What Does It Take To Become A Graphic Designer?

Being a graphic designer is a career that is ideal for anyone who loves to use words and pictures to communicate ideas and messages to other people. Graphic designers are used for a whole variety of different jobs in lots of different fields which can include things like:
• Advertising on posters and in magazines.
• Designing the layout of websites for companies.
• Creating CD-ROM pages.
• Designing logos, letterheads and other branded material for companies.
• Creating brochures.
• Designing leaflets and handouts.
• Designing effects and credits for movies and television.
A graphic designer can do all of these and more as it is such a wide ranging and challenging job, but many people choose to focus on one or two specific areas and make them their speciality. Being a graphic designer is also very rewarding for anyone who has a keen interest in advertising and the way that design can influence people.
So what does it take to become a graphic designer? Firstly it is a good idea to take art and design related courses whilst at school, as this will give you a good grounding as you start on the route to becoming a graphic designer. If you have not done this you might be able to get on a college course which will help you to learn more about being a graphic designer and will help you to further your education. To be really successful as a graphic designer you should really have a bachelor’s degree and this is one of the most basic requirements for many of the graphic design jobs that are advertised.
During your bachelor’s degree to become a graphic designer you will cover a great deal of difference mediums and types of design. This will help you to gain an understanding of a wide range of different areas and it will also help you to decide what you would like to specialise your bachelor’s degree in. Subsequent years will then be spent in more specific areas in which you would like to work. There are so many different disciplines that are involved in graphic design that you might want to pick two or three and then in your final year focus on just one.
If you are already a graphic designer and would like to pursue your career in a different direction you will be able to get onto an associate degree or a certificate program. These are designed to help graphic designers to branch out into different disciplines and increase their knowledge of these disciplines. However you must be aware that you must also have a bachelor’s degree in graphic design before you can start on a different graphic designer course.
Becoming a graphic designer does mean a lot of hard work and a lot of determination, but it will be more than worth it when you are in your chosen profession. So even if you have not taken are or design school, you still have a chance to become a graphic designer.

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Der Immoblienmakler für Heidelberg Mannheim und Karlsruhe
Wir verkaufen für Verkäufer zu 100% kostenfrei
Schnell, zuverlässig und zum Höchstpreis

Source by Lina Smith

A Netsuke of More Than Two Hundred Thousand Dollars!

A netsuke (net-skeh) is a miniature sculpture developed in Japan over a period of more than three hundred years. The kimono, the traditional form of Japanese dress, had no pockets. Men suspended pouches (inro) on a silk cord from their sash (obi). To stop the cord from slipping through the “obi”, a small toggle is attached. That small toggle is the “netsuke”.


The netsuke referred to in the headline of this article was auctioned at the German auctionhouse Lempertz on 27 November 2004. It was estimated at $60.000,- (Euro 40.000) but was hammered at a sensational US$230.000,- (Euro 154.000). This unusually large (H 5 2/5″) ivory netsuke of a standing Dutchman holding a dead hare over his shoulder which is attached to a gun, dated late 18th Century, stands out by two characteristics: the somewhat caricature-like facial features and elegant dress, as well as his occupation as a hunter whose bait is an indication of the “South Barbarian meat eaters”.

Why US$230.000,-?

The exraordinary hammer price of US$230.000,- for this specific piece can be explained by looking at its history, theme, craftmanship, condition and off course by its rarity. The object made its way over 100 years in famous netsuke collections, and was already publicized in 1895 by the Japonist art dealer Marcus B. Huish. The representation of the Westerner, especially that of the Dutchman in Japanese art (in woodblock prints and netsuke) is a much coveted subject. This because of the striking depiction by the Japanese artists of this “strange” people from another world giving the beholder a very insightful and comic explanation of the encounter of two very different cultures. The unknown creator, it is unsigned, of this particular netsuke had to be a masterful craftsman because of his magnificent eye for detail and its elegant look. The specific subject of the Dutchman is not uncommon but a quality piece in this condition in combination with its age is a very rare find.

More examples

During the last decades there are more examples of highlights in prices concerning netsukes. On May 1990 at auctionhouse Sotheby’s in London a netsuke of a horse was hammered at US$260,000,- and through an anitques dealer at Oriental Treasures and Points West in Honolulu a netsuke representing a “Awabi Girl and Octopus” (like Hokusai’s famous “Dream of Fisherman’s Wife” shunga!) was sold at approx. US$250,000.


Netsuke carvers mostly worked in a bounded area of subjects and themes such as scenes of daily life, animals, erotic encounters (shunga), the signs of the zodiac or subjects with a mythical background. Whatever its subject or theme netsuke is a very attractive and highly collectable art form and the interesting pieces will only continue to increase in value.


One of the most referred books among netsuke collectors are Lazarnick’s ‘ The Signature Book of Netsuke’ and from the same author ‘Netsuke & Inro Artists, and How to Read Their Signatures’. Both have been issued in limited editions, the first one in 500 copies and the latter in 876 copies. These books are unmissable for the serious netsuke collector.

Netsuke Organisations:

International Netsuke Society

International Netsuke Carvers’ Association

Japan Netsuke Society (Nihon Netsuke Kenkyukai)

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Der Immoblienmakler für Heidelberg Mannheim und Karlsruhe
Wir verkaufen für Verkäufer zu 100% kostenfrei
Schnell, zuverlässig und zum Höchstpreis

Source by Marijn Kruijff

Take Time for You

Take Time for You

Jetzt kaufen

This handy resource empowers women of all ages to give themselves time and space to relax, reflect, and reinvigorate themselves. The perfect gift for every woman, this book is full of useful advice and relevant, witty quotes that will help the reader start living the happy, healthy, stress-free life she deserves.Used Book in Good Condition

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Der Immoblienmakler für Heidelberg Mannheim und Karlsruhe
Wir verkaufen für Verkäufer zu 100% kostenfrei
Schnell, zuverlässig und zum Höchstpreis

Yuriko Lochan Creates A New ‘Self’ portrait in her solo exhibition at Alliance Francaise

New Delhi: It’s not easy to live in a foreign land, make it your home and even more creditably, make a mark for yourself as a creative person. Yuriko Lochan has not only done all of these, but gone a step ahead by adding a refreshingly new element of nudes and self portraits on her canvases for a solo show of watercolours and acrylics titled Immanence to Transcendence at Galerie Romain Rolland, Alliance Francaise de Delhi from November 27, 2009 to November 30, 2009.

Born in Osaka, Japan in 1962 and a Masters in Fine Arts from Kyoto University, Japan, Yuriko married Prof Rajeev Lochan, the present Director of NGMA, to settle down permanently in Delhi.  Her work, therefore, carries frequent references to Indian philosophy and myth, and in a way that’s impossible without a deep appreciation of the Indian way of life. She has been actively participating in various group exhibitions and art camps, and has gained an enviable popularity in the art circles.

The current solo exhibition, coming after a gap of over five years in Delhi, offers a comparison between two kinds of expressions that the artist calls “Immanence and Transcendence”. While Immanence refers to works done in watercolour on Japanese paper that create a soft and subtle subconscious imagery, the latter consists of recent works done in acrylics on canvas and are replete with images that are loud yet simple in presentation and direct in expression like the language of nature.

Says Yuriko Lochan: “Since I have started to live here, I have been continuously trying to transcend any category of identification which one may think for me – as a Japanese, Indian, artist, woman, married and so on. But, it’s my aim to become truly universal, only by sheer excellence of the work which I create.”  She further adds: “This universal quality is gained by always being conscious of one’s own origin yet looking out at the world with responsible, intelligent and flexible eyes.”

The current body of work in the exhibition is divided into five series namely Prakriti series (2004 – 2007), Tree of Life series (2004 – 2008), Banana Leaf series (2005-2008), ‘Self’ series & Calligraphy in ink on paper. Explains Yuriko: “My earlier watercolours are an interpretation of visual elements that India has given me, combined with the medium and technique imbued from my origin. The Banana Leaf series and Prakriti series, done on Japanese paper are kind of a mindscape. Here, I dwell in images which are more subtle, vague and soft.”

While Prakriti (the counterpart of Purusha) series consists of a woman’s glory that is representative of the elements of this world, Tree of Life series displays a dominant use of grapes which is considered as the symbol of life in Christianity. Banana Leaf series is the output of artist’s inspiration from her stay in Kerala. She says: “The experience of the beautiful place is marked with the vast impression of the Arabian sea, the air of the jungle filled with energy, and powerful but modest people living with nature. These are the motifs which lead me to create a series of paintings, surround the feeling of loneliness, sea breeze, and flowering banana trees promising a plentiful yield within no time!” The banana leaves in her watercolors are full of intricate details that are in perfect harmony.

In Yuriko’s more recent acrylics on canvas portraying the same banana leaves, the consciousness in the landscape grows into a definite viewpoint in a large work titled Shore.

The most recent ‘Self’ series, done in acrylics on canvas, are the artist’s effort to realize a new state of existence of her own ‘self’. Here, she consciously uses self- portraits not to make a socio-political statement but to represent the universal image of a woman’s existence. Her Self series is a departure from being the sophisticated, observant artist who is consciously deciphering Japanese and Indian nuances of art to become the totally relaxed, free flowing and a definitely more open ‘self’. She refrains from making her Japanese origin evident in this series, of course, other than the golden cloud on the background dominantly embellishing the main iconic image that subtly suggests the Indian traditional knowledge – Mudra.

On the other hand, her series of calligraphy in ink on paper is a spontaneous, free flowing yet controlled expression of art.

Says Yuriko: “In the large acrylic canvases, the sudden appearance of ‘self’ in the natural landscape inevitably breaks the composition into three or more panels.  It is slightly different from the panels in the watercolour landscapes on Shikishi mounted paper. While in both the cases, the composition of each panel actively and consciously relates and influences each other, yet in the earlier watercolours, the panel effect was more intentional but later the purpose of using panels was thematic.”

Sums up Yuriko about her art practice in India: “The journey is not always easy. The achievement is that I am still at it! Till the time I had not realized that I could not do anything else other than painting, it was very difficult. Now that I am on my way towards finding my niche as an artist, I am a fulfilled person.”

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Der Immoblienmakler für Heidelberg Mannheim und Karlsruhe
Wir verkaufen für Verkäufer zu 100% kostenfrei
Schnell, zuverlässig und zum Höchstpreis

Source by Neha Chandra

Painting With Innate Passion: All Artist’s Are Born, Not Made

Painting is a form of expression which involves the use of paint brushes to create an image on a canvass. An artist has the option of choosing which paints to use; the most popular though are watercolors and oil paints.

It is impossible for an artist to produce a masterpiece without feeling passionate about his work. It is important that the painter is able to clearly visualize what he wishes to express through his painting, and then be able to bring forth his imaginations with accuracy and vivacity. The ability to express oneself in such a way does not involve skill, but talent. One may argue that art can be learned through practice. However, the truth is that individuals, who do not possess an innate talent of drawing and painting, cannot become exceptional artists no matter how hard they try to learn this medium of expression.

The primary talent of a born artist is the ability to imagine. If one evaluates a number of young children on their imagination skills, it will be quite obvious that while some of them have very vivid and creative imaginations, others lack the originality and the panache that a naturally creative individual has. If one were to reevaluate the children after training the less creative kids to be more imaginative; even after a complete and rigorous training the results will prove that training cannot enable less imaginative kids to compete with those who are gifted.

Being able to visualize creative scenarios is just half the job of an artist. The crucial task is to be able to express what one sees with their mind’s eye on paper. This requires the ability to make the right strokes and use the right colors to create a visually appealing painting. Mixing colors with precision so as to get the right shades is also part of an artist’s skill set. Additionally, an artist needs to be able to keep in mind the aspect of perspective. Perspective is the skill of being able to give the right impression of a three-dimensional object on a two-dimensional surface, such that the height, width, depth, and position are proportionate in relation to each other. These are some of the basic skills of a talented artist, which one may attempt to learn, but will never master unless he has a natural flair and aptitude for painting.

It may seem rather unfair to say that all artists are born, not made. It is not that a person cannot become an artist if he doesn’t have a natural tendency towards art and painting; but the fact is that one cannot produce masterpieces and become a famous painter just by enrolling themselves at an art school. There has to be significant innate talent in order to make a name from painting.

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Der Immoblienmakler für Heidelberg Mannheim und Karlsruhe
Wir verkaufen für Verkäufer zu 100% kostenfrei
Schnell, zuverlässig und zum Höchstpreis

Source by Shelly Morrison

Wabi Sabi: The Japanese Art of Impermanence

Wabi Sabi: The Japanese Art of Impermanence

Jetzt kaufen

Developed out of the aesthetic philosophy of cha-no-yu (the tea ceremony) in fifteenth-century Japan, wabi sabi is an aesthetic that finds beauty in things imperfect, impermanent, and incomplete.

Taken from the Japanese words wabi, which translates to less is more, and sabi, which means attentive melancholy, wabi sabi refers to an awareness of the transient nature of earthly things and a corresponding pleasure in the things that bear the mark of this impermanence. As much a state of mind—an awareness of the things around us and an acceptance of our surroundings—as it is a design style, wabi sabi begs us to appreciate the simple beauty in life—a chipped vase, a quiet rainy day, the impermanence of all things. Presenting itself as an alternative to today’s fast-paced, mass-produced, neon-lighted world, wabi sabi reminds us to slow down and take comfort in the simple, natural beauty around us.

In addition to presenting the philosophy of wabi-sabi, this book includes how-to design advice—so that a transformation of body, mind, and home can emerge.

Chapters include:

  • History: The Development of Wabi Sabi
  • Culture: Wabi Sabi and the Japanese Character
  • Art: Defining Aesthetics
  • Design: Creating Expressions with Wabi Sabi Materials
  • Spirit: The Universal Spirit of Wabi Sabi

Tuttle Publishing

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Der Immoblienmakler für Heidelberg Mannheim und Karlsruhe
Wir verkaufen für Verkäufer zu 100% kostenfrei
Schnell, zuverlässig und zum Höchstpreis

How to Paint a Moose

Isn’t it wonderful to get a second chance?  To live a part of life over again because the first time was so great?  Such an opportunity came to me recently in the form of an offer to have me do a complete makeover on Wolfgang Amadeus Moozart.

Let us turn the clock back 9 years to the millennium year, 2000, and the Moose in the City project in Toronto.  Artists submitted applications and their submissions were juried to see who would be painting the giant fiberglass moose that were to enhance the city and were to be ensconced in prominent locations.  The business community supported this civic endeavour  that was great for tourism, great for the artists, great for the beautification of the city and great for art lovers. The moose were then sold at auction and the funds presented to worthwhile causes such as for athletes going to the Olympics.  In total 326 moose roamed the city.

I had the good fortune to submit Wolfgang Amadeus Moozart as a concept and had it commissioned by Sotheby’s Art Auction House.  The moose arrived on my friend’s driveway and the idea was that I would paint it in the garage in case it rained.  The moose was far too big to fit in the garage.  Neighbours were very interested in the project and brought lawn chairs and watched and chatted while it was being painted.  Moozart was placed in the reflecting pool at Roy Thomson Hall.

At Marilyn Lastman’s Arts Ball, Moozart was purchased by the Shade O Matic company in Toronto and has been proudly living on a hill facing the 400 highway at Finch Avenue.  It has been seen by millions of people going north and south.

Last week,  after a call from the Shade O Matic Company, I started repainting Moozart whose fine clothing, gracious red jacket, ruffle front tuxedo shirt, black breeches, long white woolen hose and black shoes with gold buckles, needed freshening up.  Moozart required vigorous sanding, washing with a pollution remover, primer sealing and now for the art part – repainting.  Be on the lookout for the new updated version of Wolfgang Amadeus Moozart, soon once again proud and elegant on the hill outside the company ready to receive visitors and viewers alike.

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Der Immoblienmakler für Heidelberg Mannheim und Karlsruhe
Wir verkaufen für Verkäufer zu 100% kostenfrei
Schnell, zuverlässig und zum Höchstpreis

Source by Valerie Kent

Physiology of Menstruation

Menstruation (Greek Word, men – month) is monthly uterine bleeding outflowing through vagina onto vulva for 4-5 days every 28 days during reproductive life of a women from menarche to menopause. Menses are normal uterine function whereby endometrium prepares to receive pregnancy.

Bleeding comes from oestrogen progesterone primed endometrium. Woman gets 13 menses in a year and around 400 menses in her reproductive life.

The menstrual cycle of 28 days starts on day of onset of menstruation (day 1) and ends at day 28 on start of next mens.

Menstruation signals that fertilization and embedding of fertilised ovum have not occurred on the preceding menstual cycle. Anovular menstruation is cyclical monthly bleeding from only oestrogen primed endometrium. This occurs for a few years after onset of menstruation (menarche) and before final cessation of menstruation (menopause).

Normal menstruation

Clinical features

Menstruation is normal body function. Most women get only vaginal bleeding for 3 5 days with no discomfort. However around one quarter women get menstrual discomforts menstrual molimina. These discomforts do not interfere with usual day’s activity. Only 5 10 percent develops during some part in their about 30 years menstrual life painful mens interfering day’s activities (dysmenorrhoea). The menstrual molimina are as :


1. Feeling of heaviness and discomfort in the pelvis, lower abdomen and in the small of the back.

2. Feeling of pricking and fullness in the breasts.

3. Frequency of urination and constipation.

4. Feeling of lassitude, irritability, and headache. Above symptoms vary in severity from individual to individual. Rarely, bleeding from nose may occur as vicarious menstruation’ since blood viscosity falls at mens.


1. Sudden drop in temperature of about 1 degree F but with individual variations.

2. Pulse rate and blood pressure tend to drop.

3. Gain in weight occurs during premenstrual fortnight upto about 1 Kg. due to retention of water and salt; it occurs in about half of women. There is loss of weight with the onset of flow.

4. Menstrual loss (mens). The vaginal menstrual bleeding mainly arterial, partly venous is a dark reddish liquid (not clotted) blood with shed endometrial tissue bits. The discharge has disagreeable smell due to the secretion of vulvar sebaceous glands and decomposition of blood elements. Menstrual blood is deficient in prothrombin, and fibrinogen but rich in calcium. Microscopically, it contains red cells, large number of leucocytes, vaginal epithelium, cervical mucus, fragments of endometrium with macrophages, histiocytes, mast cells and bacteria, Menstrual discharge also contains cholesterol, oestrogen, lipids and prostaglandins. Menstrual blood from the endometrium clots in the uterine cavity by its thromboplastic property. The clots are dissolved by the fibrinolysins released from the endometrium. Fibrin degradation products therefore circulate in increased amount during menstruation. Clots are passed when mens¬trual bleeding becomes excessive.

Interval and Duration

The menstrual cycle lasts on an average twenty eight days. A deviation of 2 to 3 days can be frequently encountered. The extremes of 21 and 35 days interval may also be found. In any woman’s menstrual life, the interval can vary. The usual duration is three to five days with essentially normal extremes of two and seven days. Every woman needs sex education in this normal range of menstrual pattern so that she does not suffer from miseducation on normal menstrual pattern taken as menstrual irregularity.

Blood Loss

The average total blood loss during menstruation has been estimated as 35 ml (range 5 60 ml); average loss of iron was found as 12 mg. A rough clinical estimate is that normally not more than three fresh pads are necessary in the twenty four hours two during the day and one at night, thus requiring total 12 15 pads during a rnens. This loss widely varies and becomes greater in women living in warm climate than those living in cold climate.


Proper education on mens is important. She should be educated that menstruation is not the drainage of noxious substance from the body but a normal manifestation of womanhood. During menses, she should carry on her usual activities including daily bathing, playing games. Personal hygiene is maintained by changing regularly sanitary pads. Intravaginal tampons can be used by the married provided she does not forget to leave it behind. Healthy couple can have sexual intercourse during menses. Postponement or advancement of menstruation. This becomes at times necessary for important social reason like marriage. This is not to be advocated on flimsy ground. The hormone therapy employed is the following:

1. Progesterone norethisterone one tab. thrice daily starting from 20th day of menstrual cycle till beyond the date of postponement.

2. Oestrogen progestogen contraceptive pills, two a day is started from the 20th day. Menstrual flow is expected 2 to 3 days after the treatment is suspended. Menstruation can be pre¬maturely brought by starting hormone therapy from 5th day of mens for 14 days, The therapy is (a) Oestrogen ethinyl oestradiol 0.05 mg. t.d.s. or (b) Oestrogen progestogen oral pill once daily. Anovulax menstrual flow is likely to begin within 2 3 days of the cessation of therapy.

Endocrine mechanism of menstruation

Play of sex hormones from hypothalamus in brain, anterior pituitary gland, ovary causes menstrual bleeding from uterine endometrium.

This is called hypothalamus- pituitary-ovarian-uterine axis

Steps are-

1. In the brain, hypothalamus acts as switch to endocrine mechanism of menstruation and starts the process by secreting gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) or (LHRH) by peptidergic neuron. The latter is controlled by aminergic neuron. Environment influences menstruation via cerebral cortex and hypothalamus.

GnRH flows down from hypothalamus via pituitary portal vessels to

2. Anterior pituitary gland (gonadotroph cells) liberating follicle stimulating Hormone (FSH) and Luteinising hormone (LH) in blood circulation to initiate growth of ovarian follicles in both ovaries.

Ovarian Cycle. Ovarian follicles (20 in number) are grown in a menstrual cycle in three steps.

(a) ovarian Follicles are grown from primordial follicles. A single graarian follicle matures and becomes dominant by effect of FSH while other follicles undergo atresia.

(b) Oestradiol is secreted by maturing ovarian follicle in the circulation ‘ stimulates hypothalamus and anterior pituitary to cause surge of LH and FSH hormones in blood (Positive feed back) on day 12 of menstrual cycle.

(c) Ovulation (discharge of ovum from ovary) occurs on day 14 of menstrual cycle. Corpus luteum (yellow body) is formed in the shell of mature graafian follicle ovulation due to LH effect.

Corpus luteum remains mature From day 19-26, degenerates on day 27 and 28 if no pregnancy occurs in menstrual cycle’. Plasma prolactin (from anterior pituitary) rises (luring luteal phase and appears to maintain corpus luteum. Copious progesterone hormone., some oestradiol and inhibin (peptide hormone) are secreted by corpus luteum. Oestradiol causes luteolysis while inhibin depresses FSH.

Uterine cycle

(a) Proliferative phase

Oestradiol from ovarian follicles causes proliferative changes in uterine endometrium (day 7-14). All the endometrial tissue elements of I mm thick proliferate. Prior to start of proliferative phase, repair phase. runs with mens bleeding and ends by 48 hours after mens.

(b) Secretory phase. Progesterone (from corpus luteum) causes secretary changes in endometrium (day 15 – 26 to receive fertilised ovum for embedding. Glycogen appears as subnuclear vacuoles in endometrial gland followed by secretion of glycogen and mucus on the lumen of gland. Glands become Corkscrew . Endometrial vessels become coiled, stroma becomes vascular and oedernatous. Endometrium thickens to 5 mm into three layer (a) superficial compact layer with neck ot’glands (b) spongy layer with dilated glands (c) basal layer in contact with myometrial layer.

Stage of regression occurs in secretory endometriurn on day 27 to 28.

(c) Menstrual bleeding phase occurs for 4 – 5 days after day 28 of the cycle due to shedding away of endometrial bits and bleeding from endometria I bed. Necrosis and shedding of endometrial bits extend from region to region during first 2 days of menses. Bleeding occurs as (a) capillary bleeding with or without the formation of subepithelial haematoma (b) venous haemorrhage and (c) diapedisis.

Menstrual phase is caused by withdrawal of oestradiol and progesterone support to endometrium.. FSH rises again to start another, cycle.

Cause of menstrual bleeding. Exact cause is still obscure. The sequence of events are :

Withdrawal of oestrogen and progesterone due to degeneration of corpus luteum ‘rapid shrinkage and regression of secretory endometrium overcoiling of endometrial spiral arterioles ‘ stasis of circulation in the functional layer of endometrium ‘ necrobiosis of vessels. Prostaglandins elaborated by endometrium also cause vasospasm of spiral vessels ‘ ischaemic necrosis of bit of endometrium suppfied by spiral artery relaxation of spiral vessel bleeding from spiral vessel end. These vascular changes are described by Markee (1940)

In the shedding process clotting and fibrinolysis at bleeding site occur so that unclotted dark red blood with endometrial tissue bits are discharged for 4-5 days. Dating of endometrium. Endometrium is dated from its histological appearance particularly during secretory phase e.g. prenuclear vacuoles – 16th day, basal nuclei, secretion in gland lume – 20th day.

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Der Immoblienmakler für Heidelberg Mannheim und Karlsruhe
Wir verkaufen für Verkäufer zu 100% kostenfrei
Schnell, zuverlässig und zum Höchstpreis

Source by Tapan Pal

Compendium of Acrylic Painting Techniques: 300 Tips, Techniques and Trade Secrets

Compendium of Acrylic Painting Techniques: 300 Tips, Techniques and Trade Secrets

Jetzt kaufen

Aimed at all painters, from beginners to the more experienced, this book is packed with expert advice on all aspects of acrylic painting: what to do, and what not to do. Learn how to choose and mix colors, and create a multitude of effects using only one set of tubes. Discover how to make your own equipment, set up a “studio” space, and use household materials to save money. Beginners can follow processes stage-by-stage, while more experienced artists can dip in and out for help with specific problems. A unique section on how to develop your art and take it to a wider public is full of professional secrets which can bring you success much more quickly. “Try it” and “Fix it” panels placed throughout the book suggest ways of practicing and developing new skills, and avoiding or correcting common painting errors.

Search Press-Half Yard Christmas
There Is Something For Everyone; You Can Select Your Favorite Christmas Style Or Mix And Match Throughout Your Home
This Book Features Six Themed Chapters- Rustic Traditional Contemporary Monochrome Scandinavian And Kids

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Der Immoblienmakler für Heidelberg Mannheim und Karlsruhe
Wir verkaufen für Verkäufer zu 100% kostenfrei
Schnell, zuverlässig und zum Höchstpreis

How to Create a Reverse Painting on Glass


Glass is a non-absorbent painting support which does not allow paint to easily adhere to it – apart from through the paint’s own drying process.

For this reason the outlines of a subject painted on glass need to be simplified when applied to an extremely smooth glass surface. Simplifying a subject does not necessarily detract from the end result after the painting is completed and the final result can often have an appearance similar to that of naive art in relation to composition and form and a certain number of other details. Many artists may find that such simplification can actually be very appealing.

Working the paint or changing outlines without smudging the surrounding areas of undried paint may require some concentration in the beginning, as well as a certain amount of skill, but with patience and the development of their skills using this painting technique, artists will find that applying and mastering the use of glass as a support will become easier as time progresses.



Choose clear unflawed glass (or plexiglass) in the shape and size you wish to use. In order to begin mastering the technique of reverse painting it is advised to choose smaller sizes to begin with.


It is important to use a paint that will adhere properly to the surface of the glass. Oil based paints or acrylics are often used for this reason.There are also opaque and transparent ceramic artist colours that have been especially manufactured for using on a non-absorbent surface. Metallic colours (eg. gold, silver or copper) can also be interesting to work with. There are an increasing number of new art products available today that may be suitable for painting on a non-absorbent surface such as glass.


To begin choose a selection of small or medium-sized paintbrushes with fine, flat and pointed tips. Larger brushes can be used for working on a larger scale. Artists can also use less conventional tools for applying paint if they wish, depending on the effects obtained through experimentation that may interest them.

A penholder

Used for outlines (if required) and finer details. It can be an advantage to use interchangeable nibs suitable for creating both thick and thin outlines.

Ink for creating outlines on glass

The inks used need to be suitable for applying to a non-absorbent surface such as glass. As an alternative paint can also be thinned down into a more liquid form and used for creating outlines in which case attention must be given to to creating the right mixture of fluidity and thickness.

A painting palette or something similar to mix your paint on.

A palette knife -(optional) for mixing paint.

Artists paint cleaner or thinner – used for cleaning or sometimes for thinning, and depending on whether oil based or water-based paints are used.

A paint-drying agent – (optional) For mixing with paints to help speed up the drying process

Paper towelling or some clean rags

A mirror – (optional) can be used to check the progress of your painting while you are continuing to work. Place the mirror in a position where it will reflect your artwork from its viewing side.

Cellotape – or a similar average-width sticking tape

An easel – (optional) to prop your work on

A glass-cleaning product


Choose a piece of clear glass in the dimensions you would like to work with and check carefully to make sure the glass is neither scratched nor flawed. It is worthwhile remembering that a flaw in the glass itself will often detract from the finished appearance of a painting and may be impossible to remove after the completion of your artwork.

The sheet of glass that is to become your artwork constitutes the following:

(1) The ‘painting side’ – which is the side you will be painting on.

(2) The ‘viewing side’ – which is the side you will be looking at (or through) as you progress with your work and after it has been completed.

To render the cutting edges of the glass safe take a length of cellotape that will correspond to the length of one edge. Apply it carefully along that length (ideally so that it is folded equally over each side of the glass).

Repeat this procedure for the other 3 glass edges. The edge of the cellotape will also help mark the outer limits of your artwork.

Clean the surface of the glass thoroughly with a glass-cleaning product. Use paper towelling or any cleaning material that will not leave dust or threads on your painting surface.

Store the glass where it will be safe. If placed between sheets of newspaper it will be protected from scratches and dust.


Art products in liquid form that are suitable for creating outlines on glass may be readily available in some countries. Oil-based paint,water-based acrylic and ceramic paint can also be used for this purpose.In order to create fine lines these paints must sometimes be thinned down in order to use with a pen nib or similar line-drawing tool.

To prevent lines from being effaced too easily you can use a paint that is oil based for creating the outlines of your subject if the paint you will be applying over the top of it (after it has properly dried) is water based. Reverse this procedure if your outlines are created with a water-based paint.

Always use a liquid paint product that will provide the best adhesion possible to a glass surface.

Due to pen nibs clogging relatively easily, attention must be paid to cleaning the nibs regularly.


Method 1.

If you have a steady hand you can use a freehand method for applying outlines directly onto the surface of the glass.

Method 2.

Use an original subject for your painting (e.g. a drawing) and place this under the glass then copy it onto the glass surface.

Method 3.

Place a layer of carbon-paper on top of the glass then place your drawing on top of the carbon paper and with a pointed object trace the subject onto the glass. Be careful not to damage your original image (the image being copied) when using a pointed object.

Method 4.

A tracing table can be used for creating outlines. This is a table with a sheet of clear glass inserted into the top and with an electric light source situated beneath it. For those who frequently need to trace their work a tracing table can be very practical and useful.

Method 5.

You can omit outlines altogether.


Most artists have a preference for how to work when creating an artwork. Once it has been decided whether to work on a table or use a table-easel or a standing easel, it will be necessary to view the artwork regularly from its observation side in order to see its progress.

Some artists simply take the glass in their hands and turn it around to look at it directly from the observation side. Others prefer to use a mirror placed directly opposite their working area so that they can observe their progress while they paint.

Mixing and blending

If you are blending colours always do so on a palette or similar flat object before applying them to the glass. If colours are not well blended or mixed the result will be a streaky appearance in the paint on the observation side of the glass.

Avoiding smudges

When creating a reverse painting on glass it is important to watch out for smudges or particles of dirt or dust that may accidentally be transferred onto unpainted areas of your artwork as you are progressing. Unless removed these may appear as flaws that will show when viewing the artwork from its observation side. If they are also inadvertently covered with a layer of paint removing them afterwards may become very messy and difficult. When lifting off any smudges always be careful not to damage outlines or other areas of paint you have already applied.

Applying the paint

Once the outlines of your subject have thoroughly dried you can begin to apply paint to fill in the remainder of your artwork. Begin with the smallest and most detailed or intricate areas first e.g. eyes, faces, small figures or objects etc – and always keep in mind that your artwork will be observed from the opposite side to the one your painting on and that you are painting in reverse and that therefore foregrounds precede backgrounds.

When applying the reverse painting method it is a good policy to reflect carefully on the sequence in which your painting will develop before beginning to apply your paint. This will create a methodical attitude that is essential for this particularly interesting but also intricate painting technique.

Wishing you many pleasant hours of reverse painting!

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Der Immoblienmakler für Heidelberg Mannheim und Karlsruhe
Wir verkaufen für Verkäufer zu 100% kostenfrei
Schnell, zuverlässig und zum Höchstpreis

Source by Mayanne Mackay