Ways of Looking: How to Experience Contemporary Art

Ways of Looking: How to Experience Contemporary Art

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Art has changed. Today’s works of art may have no obvious focal point. Traditional artistic media no longer do what we expect of them. The styles and movements that characterized art production prior to the twenty-first century no longer exist.

This book provides a straightforward guide to understanding contemporary art based on the concept of the tabula rasa – a clean slate and a fresh mind. Ossian Ward presents a six-step program that gives readers new ways of looking at some of the most challenging art being produced today. Since artists increasingly work across traditional media and genres, Ward has developed an alternative classification system for contemporary practice such as ‘Art as Entertainment’, ‘Art as Confrontation’, ‘Art as Joke’ — categories that help to make sense of otherwise obscure-seeming works. There are also 20 ‘Spotlight’ features which guide readers through encounters with key works.

Ultimately, the message is that any encounter with a challenging work of contemporary art need not be intimidating or alienating but rather a dramatic, sensually rewarding, and thought-provoking experience.



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Japanese Prints: The Art Institute of Chicago (Tiny Folio)

Japanese Prints: The Art Institute of Chicago (Tiny Folio)

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Another in the Abbeville’s Tiny Folios series, this little book is a real gem. The Art Institute of Chicago houses one of the world’s most beautiful and comprehensive collections of Japanese woodblock prints in the world. Clarence Buckingham, of the famed Chicago family, donated 12,000 prints alone. The book covers this exquisite collection of work from the 17th to 19th centuries in four sections: Primitives, Courtesans, Actors, and Landscapes. It includes work by well-known masters such as Hiroshige, Hokusia, and Utamaro, as well as lesser-known talents such as Shun’ei, Shunko, and Kiyonaga. While the trim size is small, none of the subtle colors, delicate paper texture, or intricate fabric design is lost.



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Use A Scaffold Tower to Paint Your House: Be Safe and Swift

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While ladders are great for comic slapstick, they’re not quite as useful when it comes to painting your house.

But scaffolding seems rather grand to do a bit of painting, doesn’t it?

A huge team of men wrapping your house in modern art, demanding tea every ten minutes – not so! That’s scaffolding … scaffold towers are a much lovelier story.

What DIY legends need these days is an aluminium scaffold tower. Not only are they tonnes more practical, but you will also look way more professional and have something quite special to boast about down the pub.

Aluminium Scaffold Towers: Quick and Easy To Use

The UK’s most respected and widely-used scaffold tower is the Boss tower, which has colour-coded click-in braces, toe-boards, wheels and stabilisers.

It’s like a giant Meccano set and provides 30 – 60 minutes of kids’-toy-grown-up building pleasure.

Right, to the job in hand.

Mission: Paint Your House

Nothing makes your house look better than fresh paint. This is one of the big DIY jobs you can actually do yourself. Like anything worth doing, this is worth doing well. It’s best to choose a typical English summer’s day – overcast and not too hot – so that you don’t burn and your paint job lasts much longer.

This is likely to be at least a weekend job. Obviously the more hands you have on deck, the less time it’ll take and the more fun it’ll be – maybe consider hiring two scaffold towers to do two walls at once.

House Painting Shopping List

(1) Hire an aluminium scaffold tower (41,000 people a year end up in hospital after falling off a ladder – this is a no-brainer!)

(2) A wire brush

(3) Sandpaper

(4) Water – a high-pressure water-jet would be ideal if you can get your hands on one

(5) Goggles

(6) Mask

(7) Exterior primer

(8) Exterior paint

(9) Brushes/rollers

(10) Dust sheets/old sheets (emphasis on old!): Cover everything you don’t want to paint (unless you plan on painting the plants, path and neighbour’s car)

(11) If you use oil-based paint you’ll need white spirit to remove splodges and spills, for water-based paint, use water.

(12) A screwdriver – to remove fixtures and fittings.

(13) Big bottle of drinking water on the scaffold tower and a 6-pack in the fridge.

High Tower

If you have a two-storey house, you should hire a 5.2 metre tower. With its broad platform you can cover the largest area of wall without having to reach out and dice with death. Save your life and save time using an aluminium scaffold tower!

The Boss aluminium scaffold tower comes with an idiots’ guide that you can pretend to ignore (and read thoroughly when no-one is looking). You don’t need years of experience or a laden toolkit to put it together; there’s no need for your neighbours to know about that though.

Cleaning

Arm yourself with goggles, mask and Marigolds (optional).

Climb up your scaffold tower and work from the top down, thoroughly clean the painting surface: get rid of flakey, peeling or cracking paint; pull out old nails; scrub mildew; fix anything that needs to be fixed. Safe on your scaffold tower you, your wire brush and flashy high-pressure hose can treat your long-suffering house to a bit of deep-cleansing attention.

Paint the Walls

… Not the car, windows, plants, path, neighbour’s pond. Cover as much as you can with dust sheets or you’ll spend a lot of time on your hands and knees wiping up splodges when you could be sitting back and enjoying a beer.

Buying the Paint Already!?

Yup. Get painting! Make sure you have enough paint for the area you want to cover. Get your maths hat on to work out the dimensions, not forgetting gable ends, door and window frames and gutters, so the nice man at the shop can tell you how much paint to buy. Most DIY shops will refund unopened tins, so don’t be shy!

Preparation

Mix several tins together so you have exactly the same colour all over.

If the weather doesn’t step up for your painting weekend and the sun makes a rare summer visit, then paint following the sun so you work in the shade and the sun will dry your wall evenly. Only take a break when you’ve finished the whole wall. Enter: your hired aluminium scaffold tower.

Not only will you get the painting done a lot more quickly, you’ll avoid hurtling up and down a ladder, shunting the thing around and getting increasingly stressed that the paint is drying without you.

Brush or Roller?

Rollers are the way forward for big areas of wall, but use the brush to sort out the fiddly bits. Keep working from the top down, even when you have the end in sight and you’re doing the fiddly bits – and the front door is drying on the grass because someone else finally offered to help out.

Painting your house is a big job, no doubt, but the satisfaction you’ll both feel when it’s done is well worth it. A bit of house-scaffold-owner bonding will make you happy and impress everyone else in the street to do the same.

Don’t forget to take a photo of you up the scaffold tower, brush in hand and big ‘I did it’ grin!

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Source by Matt Browne

Japanese Dragon Tattoo Designs and Meaning

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The Japanese Dragon Tattoo is a very beautiful and colorful tattoo design and very symbolic, with its origins in myths and folklore. It is also very mystical, adding to the appeal of the Japanese dragon tattoo. Over the ages, from Egyptian times the dragon has represented good and also represented evil. However, the attraction of the Japanese dragon, apart from its stunning beauty is that it represents good luck and the source of wealth. The Japanese dragon also represents the meaning of freedom and being fearless, both very attractive qualities.

In the Greek language, dragon is sourced from draca, which means serpent.

Like the angel, the Japanese Dragon also has the meaning of guardianship, providing a protective force over those it was associated with. Other meanings associated with the Japanese dragon is strength and power. In Japanese culture the dragon is associated with supernatural powers, and amazing wisdom.

There are six forms of the Japanese Dragon. They are:

Sui-Riu is the king Dragon and is in control of the rain. Therefore in this day and age of drought he is all powerful!

Han-Riu has many stripes on his body and is up to forty feet in length. One of the biggest dragons.

Ri-Riu dragon is a rare breed that is not well understood. However, it is known that they have amazing eye sight.

Ka-Riu is a brilliant red color, and a petite dragon in comparison with the others.

Fuku-Riu is a favorite dragon of many people as it is the dragon of luck.

Hai-Riyo is known as the dragon bird, and the most advanced form of dragon. It evolved out of Chinese mythology.

The colors of the dragons have special significance, which are based on their parents. For example a dragon with a black color means their parents are very old and wise. Green dragons are smaller than average, but are representative of life and of the earth. Gold colored dragons are special because they have many special attributes such as wisdom, kindness and the ability to face challenges head on.

Yellow dragons represent the east. They are great companions when you need a hand, but can be self absorbed at times. Blue dragons are from the west. They are forgiving and compassionate, but on the negative side can be lazy and uncaring when it suits them.

Finding the right Japanese Tattoo Design for you can be quite daunting. Check out all the free sites on the net to get as many ideas as you can. Just remember that many other people have done the same thing to get ideas. For example, last month, over 41,000 people searched for dragon tattoo designs on Yahoo. Apparently, roughly 8 times that amount check out Google for the same search term. Then there is MSN and the other search engines. So a huge amount of people see the same free designs as you. If you want original Japanese Dragon tattoo designs, it is recommended that you check out books or other sources of tattoo designs that are not freely available. I have checked out three Japanese dragon tattoo galleries on the internet that have from 3,500 to 6000 different designs, so you will have no trouble finding what you want.

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Source by Graeme Wheeler

Take the Mic: The Art of Performance Poetry, Slam, and the Spoken Word (A Poetry Speaks Experience)

Take the Mic: The Art of Performance Poetry, Slam, and the Spoken Word (A Poetry Speaks Experience)

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Get on Stage and Perfect Your Performance

Have you ever enjoyed a slam or two and thought, “I could do this,” but felt apprehensive staring at that empty mic—or worse, you climbed up on stage and struggled?

Let Marc Kelly Smith, the founder of Slam Poetry, teach you everything you need to be a confident performer, from writing a powerful poem, to stage techniques, to going on tour (if that’s where your muse leads you).

Take the Mic is filled with insider tips, backstage advice, and tons of examples of slam poems that wake up an audience. With this book, you’ll also be able to link to the PoetrySpeaks.com community to listen to samples, meet poets, and unearth inspirations for your next performance.

The Ultimate Guide to Writing and Performing with Power

Take the Mic is an essential guide for lifting your poetry from the page to the stage. Marc Kelly Smith (So What!), grand founder of the Slam movement, serves as you personal coach, showing you how to craft stage-worthy verse and deliver a poetry performance that shakes the rafters and sparks thunderous applause. In Take the Mic, you discover how to…

  • Pen poetry that’s conducive to on-stage performance
  • Overcome stage fright
  • Practice powerful performance techniques
  • Rehearse like a pro
  • Shape a loose collection of poems into a killer set
  • Connect with your audience — heart and soul
  • Master the art of self-promotion
  • Schedule your own slam poetry tour
  • Transform your hobby into paying gigs
  • Act professional to establish a solid reputation in the Slam community

Take the Mic is packed with practical exercises you can do alone or in class to hone your skills and transform your body, mind, voice, verse, and spirit into an engaging stage presence.

You’ll also find a brief history of slam, the rules and regulations that govern official slam competitions, and a list of PSI (Poetry Slam, Inc.) Certified Slams, so no matter where you are, you always have a place to Take the Mic!



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Short Notes for Law Students taking Public International Law

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LAW OF TREATIES

Art. 38(1) (a) ICJ Statute: In deciding disputes regarding international law, the court shall refer to international covenants [treaties]…

Definition of treaty

Refer Art. 2 of VCLT

ELEMENTS TO MAKE A VALID TREATY (ART 2 OF VCLT):

1) Treaty must have international character

The treaty is to be concluded by an international legal person who has capacity to enter into treaty.

Who is an international legal person who can conclude treaties?

a)      States (Art 6 VCLT), which includes Head of States, Head of Gov, and Minister of Foreign Affairs (refer to Art 7 VCLT)

b)      International organization (in Anglo-Iranian Oil Company case, ICJ held that contract between the company and Iranian government was not a treaty because there is no privity of contract.

2) In written form

Oral form of agreement is also acceptable (Eastern Greenland case)

3) Governed by international law

International law governs all treaties whether or not they are within the scope of VCLT

4) Embodied in single or 2 instruments

Treaties may be several forms:

a)      Conventions

b)      Agreements

c)       Protocols

d)      Charter

e)      Exchange of notes

There are less formal agreements such as exchange of notes (letters). States may send letters to each other and agree on certain things. If the letters intended to be a treaty, it is customary to expressly state that it shall constitute an agreement between our Governments.

In the case of Qatar and Bahrain, exchange of notes that was done by parties conferred jurisdiction to ICJ to hear the dispute.

5) There is an intention to create legal relation

This element is not expressly mentioned in Art 2 VCLT. But, it is very important because without intention, an instrument will not be a treaty.

What are the effects of Unilateral Statements (only 1 party enter into treaty)?

If the state made such declaration with intention to be bound, a state may be bound by such unilateral statement.

In Legal Status of Eastern Greenland case, Norway made unilateral statement that it won’t create difficulties in respect of Danish’s claim over Eastern Greenland. ICJ held that Norway is bound by this unilateral statement.

This was confirmed again by ICJ in Nuclear Test cases.

Once the text is adopted, THE NEGOTIATING PARTIES MUST GIVE CONSENT TO BE BOUND BY A TREATY

The methods of giving consent are provided under Art 11 – 16 VCLT

WHAT IF A STATE MAKES RESERVATION TO ONE OF TERMS IN THE TREATY?

Refer to Art 19 – 23 VCLT.

If the Treaty allows reservation, then can reserve. But, if do not allow, cannot.

Art 120 Rome Statute: No reservation may be made to the statute of ICC.

What if there are no provisions stating about reservation in that Treaty? Are states not allowed to make reservation?

ICJ in the case of Reservations to the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide answered this question. If there are no provisions stating about reservation, it does not automatically mean that you cannot reserve. But, you need to look at the purpose of the Treaty. Your reservation cannot defeat the purpose and object of the Treaty, otherwise, you are not a party to the Treaty.

ENTRY INTO FORCE

A treaty does not enter into force until certain number of States ratified it. For example, Art 308 of UNCLOS provides:

“This convention shall enter into force 12 months after the date of deposit of the 16th ratification

REGISTRATION AND PUBLICATION OF TREATY

Every treaty needs to be registered with UN, ~refer to Art 102 UN Charter & Art 80 VCLT

APPLICATION OF A TREATY

A) Upon its Parties

Art 26 VCLT: every treaty in force is binding upon its parties and must be performed in good faith

Art 27 VCLT: a party may not invoke the provision of internal law as justification for its failure to perform a treaty

B) Successive Treaties on the same subject matter

Art 30 VLCT: If there are 2 same treaties concluded on the same matter, the one concluded later will prevail.

However, if the provision of an ordinary treaty is in conflict with UN Charter, Art 30 VCLT & Art 103 UN Charter provides that UN Charter prevails.

C) Application of a Treaty upon 3rd States

Art 34 VCLT: 3rd party states are not bound by the Treaty without its consent.

However, Art 35-38 VCLT states that there are exceptions where 3rd party states may be bound.

INVALIDATION OF TREATIES

There are several grounds which a Treaty may be invalid:

a) Violation of fundamental domestic law (Art 46 VCLT)

A state may invoke Art 46 if:

  1. the violated internal law was related to competence to conclude Treaty

(The person who ratified the Treaty was not capable of doing it.)

  1. the violation was manifest and other party must be aware of it
  2. the violation concerned a rule of fundamental importance

b) Error (Art 48 VCLT)

That State may have erred in entering the Treaty due to some misunderstanding. However, error does not make the Treaty automatically void. The mistaken party may invoke the error as invalidating its consent.

c) Fraud Art 49 VCLT

d)Corruption Art 50 VCLT

e)Coercion Art 51 VCLT

f) Coercion by threat or use of force Art 52

Art 2 (4) UN Charter provides use of force is prohibited. Force means ‘military force’.

g) Treaty conflicting with jus cogens, e.g.

  1. A treaty allowing an unlawful use of force
  2. A treaty which allow parties to commit crimes under International law
  3. A treaty which allows genocide, piracy or slavery

TERMINATION OF TREATY

~refer to Art 54-60 VCLT

A Treaty may be terminated automatically by 3 ways:

a) Art 61 VCLT –supervening impossibility of performance

b) Art 62 VCLT – there is a fundamental change of circumstances

c) Art 64 VCLT – emergence of a new jus cogens.

CONSEQUENCES OF INVALIDITY OR TERMINATION OF TREATY

Refer Art 69 – 71 VCLT

__________________________________________________________________

STATE RESPONSIBILITY

A state may incur liability if it violate a rule of customary international law or ignore its obligation under a treaty.

However, to make a state responsible, Art 2 of Draft Articles (DA) put 2 requirements:

1) THE WRONGFUL CONDUCT IN QUESTION MUST BE ATTRIBUTABLE TO THE STATE

State cannot act on its own. State Organs shall represent the State in any matters.

Art 4 DA provides that the conduct of any state organ shall be considered an act of that state under international law whether the organ exercises legislative, executive or judiciary function. An organ includes any person or entity.

Conduct in Art 4 DA means action or omission. E.g.:

Diplomatic and Consular Staff case: Iran was responsible because of omission to act when it should have done so.

Corfu Channel case: Albanian was responsible because it should have known about presence of mines in its territorial waters and failed to inform the 3rd state about it.

a) Wrongful conduct of judiciary attributable to the state

Judicial organ can be the cause of state responsibility because of ‘denial of justice’.

Janes Claim case: Mexico failed to arrest and punish an offender which caused death to an American citizen. ICJ held that this is ‘a denial of justice’ and Mexico should be liable.

b) Wrongful conduct of the executive attributable to the state

e.g. conduct of police, army, gov officers

Massey claim case: a US citizen who was working in Mexico was killed. Mexican authority failed to punish the offender. Mexico is liable and should pay damages to US.

Does the state be responsible if wrongful conduct committed by its organ when off duty?

No. A state would only be attributable to such wrongful conduct when it is committed on duty. If committed off duty, it cannot be attributable to the State.

Mallen case: A consul has been attacked by American police officer 2 times. 1st attack was when he was off duty. 2nd attack he showed his badge to assert his official capacity. US was responsible for the 2nd attack.

A state may also be liable for de facto State organs i.e. public corporations or private company performing element of governmental authority

SEDCO case: there was a seizure of vehicle. The claimant argued that a state owned company took it. However, argument was rejected because there was no proof to show that government directed it to be seized.

Foremost Tehran Inc v Iran case: Iranian company did not pay dividends to shareholders. The conduct was attributable to Iran because it had been influenced by Government representatives on the board of directors.

Ultra vires conduct cannot be a defense to exclude state responsibility

Refer Art 7 DA

US v Mexico: Mexican soldiers ignored their orders and attacked on a house where Americans was seeking refuge. It was held Mexico liable.

Conduct of private persons may be attributable to State in 2 circumstances if [Art 8 DA]:

a) It was carried out on instructions of the State

b) It was under direction or control of State

However, what is the degree of control that State need to exercise over the persons?

2 views:

i) According to Nicaragua case, Stateneeds to exercise effective control. Control by State is effective when, for example:

  1. State finances the persons
  2. State coordinates the conduct of such persons
  3. State issued specific instruction to such persons

ii) According to Prosecutor v Tadic, State only need to exercise overall control. State does not necessarily need issue instructions concerning each specific action.

2) THE CONDUCT MUST CONSTITUTE A BREACH OF AN INTERNATIONAL LEGAL OBLIGATION

Art 12 DA: A State is in breach of its obligation when any act of the State does not conform to its obligation.

DEFENCES [Art 20-27 DA)

a)      Consent [Art 20 DA]

b)      self-defense [Art 21 DA]

c)       countermeasures [Art 22 DA]

d)      force majeure [Art 23 DA]

There must be unforeseen circumstances to perform the obligation.

Rainbow Warrior: New Zealand argued that French breached its obligation because French failed to seek consent of NZ before removing NZ’s soldiers from the island. French said that NZ soldiers were sick and need medical attention, so it was a force majeure. It was held that this situation does not suffice to amount to force majeure.

e)      Distress [Art 24 DA]

f)       Necessity [Art 25 DA]

NATIONALITY OF CLAIM

Every state has the right to protect its nationals. However, it is up to the state whether to take up the claim or not.

Nottebohm: a state’s right to extend diplomatic protection to its individual is not unlimited.

However, according to Art 1 of Hague Convention, there must be a genuine link between the State and the national.

Nottebohm case:

Mr. N was born in Germany & had German nationality until his naturalisation with Liechtenstein. Later he went to Guatemala and resided & conducts business there. L sued GU for unlawfully expelled and seized property of Mr N who had been neutralised by L. Court said that for the claim to succeed, a genuine link between L and Mr N must be proven.

Court said that for a genuine link to exist, there must be dominant nationality. Here, Mr. N’s link with L is not dominant.

EXHAUSTION OF LOCAL REMEDIES

Art 44 (b) DA: responsibility of a state cannot be invoked if local remedies still available.

This principle was confirmed in ELSI case and Interhandel Case.

However, there is no need to exhaust all local remedies in the following situations:

  1. The remedies are ineffective in municipal law
  2. Remedies in municipal law are futile
  3. There are already judicial precedents, which will be followed in your case & does not favour you
  4. There has been an unreasonable delay
  5. Local processes are biased against the individual
  6. The injury is to the state itself
  7. The local remedies requirement has been waived

__________________________________________________________________

LAW OF THE SEA

General treaty for law of the sea is UNCLOS.

The sea consists of several zones:

a) TERRITORIAL SEA

It is an area of the sea that is near to coast.

Art 2 UNCLOS: Coastal state can exercise sovereignty over its territorial sea.

Art 3: The limit of territorial sea extends up to 12 nautical miles measured from baselines.

What is baseline?

It refers to the starting place to calculate the breadth of territorial waters and other zones.

There are 2 types of baselines:

a) Normal baseline [Art 5]

b) Straight baseline [Art 7]

Does the coastal State have rights over its territorial sea?

Yes. This was agreed by Art 2 and Nicaragua case. The rights of coastal State include:

  1. Right to fish & exploit resources from seabed
  2. Right to enjoy air space above its territorial waters
  3. Right to transport goods and passengers
  4. Right to conduct marine research

Although coastal State have rights, it has to give right of innocent passage through its territorial sea.

Art 17: Ships of all states shall enjoy right of innocent passage.

Innocent passage means navigation through the territorial area for the purpose of proceeding to other internal waters.

Art 19: passage is not innocent if it causes prejudice to peace or security of coastal state.

When foreign ships pass territorial waters, it must abide by the coastal state’s municipal law. If municipal law is breached, it shall be tried under that municipal law.

PP v Narogne: Thai fishermen were on a vessel which was then at sea about 3 miles off the Malaysian coast. There were fishing equipment on board the vessel. They were arrested by Malaysian Naval Authority for breaching its national laws. It was held that the passage by fishermen was not innocent passage.

The coastal state has civil jurisdiction [Art 28] and criminal jurisdiction [Art 27] over ships in passage of its territorial waters.

However, warships, naval vessels and government operated for non-commercial purposes are immune from any interference from coastal state [Art 32]. If it causes damage to coastal state during its passage, the flag State (passer-by ship) shall bear international responsibility.

b) CONTIGUOUS ZONE

It is a sea zone which does not extend 24 nautical miles.

A coastal state may exercise the control over its contiguous zone. Refer Art 33

c) EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE (EEZ)

It is the ocean area beyond territorial sea and out to 200 nautical miles. EEZ is also defined in Art 55.

The coastal state can exercise its rights over its EEZ. Such rights are laid down in Art 56, 60, 61 and 62.

[Art 73]: Coastal state may enforce jurisdiction over foreign ships including arresting and bringing them to national courts to ensure compliance with its national laws.

Rights and Duties of other states in the EEZ of a Coastal state are stated under Art 58, 88 – 115, 246 of UNCLOS

[Art 246]: Scientific research cannot be carried out by other states in a coastal State’s EEZ. That right is reserved for that coastal state.

d) CONTINENTAL SHELF

Refer to Art 76-85 UNCLOS

e) THE HIGH SEAS

Art 86 defines high seas as all parts of sea except internal waters, territorial sea and EEZ.

It is open to all States and free for enjoyment of all. Refer to Art 87-97 UNCLOS for rights of States in the high seas.

According to Lotus case, vessels on high seas are subject to no authority except that of the flag state.

The crime of piracy is prohibited and now recognized as international crime. Refer to Art 100-110 UNCLOS for details.

The right of hot pursuit [Art 111 UNCLOS]

This right is designed to prevent a foreign ship that has violated laws of a coastal state to avoid arrest by escaping to high seas.

Hot pursuit can start in any sea zones in that coastal state & can extend to high seas.

Are there limitations for this right?

Yes. There are 2 limitations:

1. Hot pursuit is limited once the foreign ship entered territorial waters of a 3rd coastal state / other states.

2. Hot pursuit should not cause sinking of ships. According to Art 293 UNCLOS, use of force should be avoided. But if need to use force, it should be reasonable only to effect boarding, searching seizing and bringing the suspected ship into port.

In I’m Alone case, a British ship named I’m Alone smuggled prohibited liquor into US. When I’m Alone was chased, it fled to high seas. US pursued and fired at it. The I’m Alone ship sunk and caused loss of 1 crew. It was held that US coast guard may use reasonable force but intentional sinking is not allowed.

Red Crusader case also held that direct firing of solid shot to the Red crusader exceeded the legitimate use of armed force.

Art 111 (4) UNCLOS: jurisdiction of a coastal state may be extended. if boats from a mother ship acted illegally within a zone while mother ship is lying outside the zone, coastal state may exercise jurisdiction on that mother ship.

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Source by Mahyuddin bin Daud

Mixed Media Painting Tips

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I have been painting, as a hobby and commercially, for approximately 10 years now. I first started with acrylics but have more recently dabbled in watercolors. I have always loved texture in my art work but could never afford to buy oil paints. I consider myself quite a resourceful person and this has led me to think out of the box. I will hopefully enlighten you as to some of my more creative ideas which you may want to incorporate into your own pieces.

Before I start I apply Gesso primer to my canvases. This assists with ensuring any medium added to the canvas adheres well.

Tip One

I have found a product called “Decorator’s Caulk” which works as a great way of adding texture to your canvas. I buy trade tubes which can be fitted to a “Sealant Gun” and this is the tool I use to apply the caulk to the canvas. From there you have to let your imagination take over. I use a large pallet knife as well as various other tools to manipulate the caulk across the canvas.

The caulk can be found in all trade shops and is not a specific art product. It is normally used to fill gaps and cracks in walls. It can take up to one one hour to dry but this will depend on how thickly you applied it to the canvas. I just touch it lightly and you can tell when it has hardened. You are then ready to paint over it. You will find acrylic paint sticks to it with no fuss. The result is awesome and you have the perceived texture of an oil painting but at very little cost.

Tip Two

Crepe paper is a cheap and interesting way to add texture. I usually make a solution of PVA glue with some water to assist with sticking the paper to the canvas. Again your own imagination has to come to play here and depending on the look you want as to how layered and textured you want your piece to be.

Tip Three

Plaster of paris infused crepe bandages. These are a tad messy to work with but the results can look fantastic. I find that rather than trying to achieve a perfectly smooth finish it can look great if you leave it rough and if not all of the bandage is covered with the plaster of paris it adds a mottled porous look which is spectacularly organic in its texture.

Tip Four

Rope of all size and thickness can add a really great three dimensional quality to your piece. I use decorator’s caulk to stick it to the canvas as not only does this act as a great adhesive you can also paint over it quite easily.

Tip Five

Cutting into the canvas. I know this sounds like a cardinal sin but the results can be quite spectacular. I have created many industrial looking pieces by combining rope, netting, plaster of paris and by cutting into the canvas and bending it back upon itself you can achieve a very raw look.

These are just a few ideas which will hopefully fire up your imagination and assist you with trying out different materials. I am sure your artwork will take on a whole new look and feel with the added bonus of very little cost.

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Source by Carol Ann Hannah

Japanese Woodblock Prints: Artists, Publishers and Masterworks: 1680 – 1900

Japanese Woodblock Prints: Artists, Publishers and Masterworks: 1680 - 1900

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Japanese woodblock prints, or ukiyo-e, are the most recognizable Japanese art form. Their massive popularity has spread from Japan to be embraced by a worldwide audience. Covering the period from the beginning of the Japanese woodblock print in the 1680s until the year 1900, Japanese Woodblock Prints provides a detailed survey of all the famous ukiyo-e artists, along with over 500 full color prints.

Unlike previous examinations of this art form, Japanese Woodblock Prints includes detailed histories of the publishers of woodblock prints—who were often the driving force determining which prints, and therefore which artists, would make it into mass circulation for a chance at critical and popular success. Invaluable as a guide for ukiyo-e enthusiasts looking for detailed information about their favorite Japanese woodblock print artists and prints, it is also an ideal introduction for newcomers to the world of the woodblock print. This lavishly illustrated book will be a valued addition to the libraries of scholars, as well as the general art enthusiast.Used Book in Good Condition



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Ukiyo-e Master Hokusai’s Great Wave of Woodblock Art

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Hokusai (1760-1849) is world-famous for his designs of Mount Fuji, the most famous mountain of Japan. Hokusai (meaning ‘pole-star’ ) represents Mount Fuji in an impressive triangular shape in his prints of the holy mountain in the summer with massive floating clouds with lightning to the side of the mountian. One glance on such a simple and effective composition makes an unforgettable impression on the viewer.

Mini Biography

Little is known about Hokusai’s early life. From what he has told himself he developed an urge to draw all kinds of subjects related to nature from the age of 6. Also from an early age he came into touch with the art of woodcutting. This experience was as a ‘hidden force’ when he became a woodblock designer in his adult life. At the age of 19 he started as a pupil of Shunsho which marks the beginning of his career as a illustrator.

His first prints give the impression that Hokusai was not a natural talent but that was compensated by his possessiveness to drawing and his productivity which is unmatched in the history of Ukiyo-e. Initially he designed mainly kabuki (actor) prints and book illustrations but slowly he started experimenting within the other Ukiyo-e genres such as surimono (commissioned print), kacho-ga (flower and bird print) and shunga (erotic print).

Manga

In 1812 Hokusai travelled to Kyoto and Osaka. On this ocassion he produced hundreds of sketches with the intention of getting them published in the form of a handbook on the art of drawing. Between 1812 and 1820 the first ten volumes were published which are known to the world as the ‘Sketchbooks of Hokusai’ (Hokusai Manga).

This overwhelming quantity and striking diversity of sketches shows the viewer the full reality of the Japanese daily life. The subjects are almost unlimited and forms a colourful encyclopaedia of human life and labour, myths and legends and of the material and natural environment.

Great Wave

It is like the production of these sketchbooks were a finger exercise, a contemplative preamble for his masterpiece which places Hokusai in the pantheon of greatest artists being on a par with Raphaël, Michelangelo and Rembrandt. This masterpiece series, called the ’36 Views of Mount Fuji’ (Fugaku sanjurokkei), with Mount Fuji as its main subject, portrayed under changing weather circumstances from different locations and points of view, was published when Hokusai was 70. One of the prints is called the ‘Beneath the Wave of Kanagawa’ (The Great Wave) and is the most famous print in the history of Japanese woodblock art.  

Hokusai’s Great Wave print depicts one enormous wave coming from the left and reaching up into the sky with its tentacle crests ready to smash the boats including their passengers. It’s the magnificent juxtaposition of the three elements the divine, the human and the earthly presented here in a perfect harmony giving the image such an impact and power.  It was Hokusai’s ’36 Views of Mount Fuji’ -series and especially The Great Wave that provided the impressionists a decisive impulse in their quest inventing a new art as stated by Edmond de Goncourt in his book on Hokusai in 1896:

“This horizontal series, with its rather crude colours, which nonetheless attempt to reproduce nature’s colours under all lightning conditions, is the album which inspires the landscapes of the impressionists of the present moment”.    

Books on Hokusai  

‘Hokusai’ by Gian Carlo Calza, ‘ The Hokusai Sketchbooks’ by James A. Michener, Hokusai: ‘First Manga Master’ by Jocelyn Bouquillard and Christophe Marquet.      

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Source by Marijn Kruijff

Mono No Aware: The Essence of Japan

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Mono no aware: the Japanese beauty aesthetic

Meaning literally “a sensitivity to things,” mono no aware is a concept describing the essence of Japanese culture, invented by the Japanese literary and linguistic scholar scholar Motoori Norinaga in the eighteenth century, and remains the central artistic imperative in Japan to this day. The phrase is derived from the word *aware*, which in Heian Japan meant sensitivity or sadness, and the word mono, meaning things, and describes beauty as an awareness of the transience of all things, and a gentle sadness at their passing. It can also be translated as the “ah-ness” of things, of life, and love.

Mono no aware gave name to an aesthetic that already existed in Japanese art, music and poetry, the source of which can be traced directly to the introduction of Zen Buddhism in the twelfth century, a spiritual philosophy and practise which profoundly influenced all aspects of Japanese culture, but especially art and religion. The fleeting nature of beauty described by mono no aware derives from the three states of existence in Buddhist philosophy: unsatisfactoriness, impersonality, and most importantly in this context, impermanence.

According to mono no aware, a falling or wilting autumn flower is more beautiful than one in full bloom; a fading sound more beautiful than one clearly heard; the moon partially clouded more appealing than full. The sakura or cherry blossom tree is the epitome of this conception of beauty; the flowers of the most famous variety, somei yoshino, nearly pure white tinged with a subtle pale pink, bloom and then fall within a single week. The subject of a thousand poems and a national icon, the cherry blossom tree embodies beauty as a transient experience.

Mono no aware states that beauty is a subjective rather than objective experience, a state of being ultimately internal rather than external. Based largely upon classical Greek ideals, beauty in the West is sought in the ultimate perfection of an external object: a sublime painting, perfect sculpture or intricate musical composition; a beauty that could be said to be only skin deep. The Japanese ideal sees beauty instead as an experience of the heart and soul, a feeling for and appreciation of objects or artwork–most commonly nature or the depiction of–in a pristine, untouched state.

An appreciation of beauty as a state which does not last and cannot be grasped is not the same as nihilism, and can better be understood in relation to Zen Buddhism’s philosophy of earthly transcendence: a spiritual longing for that which is infinite and eternal–the source of all worldly beauty. As the monk Sotoba wrote in *Zenrin Kushū* (Poetry of the Zenrin Temple), Zen does not regard nothingness as a state of absence, but rather the affirmation of an unseen that exists behind empty space: “Everything exists in emptiness: flowers, the moon in the sky, beautiful scenery.”

With its roots in Zen Buddhism, *mono no aware* is bears some relation to the non-dualism of Indian philosophy, as related in the following story about Swami Vivekananda by Sri Chinmoy:

*”Beauty,” says [Vivekananda], “is not external, but already in the mind.” Here we are reminded of what his spiritual daughter Nivedita wrote about her Master. “It was dark when we approached Sicily, and against the sunset sky, Etna was in slight eruption. As we entered the straits of Messina, the moon rose, and I walked up and down the deck beside the Swami, while he dwelt on the fact that beauty is not external, but already in the mind. On one side frowned the dark crags of the Italian coast, on the other, the island was touched with silver light. ‘Messina must thank me,’ he said; ‘it is I who give her all her beauty.'” Truly, in the absence of appreciation, beauty is not beauty at all. And beauty is worthy of its name only when it has been appreciated.*

The founder of *mono no aware*, Motoori Norinaga (1730-1801), was the pre-eminent scholar of the Kokugakushu movement, a nationalist movement which sought to remove all outside influences from Japanese culture. Kokugakushu was enormously influential in art, poetry, music and philosophy, and responsible for the revival during the Tokugawa period of the Shinto religion. Contradictorily, the influence of Buddhist ideas and practises upon art and even Shintoism itself was so great that, although Buddhism is technically an outside influence, it was by this point unable to be extricated.

Meaning literally “a sensitivity to things,” mono no aware is a concept describing the essence of Japanese culture, invented by the Japanese literary and linguistic scholar scholar Motoori Norinaga in the eighteenth century, and remains the central artistic imperative in Japan to this day. The phrase is derived from the word aware, which in Heian Japan meant sensitivity or sadness, and the word mono, meaning things, and describes beauty as an awareness of the transience of all things, and a gentle sadness at their passing. It can also be translated as the “ah-ness” of things, of life, and love.

Mono no aware gave name to an aesthetic that already existed in Japanese art, music and poetry, the source of which can be traced directly to the introduction of Zen Buddhism in the twelfth century, a spiritual philosophy and practise which profoundly influenced all aspects of Japanese culture, but especially art and religion. The fleeting nature of beauty described by mono no aware derives from the three states of existence in Buddhist philosophy: unsatisfactoriness, impersonality, and most importantly in this context, impermanence.

According to mono no aware, a falling or wilting autumn flower is more beautiful than one in full bloom; a fading sound more beautiful than one clearly heard; the moon partially clouded more appealing than full. The sakura or cherry blossom tree is the epitome of this conception of beauty; the flowers of the most famous variety, somei yoshino, nearly pure white tinged with a subtle pale pink, bloom and then fall within a single week. The subject of a thousand poems and a national icon, the cherry blossom tree embodies beauty as a transient experience.

Mono no aware states that beauty is a subjective rather than objective experience, a state of being ultimately internal rather than external. Based largely upon classical Greek ideals, beauty in the West is sought in the ultimate perfection of an external object: a sublime painting, perfect sculpture or intricate musical composition; a beauty that could be said to be only skin deep. The Japanese ideal sees beauty instead as an experience of the heart and soul, a feeling for and appreciation of objects or artwork–most commonly nature or the depiction of–in a pristine, untouched state.

An appreciation of beauty as a state which does not last and cannot be grasped is not the same as nihilism, and can better be understood in relation to Zen Buddhism’s philosophy of earthly transcendence: a spiritual longing for that which is infinite and eternal–the source of all worldly beauty. As the monk Sotoba wrote in Zenrin Kushū (Poetry of the Zenrin Temple), Zen does not regard nothingness as a state of absence, but rather the affirmation of an unseen that exists behind empty space: “Everything exists in emptiness: flowers, the moon in the sky, beautiful scenery.”

With its roots in Zen Buddhism, mono no aware is bears some relation to the non-dualism of Indian philosophy, as related in the following story about Swami Vivekananda by Sri Chinmoy:

“Beauty,” says [Vivekananda], “is not external, but already in the mind.” Here we are reminded of what his spiritual daughter Nivedita wrote about her Master. “It was dark when we approached Sicily, and against the sunset sky, Etna was in slight eruption. As we entered the straits of Messina, the moon rose, and I walked up and down the deck beside the Swami, while he dwelt on the fact that beauty is not external, but already in the mind. On one side frowned the dark crags of the Italian coast, on the other, the island was touched with silver light. ‘Messina must thank me,’ he said; ‘it is I who give her all her beauty.'” Truly, in the absence of appreciation, beauty is not beauty at all. And beauty is worthy of its name only when it has been appreciated.

The founder of mono no aware, Motoori Norinaga (1730-1801), was the pre-eminent scholar of the Kokugakushu movement, a nationalist movement which sought to remove all outside influences from Japanese culture. Kokugakushu was enormously influential in art, poetry, music and philosophy, and responsible for the revival during the Tokugawa period of the Shinto religion. Contradictorily, the influence of Buddhist ideas and practises upon art and even Shintoism itself was so great that, although Buddhism is technically an outside influence, it was by this point unable to be extricated.

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Source by John Paul Gillespie