps teach them to be respectful of equipment that is not theirs. This is important because employers will expect there future employees to be able to be responsible and take care of any materials that will be on loan to the employee, like a computer, for example.

Public school boards need to make sure that music and art programs in their schools are well funded. Art and music education helps teach children the creativity that is needed for numerous jobs. Art and music classes also help teach children tools that can be used in other classes that will help improve their grades. Finally, using instruments and art supplies in these classes help teach kids responsibility and respect for items that are not theirs. Children who do not have any kind of music or art education will surely be at a disadvantage when entering college or the work force.

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Source by Connor R Sullivan

Art & Politics – Four Aspects

From skillful caricaturists to passionate crusaders for political causes, Israeli artists have throughout history in one form or another created a political work of art. Whether biblical stories of Jewish bravery and martyrdom, the birth of Zionism or more modern examples of courage, political art has always played a part in the soul of Israeli creations of art. At the same time, even in modern times of today artists are often scared to link their creations to history and politics.

In the following, this article examines four aspects analyzing the issue of art & politics.

Artists & Politics

The first aspect addressing the subject of artists and politics examines the extent of public involvement by Israeli artists in taking a political standpoint expressed through their art paintings.

From a democratic point of view which seeks to protect freedom of expression, it is important that art work tackle political issues and influence public debate

However, the problem in Israel for artists who want to express an anti-establishment view is the concern over the fact that the establishment represents their main source of support and financing. While those who want to back up the establishment are not doing so out of fear of being accused by their artist friends that their creative work is influenced by economic reasons. As such it can be concluded that in our time the majority of Israeli artists are “fearful” when it comes to touching upon political issues.

Politicians & Art

In the second aspect addressing politicians and art, I examine the involvement and understanding of political leaders in the creations of art. There is no doubt, that an artistic point of perspective opens horizons contributing to the development of a more open-minded way of thinking.

For this reason, Israeli leaders – whose personalities are often channeled through the security and/or party platform – should show interest in the arts as a tool for personal development which can widen their world view.

From a public point of view, a politician, who has knowledge and proven interest in cultural issues, will be considered as having preferable characteristics of experience and knowledge.

Politics in Art

Addressing the third aspect of politics in art, the following questions I believe are at the heart of the issue: To what extent does the political and public activity of the artist influence the artistic evaluation of his creations in the present and the future? If the official establishment wants the prestige of a particular artist can it increase or decrease the value of his art?

Art in Politics

In the fourth aspect of art in politics I raise the question if to a certain extent there is an artist at work in the political making? Can we make the assertion that certain people have a political-artistic talent which makes it easier for them to succeed in the political arena?
In this context, I very much believe, that in order to be a player in the political arena winning public opinion, a leader needs to be creative and have strong interpersonal skills combining artistic elements.

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Makler Heidelberg

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Source by Amos Aharoni

The Relevance of Arts to Practical Living


For the avoidance of doubt, the concept of the arts can be viewed from two perspectives. On the one hand, the arts could be understood to mean the subjects one can study at school or university which are not scientific, which do not employ scientific methods. Subjects such as history, languages, religion, literature, and so on, would be appropriate examples. On the other hand, it could be interpreted to encompass a wide range of creative activities bordering on the skillful and imaginative expression of ideas, feelings, actions or events. Music, literature, theatre, and art (in the sense of painting, drawing, sculpture, etc) are what make up the arts in this sense. For the purpose of this discussion, however, our focus is on the second understanding of arts as proffered above.

The arts can then be classified into literary arts (poetry, prose, and drama), performing arts (music, dance, theatre) and visual arts (encapsulating the entire creative activities covered in the field of fine and applied arts: drawing, painting, sculpture, graphics, textile, etc).


In developed economies of the world where the basic necessities of life seem to have been met, the question as to whether the arts are relevant or not to practical living is no longer an issue. Thousands of American citizens would troop down to the auditorium in Bard College to hear Chinua Achebe’s reading of his Things Fall Apart, not minding that they have heard the same reading over and over again, not minding that the book is over fifty years old; the same way the English audience would cluster at The Royal Theatre in London to watch the presentation of Wole Soyinka’s The Trials of Brother Jero or any of the plays of Shakespeare, not minding that Shakespeare wrote centuries ago. In the same vein, even though Leonardo Da Vinci and Michelangelo are long dead and gone, Italians would pay their very last lira to watch an exhibition of their paintings.

In our own context, economic hardship and the search for basic necessities of life have meant that only a few have had the time to appreciate the arts for what they are worth. In other words, the problem is not whether the arts are relevant or not, for it is not in doubt that the arts are relevant to practical living as much as any profession, or even more so. The real problem lies in the fact that people are too hungry or too busy to see the real worth of the arts. A man who lives on a monthly salary of paltry ten thousand naira, with seven mouths to feed, and so many other family problems to solve may not easily pay five hundred naira just to watch a drama presentation; a Nigerian graduate who has walked the streets of Abuja, Lagos, or Port Harcourt in search of a job for three years without success would know what to do with money rather than spend it on a piece of landscape paintings; likewise, a young man who has had nothing to eat for days, and has no hope of where the next meal is coming from, would not possibly be coordinated enough to read, not to talk of appreciating, works of poetry. If arts cannot satisfy hunger or thirst, can they still be said to be relevant?


The word ‘relevance’ presupposes usefulness and value. So the right questions should be: are the arts useful in any way? And our answer: yes, they are. Do they have value? Our answer again: yes, they do. If the arts have use and value, and those are the things that relevance implies, then we can say that the arts are relevant. That conclusion raises another vital question: in what ways are the arts relevant? The relevance of arts can be found in the following areas.

Entertainment/Relaxation: The various forms of the arts mentioned above provide one form of entertainment, amusement and relaxation or the other. In Biblical times, when the spirit of God deserted King Saul and he was tormented by evil spirits, David was employed to play his harp. The sound of music produced by David’s harp kept Saul’s mind at peace, for whenever David was not around to play his harp, the evil spirits came back. In ancient Mali too, court poets/historians called Griots were known to entertain the audience during national festivals by reciting long narrative poems recounting the heroic achievements of their forebears. At a time in history, court jesters were employed to entertain the king or the queen and their visitors by telling funny stories and jokes (as can be seen in most of Shakespeare’s plays). In traditional African societies, moonlight tales were a veritable source of both entertainment and relaxation for both old and young. Praise singers and dance groups entertained the crowd during communal ceremonies.

In modern times, in the not too distant past, the late Sani Abacha was alleged to have employed the famous comedian, Chief Zebrudaya, to provide entertainment for him and his cohorts through his funny jokes and stories. It was also reported that the former Head of State, Olusegun Obasanjo, is a great patron of stand-up comedy. Besides, at least one out of every three people in the world today find peace of mind in music; one out of every four Nigerians relax at home at the close of work to watch a home video; and one out of every five relax in bed with a literature book. Since the advent of stand-up comedy in Nigeria, even though hardship has continued unabated, a lot of Nigerians have begun to look at the lighter side of things. Mere listening to a single volume of ‘Nite of A Thousand Laughs’ would drive away sorrow in people’s hearts. Since these developments began, I bet that had the medical practitioners started taking stock, they would have discovered that high blood pressure and other stress-related conditions have reduced by more than half over the past decade.

Financial Value: The arts are equally a very lucrative venture for serious-minded artists. All arts practitioners who are worth their salt make a living out of their practice. So many examples of such people could be found around us. The famous Osuofia (Nkem Owoh) is a living example. The majority of the practitioners in the movie industry today were not even originally artists. Their professions could not provide for them, and so they switched over to the arts. Besides, works of art, especially paintings, are considered very highly valuable intellectual property that can be accepted as collateral the same way that gold or diamond or buildings would be accepted.

Didactic: The arts are known to teach practical moral lessons. The old folklores about the tortoise and his craftiness always ended with one moral lesson or the other. The story of the feast in the sky where the tortoise claimed that his name was Mr. All of You, for example, ended with the lesson that greed always landed one in disaster, just as the story of the beautiful girl who refused to marry all the young men approved by her parents only to finally fall into the hands of a ghost taught that it was not good to disobey one’s parents.

Exposing and Correcting Societal Ills: All aspects of the arts are deeply involved in the crusade against societal ills like corruption and bribery, ritual killing, etc. They have all been involved, for instance, in ridiculing the excesses of political and religious leaders as well as the gullibility of the followers who fall victims to the whims and manipulations of the tricksters. This they achieve through satire. By so doing, offenders who had earlier thought that their activities were unknown would begin to retrace their steps when they discover that their so-called secrets have been exposed. Intending offenders would think twice, while would-be victims whose eyes will have been opened by such exposition would come to terms with reality and become wiser. Cultism on our university campuses has been fought to a reduced rate through the instrumentality of the arts: music, drama, novels, etc. All these have made society a better place to live in.

Aesthetic Value: The arts have beauty and face value, in addition to their intrinsic qualities. We talk about the beauty of a poem, a play, a story, a piece of music, but this beauty applies more to the visual arts, the ones one can see and admire their physical outlook, like drawing, painting or sculpture. People go to art exhibitions to discover, behold and admire the beauty of art works. Those who can afford them buy them and use them for interior decoration. How wonderful it is to walk into a well furnished sitting room to behold art works exhibited on the walls! They equally serve as status symbol for those who can afford them.

Preservation of Culture: The arts serve to preserve a people’s culture. Art itself is an integral part of culture, that is, culture in the sense of customs, beliefs, practices, art, way of life, and social organisation. So many aspects of Nigerian cultural practices, for instance, that would have been lost and forgotten are recaptured through the arts. Before the appearance of Things Fall Apart in the world literary scene, Western writers like Joseph Conrad and others had led the world into believing that the African continent was one long night of darkness and that Africans themselves were uncultured and barbaric monkeys who had tails and lived on tree tops, and who had no souls worthy of salvation. But Things Fall Apart and other works after it joined in the crusade and changed the world’s perception of Africa by presenting the true picture from the inside. Africans, the world came to see, were after all a reasonable people with heart, body and soul, created by one and the same God. They had culture and a mode of worship guided by norms and regulated by the principles of human relations even before the advent of the Europeans. Continuously, African poems, novels, plays, music, paintings, and so on, as much as possible portray life in both traditional and modern African societies. The rest of the world has continually shown increasing interest in African arts and culture. Some of us with a sense of history would remember that during the early colonial period, some of Nigerian artifacts were stolen by the colonial masters and taken to the British National Museum. An example of such is the Benin bronze mask.

Fame: It is incontestable that the works of Chinua Achebe and the Nobel Laureate, Wole Soyinka, have brought more fame to Africa than the achievements of all the African political leaders put together. It could be argued that before the emergence of these men, the continent was only a dot on the map of the world. But their works and the works of others after them proved to the world that something good could after all come out of Nazareth.


The challenges facing Nigerian artists are multifaceted: lack of encouragement and patronage at both the home front and outside, disparaging comments about artists, the neglect of the arts by the government, among others. Many homes today discourage their children from going into the practical arts simply because they do not believe that a man can feed his family just writing literary works or just drawing and painting. Until recently musicians were seen as wayward people and children who opted to sing were disowned by their parents. People still see actors and actresses in the light of the roles they play in movies or stage plays. One particular actor was nearly mobbed at Aba in Abia State of Nigeria for his role in a movie: a wicked man who killed his brother.

For the literary artist, it is really a trying time. Reading culture is at its lowest ebb. Students of literature would rather watch a half-cooked film version of Shakespeare’s Macbeth than read it in print. Many of them do not even know the recommended texts. So, for those who write, they face the lowest patronage. The books never get bought. Even when the books eventually find their way into the syllabus, pirates quickly swing into action. The same predicament faces movie makers and musicians. The government on its part does not help matters. The dilapidated state of the National Arts Theatre, Iganmu, is a pointer to this fact. Since FESTAC ’77, no concerted effort has been made towards the promotion of the arts or the encouragement of artists. Concerned citizens and corporate bodies have been crying out, but the government has turned deaf ears to all the yells.

In the face of all this, I still believe that arts practitioners in Nigeria could make a head way the moment we begin to look inwards. The sooner we begin to see the arts as a serious business, the better for us. Names like Chinua Achebe, Wole Soyinka, Ben Enweonwu, John Munonye, J. P. Clark, Niyi Osundare, Odia Ofeimun, Chimalum Nwankwo, Chimamanda Adichie, and so on became household names because they believed in the arts and in themselves and took the arts seriously. No one can save us but ourselves. At a time when Communist Russia faced one of its greatest trials, when the nation was far behind the West in technological advancement, Stalin rose to the challenge. ‘We are more than fifty years behind the rest of the world’, he told Russians. ‘We have only ten years to catch up with them. We either do this or they will exterminate us’. Pious pronouncements were backed up with positive actions, and within the next ten years Russia was on the verge of being pronounced a world power.

In the same spirit, arts practitioners, both established and intending, should stand up to the challenge and not be discouraged because those who question the relevance of the arts are themselves among the greatest patrons of the arts, one way or another. They must hold their heads high, and hold their own against other professions. They must begin to think of who to replace the Achebes, the Soyinkas, and so on. They must always remember how esteemed above other professions they are because they are co-creators with God, who himself is the foremost artist. Until this is done, people will continue to question the relevance of arts to practical living.

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Der Immoblienmakler für Heidelberg Mannheim und Karlsruhe
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Source by Chuks Oluigbo