Wildlife Art – Its History and Development

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Summary

Some of the earliest of all known art (pre-historic cave and rock art) features wildlife. However, it might be more properly regarded as art about food, rather than art about wildlife as such.

Then for a lot of the rest of the history of art in the western world, art depicting wildlife was mostly absent, due to the fact that art during this period was mostly dominated by narrow perspectives on reality, such as religions. It is only more recently, as society, and the art it produces, frees itself from such narrow world-views, that wildlife art flourishes.

Wildlife is also a difficult subject for the artist, as it is difficult to find and even more difficult to find keeping still in a pose, long enough to even sketch, let alone paint. Recent advances such as photography have made this far easier, as well as being artforms in their own right. Wildlife art is thus now far easier to accomplish both accurately and aesthetically.

In art from outside the western world, wild animals and birds have been portrayed much more frequently throughout history.

Art about wild animals began as a depiction of vital food-sources, in pre-history. At the beginnings of history the western world seems to have shut itself off from the natural world for long periods, and this is reflected in the lack of wildlife art throughout most of art history. More recently, societies, and the art it produces, have become much more broad-minded. Wildlife has become something to marvel at as new areas of the world were explored for the first time, something to hunt for pleasure, to admire aesthetically, and to conserve. These interests are reflected in the wildlife art produced.

The History and development of Wildlife Art…

Wildlife art in Pre-history.

Animal and bird art appears in some of the earliest known examples of artistic creation, such as cave paintings and rock art

The earliest known cave paintings were made around 40,000 years ago, the Upper Paleolithic period. These art works might be more than decoration of living areas as they are often in caves which are difficult to access and don’t show any signs of human habitation. Wildlife was a significant part of the daily life of humans at this time, particularly in terms of hunting for food, and this is reflected in their art. Religious interpretation of the natural world is also assumed to be a significant factor in the depiction of animals and birds at this time.

Probably the most famous of all cave painting, in Lascaux (France), includes the image of a wild horse, which is one of the earliest known examples of wildlife art. Another example of wildlife cave painting is that of reindeer in the Spanish cave of Cueva de las Monedas, probably painted at around the time of the last ice-age. The oldest known cave paintings (maybe around 32,000 years old) are also found in France, at the Grotte Chauvet, and depict horses, rhinoceros, lions, buffalo, mammoth and humans, often hunting.

Wildlife painting is one of the commonest forms of cave art. Subjects are often of large wild animals, including bison, horses, aurochs, lions, bears and deer. The people of this time were probably relating to the natural world mostly in terms of their own survival, rather than separating themselves from it.

Cave paintings found in Africa often include animals. Cave paintings from America include animal species such as rabbit, puma, lynx, deer, wild goat and sheep, whale, turtle, tuna, sardine, octopus, eagle, and pelican, and is noted for its high quality and remarkable color. Rock paintings made by Australian Aborigines include so-called “X-ray” paintings which show the bones and organs of the animals they depict. Paintings on caves/rocks in Australia include local species of animals, fish and turtles.

Animal carvings were also made during the Upper Paleolithic period… which constitute the earliest examples of wildlife sculpture.

In Africa, bushman rock paintings, at around 8000 BC, clearly depict antelope and other animals.

The advent of the Bronze age in Europe, from the 3rd Millennium BC, led to a dedicated artisan class, due to the beginnings of specialization resulting from the surpluses available in these advancing societies. During the Iron age, mythical and natural animals were a common subject of artworks, often involving decoration of objects such as plates, knives and cups. Celtic influences affected the art and architecture of local Roman colonies, and outlasted them, surviving into the historic period.

Wildlife Art in the Ancient world (Classical art).

History is considered to begin at the time writing is invented. The earliest examples of ancient art originate from Egypt and Mesopotamia.

The great art traditions have their origins in the art of one of the six great ancient “classical” civilizations: Ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, Greece, Rome, India, or China. Each of these great civilizations developed their own unique style of art.

Animals were commonly depicted in Chinese art, including some examples from the 4th Century which depict stylized mythological creatures and thus are rather a departure from pure wildlife art. Ming dynasty Chinese art features pure wildlife art, including ducks, swans, sparrows, tigers, and other animals and birds, with increasing realism and detail.

In the 7th Century, Elephants, monkeys and other animals were depicted in stone carvings in Ellora, India. These carvings were religious in nature, yet depicted real animals rather than more mythological creatures.

Ancient Egyptian art includes many animals, used within the symbolic and highly religious nature of Egyptian art at the time, yet showing considerable anatomical knowledge and attention to detail. Animal symbols are used within the famous Egyptian hieroglyphic symbolic language.

Early South American art often depicts representations of a divine jaguar.

The Minoans, the greatest civilization of the Bronze Age, created naturalistic designs including fish, squid and birds in their middle period. By the late Minoan period, wildlife was still the most characteristic subject of their art, with increasing variety of species.

The art of the nomadic people of the Mongolian steppes is primarily animal art, such as gold stags, and is typically small in size as befits their traveling lifestyle.

Aristotle (384-322 BC) suggested the concept of photography, but this wasn’t put into practice until 1826.

The Medieval period, AD 200 to 1430

This period includes early Christian and Byzantine art, as well as Romanesque and Gothic art (1200 to 1430). Most of the art which survives from this period is religious, rather than realistic, in nature. Animals in art at this time were used as symbols rather than representations of anything in the real world. So very little wildlife art as such could be said to exist at all during this period.

Renaissance wildlife art, 1300 to 1602.

This arts movement began from ideas which initially emerged in Florence. After centuries of religious domination of the arts, Renaissance artists began to move more towards ancient mystical themes and depicting the world around them, away from purely Christian subject matter. New techniques, such as oil painting and portable paintings, as well as new ways of looking such as use of perspective and realistic depiction of textures and lighting, led to great changes in artistic expression.

The two major schools of Renaissance art were the Italian school who were heavily influenced by the art of ancient Greece and Rome, and the northern Europeans… Flemish, Dutch and Germans, who were generally more realistic and less idealized in their work. The art of the Renaissance reflects the revolutions in ideas and science which occurred in this Reformation period.

The early Renaissance features artists such as Botticelli, and Donatello. Animals are still being used symbolically and in mythological context at this time, for example “Pegasus” by Jacopo de’Barbari.

The best-known artist of the high Renaissance is Leonardo-Da-Vinci. Although most of his artworks depict people and technology, he occasionally incorporates wildlife into his images, such as the swan in “Leda and the swan”, and the animals portrayed in his “lady with an ermine”, and “studies of cat movements and positions”.

Durer is regarded as the greatest artist of the Northern European Renaissance. Albrecht Durer was particularly well-known for his wildlife art, including pictures of hare, rhinoceros, bullfinch, little owl, squirrels, the wing of a blue roller, monkey, and blue crow.

Baroque wildlife art, 1600 to 1730.

This important artistic age, encouraged by the Roman Catholic Church and the aristocracy of the time, features such well-known great artists as Caravaggio, Rembrandt, Rubens, Velazquez, Poussin, and Vermeer. Paintings of this period often use lighting effects to increase the dramatic effect.

Wildlife art of this period includes a lion, and “goldfinch” by Carel Fabrituis.

Melchior de Hondecoeter was a specialist animal and bird artist in the baroque period with paintings including “revolt in the poultry coup”, “cocks fighting” and “palace of Amsterdam with exotic birds”.

The Rococo art period was a later (1720 to 1780) decadent sub-genre of the Baroque period, and includes such famous painters as Canaletto, Gainsborough and Goya. Wildlife art of the time includes “Dromedary study” by Jean Antoine Watteau, and “folly of beasts” by Goya.

Jean-Baptiste Oudry was a Rococo wildlife specialist, who often painted commissions for royalty.

Some of the earliest scientific wildlife illustration was also created at around this time, for example from artist William Lewin who published a book illustrating British birds, painted entirely by hand.

Wildlife art in the 18th to 19th C.

In 1743, Mark Catesby published his documentation of the flora and fauna of the explored areas of the New World, which helped encourage both business investment and interest in the natural history of the continent.

In response to the decadence of the Rococo period, neo-classicism arose in the late 18th Century (1750-1830 ). This genre is more ascetic, and contains much sensuality, but none of the spontaneity which characterizes the later Romantic period. This movement focused on the supremacy of natural order over man’s will, a concept which culminated in the romantic art depiction of disasters and madness.

Francois Le Vaillant (1769-1832) was a bird illustrator (and ornithologist) around this time.

Georges Cuvier, (1769-1832), painted accurate images of more than 5000 fish, relating to his studies of comparative organismal biology.

Edward Hicks is an example of an American wildlife painter of this period, who’s art was dominated by his religious context.

Sir Edwin Henry Landseer was also painting wildlife at this time, in a style strongly influenced by dramatic emotional judgments of the animals involved.

This focus towards nature led the painters of the Romantic era (1790 – 1880) to transform landscape painting, which had previously been a minor art form, into an art-form of major importance. The romantics rejected the ascetic ideals of Neo-Classicalism.

The practical use of photography began in around 1826, although it was a while before wildlife became a common subject for its use. The first color photograph was taken in 1861, but easy-to-use color plates only became available in 1907.

In 1853 Bisson and Mante created some of the first known wildlife photography.

In France, Gaspar-Felix Tournacho, “Nadar” (1820-1910) applied the same aesthetic principles used in painting, to photography, thus beginning the artistic discipline of fine art photography. Fine Art photography Prints were also reproduced in Limited Editions, making them more valuable.

Jaques-Laurent Agasse was one of the foremost painters of animals in Europe around the end of the 18th C and the beginning of the 19th. His animal art was unusually realistic for the time, and he painted some wild animals including giraffe and leopards.

Romantic wildlife art includes “zebra”, “cheetah, stag and two Indians”, at least two monkey paintings, a leopard and “portrait of a royal tiger” by George Stubbs who also did many paintings of horses.

One of the great wildlife sculptors of the Romantic period was Antoine-Louis Barye. Barye was also a wildlife painter, who demonstrated the typical dramatic concepts and lighting of the romantic movement.

Delacroix painted a tiger attacking a horse, which as is common with Romantic paintings, paints subject matter on the border between human (a domesticated horse) and the natural world (a wild tiger).

In America, the landscape painting movement of the Romantic era was known as the Hudson River School (1850s – c. 1880). These landscapes occasionally include wildlife, such as the deer in “Dogwood” and “valley of the Yosemite” by Albert Bierstadt, and more obviously in his “buffalo trail”, but the focus is on the landscape rather than the wildlife in it.

Wildlife artist Ivan Ivanovitch Shishkin demonstrates beautiful use of light in his landscape-oriented wildlife art.

Although Romantic painting focused on nature, it rarely portrayed wild animals, tending much more towards the borders between man and nature, such as domesticated animals and people in landscapes rather than the landscapes themselves. Romantic art seems in a way to be about nature, but usually only shows nature from a human perspective.

Audubon was perhaps the most famous painter of wild birds at around this time, with a distinctive American style, yet painting the birds realistically and in context, although in somewhat over-dramatic poses. As well as birds, he also painted the mammals of America, although these works of his are somewhat less well known. At around the same time In Europe, Rosa Bonheur was finding fame as a wildlife artist.

Amongst Realist art, “the raven” by Manet and “stags at rest” by Rosa Bonheur are genuine wildlife art. However in this artistic movement animals are much more usually depicted obviously as part of a human context.

The wildlife art of the impressionist movement includes “angler’s prize” by Theodore Clement Steele, and the artist Joseph Crawhall was a specialist wildlife artist strongly influenced by impressionism.

At this time, accurate scientific wildlife illustration was also being created. One name known for this kind of work in Europe is John Gould although his wife Elizabeth was the one who actually did most of the illustrations for his books on birds.

Post-impressionism (1886 – 1905, France) includes a water-bird in Rousseau’s “snake charmer”, and Rousseau’s paintings, which include wildlife, are sometimes considered Post-impressionist (as well as Fauvist, see below).

Fauvism (1904 – 1909, France) often considered the first “modern” art movement, re-thought use of color in art. The most famous fauvist is Matisse, who depicts birds and fish in is “polynesie la Mer” and birds in his “Renaissance”. Other wildlife art in this movement includes a tiger in “Surprised! Storm in the Forest” by Rousseau, a lion in his “sleeping Gypsy” and a jungle animal in his “exotic landscape”. Georges Braque depicts a bird in many of his artworks, including “L’Oiseaux Bleu et Gris”, and his “Astre et l’Oiseau”.

Ukiyo-e-printmaking (Japanese wood-block prints, originating from 17th C) was becoming known in the West, during the 19th C, and had a great influence on Western painters, particularly in France.

Wildlife art in this genre includes several untitled prints (owl, bird, eagle) by Ando Hiroshige, and “crane”, “cat and butterfly”, “wagtail and wisteria” by Hokusai Katsushika.

Wildlife art in the 20th Century, Contemporary art, postmodern art, etc.

Changing from the relatively stable views of a mechanical universe held in the 19th-century, the 20th-century shatters these views with such advances as Einstein’s Relativity and Freuds sub-conscious psychological influence.

The greater degree of contact with the rest of the world had a significant influence on Western arts, such as the influence of African and Japanese art on Pablo Picasso, for example.

American Wildlife artist Carl Runguis spans the end of the 19th and the beginnings of the 20th Century. His style evolved from tightly rendered scientific-influenced style, through impressionist influence, to a more painterly approach.

The golden age of illustration includes mythical wildlife “The firebird” by Edmund Dulac, and “tile design of Heron and Fish” by Walter Crane.

George Braque’s birds can be defined as Analytical Cubist (this genre was jointly developed by Braque and Picasso from 1908 to 1912), (as well as Fauvist). Fernand Leger also depicts birds in his “Les Oiseaux”.

There was also accurate scientific wildlife illustration being done at around this time, such as those done by America illustrator Louis Agassiz Fuertes who painted birds in America as well as other countries.

Expressionism (1905 – 1930, Germany). “Fox”, “monkey Frieze, “red deer”, and “tiger”, etc by Franz Marc qualify as wildlife art, although to contemporary viewers seem more about the style than the wildlife.

Postmodernism as an art genre, which has developed since the 1960’s, looks to the whole range of art history for its inspiration, as contrasted with Modernism which focuses on its own limited context. A different yet related view of these genres is that Modernism attempts to search for an idealized truth, where as post-modernism accepts the impossibility of such an ideal. This is reflected, for example, in the rise of abstract art, which is an art of the indefinable, after about a thousand years of art mostly depicting definable objects.

Magic realism (1960’s Germany) often included animals and birds, but usually as a minor feature among human elements, for example, swans and occasionally other animals in many paintings by Michael Parkes.

In 1963, Ray Harm is a significant bird artist.

Robert Rauschenberg’s “American eagle”, a Pop Art (mid 1950’s onwards) piece, uses the image of an eagle as a symbol rather than as something in its own right, and thus is not really wildlife art. The same applies to Any Warhol’s “Butterflys”.

Salvador Dali, the best known of Surrealist (1920’s France, onwards) artists, uses wild animals in some of his paintings, for example “Landscape with Butterflys”, but within the context of surrealism, depictions of wildlife become conceptually something other than what they might appear to be visually, so they might not really be wildlife at all. Other examples of wildlife in Surrealist art are Rene Magritte’s “La Promesse” and “L’entre ed Scene”.

Op art (1964 onwards) such as M. C. Escher’s “Sky and Water” shows ducks and fish, and “mosaic II” shows many animals and birds, but they are used as image design elements rather than the art being about the animals.

Roger Tory Peterson created fine wildlife art, which although being clear illustrations for use in his book which was the first real field guide to birds, are also aesthetically worthy bird paintings.

Young British Artists (1988 onwards). Damien Hirst uses a shark in a tank as one of his artworks. It is debatable whether this piece could be considered as wildlife art, because even though the shark is the focus of the piece, the piece is not really about the shark itself, but probably more about the shark’s effect on the people viewing it. It could be said to be more a use of wildlife in/as art, than a work of wildlife art.

Wildlife art continues to be popular today, with such artists as Robert Bateman being very highly regarded, although in his case somewhat controversial for his release of Limited-Edition prints which certain fine-art critics deplore.

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Art and Oil Paintings: How Do I Choose Artwork That Is Suitable For a Room in My Home?

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Oil paintings and artwork always seem to make a room come alive with color and feeling, especially when you know how to choose art that compliments a specific room in your home.

Whether you walk through an art gallery, or you look at oil paintings offered at an online store, one thing is certain: you will immediately know if you like a painting. Perhaps the scene creates an emotional sensation within you that is pleasing, and you imagine that you would enjoy that painting hanging in your home for many years, without tiring of looking at it.

Let’s consider if the painting you’ve fallen in love with will fit into a room in your home. Since lines and colors in the artwork can energize or calm you, consider if the lines, such as tall trees or standing people, are vertical, or if the lines are horizontal such as a beach scene or a person who is posed in a sitting or reclining position. If you have your heart set on buying a painting with horizontal elements, then you’d do well to place it in a room that is meant for relaxing, such as a sitting room, parlor, or a formal living room.

If the painting has vertical elements, such as tall trees, buildings, or people standing or dancing, then you’ll want to place that type of artwork in a room that has movement and is energized—a front hall, or an entrance wall into your living room, dining room, or kitchen. Ideally, it’s best to hang oil paintings in an area that reflects what will happen in the room.

Another example that might help you to decide where to place an oil painting is if the artwork has a feeling of action in it, then wherever you hang the painting, it will energize the room. Your mind will awaken when you look at the action in the painting. Likewise, for a bedroom, den, or study, you would want to choose a more calming and somber painting that might cause you to slow down and relax.

Be sure to consider the length and height of the painting. Will it correspond with the furniture in the room where you intend to display it? For example, if you want to hang it above a long and low sectional sofa, the duplicate horizontal lines would make the room quite attractive. In addition, try to choose paintings that have a similar color family as the rooms where you will display them.

A unique strategy for choosing the perfect oil painting for your home is when you already have a motif or a theme that compliments your lifestyle or location where you live. Any type of artwork that is similar to the décor of your home or heritage will make you and your guests instantly feel comfortable.

Below you will find five art themes you might want to consider for your home, when choosing artwork.

Cityscape Artwork—Reflects famous locations and cities, such as the white stone buildings in Greece, the Eiffel Tower in Paris, or the countryside in Israel.

Seashore and Beach Oil Paintings—Reflects a particular city or town with its seashells, palm trees, sand, hammocks, cerulean blue water, or a lone lighthouse.

Flowers and Still Life Paintings—Reflects a natural beauty and charm found everywhere in the world; from creamy white lilies to orange and red poppies.

Landscape Artwork—The horizontal lines in any landscape art painting make a small room feel much larger. It’s as if the landscape art simulates a window; thus, the artwork opens up a room to create a serene setting.

Cuisine Art—Every kitchen is enhanced by the artwork the homeowner selects that depicts food, fun, frivolity, a beverage, or a local farmer’s market. In addition, vivid colors can light up and enhance any kitchen’s décor.

When you follow these guidelines for purchasing artwork, you’ll discover that each subsequent purchase gets easier, and your home will feel more cozy and comfortable when you match the painting with the room.

Author’s Resource Box:

Have you ever felt that a painting was so real you could feel yourself walking into the scene? Maya Green invites you to explore some of her painted treasures at: http://www.yessy.com/maya

Ms. Green is an artist who creates bright and energizing art with intensive colors that express emotional feelings of reality.

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The Art of Selling Final Expense Insurance

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Final expense insurance has been around a long time and will continue to be sold for a long time in the future. Although the product itself is simplistic and easy to learn and get your arms around, there is definitely an art when it comes to selling final expense insurance.

Selling burial insurance is a process that requires and agent to build a need, want and desire for the product. Like any life insurance, everyone needs it but no one truly wants to buy and pay for it. As with other things in life we should have, if it was free, everyone would most definitely have it. Problem is… it’s not free so we need to create that need they can’t live without. So how do you do that?

First off, the client needs to see the value of having a policy and protecting the people they care about. Any life insurance I have I look at as an asset and not as a monthly expense each time I make a premium payment. It’s important you talk in terms that the client is creating an instant asset for their family and not an expense.

The second thing that is very vital to helping your client is don’t tell them they need final expense insurance but have them tell you. This is one of the biggest mistakes agents make selling absolutely everything. A successful agent does not tell a client they need the product, a successful agent has the client tell them why they need it and want it.

It is very important to ask probing questions to get the client to tell you. This is where most agents fail. Agents usually tend to do the telling in the selling process and by telling the client instead of having them tell you, in the end the client doesn’t take ownership to the sale and the sale is lost.

“Mrs. Jones, do you see planning for your final expenses your responsibility, or do you see it as your children’s responsibility?” The follow up question after Mrs. Jones answers it is her responsibility would be “Why? Why do you think it’s your responsibility and why wouldn’t you want to put this on your kids?” Sit back and listen to her tell you why she needs to buy your final expense product. These types of questions make the client take ownership and make the sale for you.

To be successful selling final expense, you need to create a need for your product since not many clients really want to purchase what you have. How you create that need is by asking questions that get your client to sell themselves and take ownership. Don’t make the mistake that 99% of all agents do and that is tell your client why they need final expense insurance.

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Art and Loss: Coping Skills

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When we experience loss, we seldom know how to cope. We go through denial and absolutely refuse to see the signs of our loss. We bargain in an attempt to make our loss go away. We get angry that we even have to go through loss in our lives. We finally reach despair, which is when we are so overwhelmed by it that we lose our sense of self. Then we can begin to accept it.

As we move through these stages, we all take them differently. But, I’ve seen a need for art enter here. Some people express themselves through song. They write lyrics about what they are thinking. They write music about how they feel. And they share those emotions with others so that we can all relate. Tears fill our eyes while hope fills our hearts.

Artistic expression on canvas works the same way. Actually, it doesn’t always have to be on canvas, that’s why I normally like to call it a surface. When I’m writing, I have a habit of calling it a canvas. But, kids will draw on any piece of paper they can find. That is their surface. And they do find ways of expressing themselves through art when they draw.

When placed in therapy, a child will learn to cope by getting involved in other activities. Playing with toys, they begin to act out what they might have experienced. Therapists have picked up on this phenomenon in order to analyze the child and get to the root of the child’s issues. But, they also know that drawings have a way of expressing what is going on in a child’s mind.

A child might draw a picture of a scene they witnessed. They might keep drawing a picture of the person they have lost. Even at an age when a child doesn’t understand the concept of death, they still experience loss and it comes through in their drawings. A child reaches a certain age when they can actually understand that a person is gone and will never come back. Before that, the child merely understands “out of sight, out of mind.” Their drawings help us understand what is going on in their mind. And great dialogs have begun simply by asking a child, “What are you drawing?”

Even through to adulthood, we use art to cope. But, our thoughts are more complex. To deal with loss, we might make some kind of tribute. We reflect on our loss and discover inside ourselves how to best bring our emotions to the surface. Our left and right brain are in conflict again. We can only say so much. But, our artwork can express our pain more clearly. People look at what we achieve and they immediately understand. Without words. Without logic. Understanding is there.

And as adults, we experience loss in many ways. It’s not just someone we know, someone we love. We experience loss that way too. But, we also experience a loss of our innocence. We see the world for what it is and we wish that we could look back on it the way we thought it was. We understand our world on greater terms now. We’ve realized that it’s not all roses. Our paintings express our thoughts. We still reach out for the beautiful and we try to capture it any time we can. But, there is always something powerful pulling us to resolve these issues we face in a world we don’t quite understand. Art is our outlet. Art is our release.

There is no doubt that art helps us all to cope. We each might find our own way to cope with loss. But, the most constructive is through expression. Art is expression. Its symbols, icons, meanings and language is all its own. Our hearts and minds tap into it while our language can’t even touch it. That’s art at its best. The benefits of art are in all ways. And in all ways, art finds us.

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Ancient Egyptian Art

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Ancient Egyptian art includes arts such as architecture, sculpture, and painting produced in Egypt from about 3000 BC to 100 AD. Egyptian artists used stone, wood, paintings, and drawings on papyrus in producing their artworks. Sculpture and painting, which were both symbolic and highly stylized, reached a particularly high level during this time. Much of the surviving art comes from monuments, on which were recorded past events, and tombs, in which scenes relating to Egyptian beliefs about the afterlife were shown.

Symbolism was used extensively in Egyptian art, and included such things as a pharaoh’s regalia (used to show his power), and symbols of animals, and Egyptian gods and goddesses. The colors used in the artwork were more symbolic than natural, and were used to represent stylized aspects of the figures being portrayed. Another characteristic of Egyptian art was using the size of the figures being portrayed to indicate their relative importance. Usually gods and pharaohs are the largest figures, while other figures become increasingly smaller as their importance decreases. Egyptian art changed very little over the 3000 years that it was produced.

Egyptian reliefs were not always painted, and many less important works that were painted were simply painted on a flat surface. Some higher-quality limestone could be painted on directly, but other stone surfaces were prepared by whitewash, or a layer of coarse mud plaster with a smoother top layer. Mineral pigments (which would not fade in strong sunlight) were normally used. True fresco (i.e. painting on wet plaster) was not used. The paint was applied to dried plaster, with a resin or varnish often used as a protective coating. Many of these paintings that were not exposed to the elements have survived because of Egypt’s very dry climate. Even many paintings that had some exposure to the elements have survived quite well, but those that were fully exposed to the weather seldom survived.

Many of the surviving paintings were found in tombs, where they were well protected from the elements. These paintings were usually meant to help make a pleasing afterlife for the deceased. Many of the themes of the paintings included a representation of the journey through the afterworld, protective gods introducing the deceased to the underworld gods (who would, presumably, protect them in the afterlife), and activities that the deceased wished to continue in the afterlife.

Monumental Egyptian sculpture is known throughout the world, and most of the larger works that have survived are from tombs and temples. Huge stone statues were made to represent gods, and pharaohs and their queens. These were frequently placed in open areas inside or outside temples. Many temples had roads lined with large statues which included sphinxes and other animals. Quite a few large wooden statues of rich administrators and their wives have also survived to the present (due to Egypt’s dry climate), along with very high quality smaller stone sculptures. These smaller stone figures were often made using a method called ‘sunk relief’ (which is a type of relief where the highest points of the carved figures are level with, or below, the original surface into which they are carved, making the figure appear sunken into the surface), which is especially suitable for use in bright sunlight.

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Abstract Art – Paint by Number

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This artist was curious about textiles, which was her first fine art medium. She began to research other studies and techniques of the fine arts. Gathering the necessary tools of any one medium, she discovered that the talent to originate and hone her own technique within that medium was always there. In her paintings, Ostrov daringly uses primary colors, which are scarcely used in the United States, but are common in South American and European art. This use of highly saturated color has put her into local galleries and in addition, her work has gained many generous Awards through both local and national competitions. With her collage pieces, paintings, and creative, yet edgy photo work, requests from galleries such as Art Expressions, Michael Josephs’ Gallery, New River Gallery, Leche-Vitrines Art Alliance and Artist’s Eye Fine Art Gallery as well as galleries from the New York scene have become a mainstay.

The general intent is to find a way to express an idea or thought in an exciting and creative way. Most of the paintings begin with a photograph which she has taken. This provides an inspiration for the variety of subjects to paint. These paintings draw to the challenge of capturing a moment and recreating it in a realistic, abstract, or non objective painting.

Instinctive with the belief that these paintings will end up having an expressive quality that will invite the viewer to analyze the work and ask this question: “What did you have in your mind or thought process to produce the painting?”

These paintings have won awards and placed in juried shows in Florida including:
Art Serve Broward County, Artists’ Eye Fine Art Gallery, Art Expressions Gallery,
Artists Haven Gallery, Broward Art Guild, Broward Library Gallery 6, Coral Springs Museum, Cornell Museum of Art, Delray Museum Art School, Florida Watercolor Society (Signature Membership), Fort Lauderdale Museum of Art , Gold Coast Watercolor Society, Hollywood Art Guild, Miami Watercolor Society (Signature Membership), Palm Beach Watercolor Society, Parker Playhouse and Plantation Art Guild.

We invite the viewer to enjoy, analyze and question these artwork patterns.

This set contains 22 paintable patterns.

With over 1800 available patterns from an ever growing collection of artistic themes, SegPlay® PC will provide you with hours upon hours of painting fun and entertainment. SegPlay® PC Splash Screen With SegPlay® PC as an Art Appreciation teaching tool, students can memorize famous works of art, color by color. Children can truly touch images related to a wide assortment of subjects. As a parent or educator, the learning possibilities stretch as far as your image-ination!

SegPlay® PC is in the computer software category known as “casual gaming”. While it provides a pleasurable and creative escape from mundane computer activities, the program is simple to use and new players can begin the painting function immediately, with just a few, intuitive tools. However, the program also offers rich features with challenging and engaging options, so it expands with each user, whether they seek an education in art appreciation or just want to enjoy a creative gaming challenge.

With a dynamic and clear user interface and fun sound effects, the program’s gaming features compliment the artistic benefits and engage users at all levels. For a gaming challenge, users can race against a timer to complete patterns in a given timeframe at levels from Easy to Experienced and Expert. Users can also employ speed-painting tools, monitor the mistake counter, and track the number of remaining pieces and colors to increase the program’s challenging and addictive potential.

You can find a wide collection of tropical and abstract artworks paint by number patterns at the Segmation web site.   These patterns may be viewed, painted, and printed using SegPlay™PC a fun, computerized paint-by-numbers program for Windows 7, 2000, XP, and Vista. Enjoy!

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You can travel almost anywhere in the world, and you will probably see graffiti. Although graffiti art is usually more common in big cities, the reality is that it can occur in almost any community, big or small.

The problem with graffiti art is the question of whether it’s really art, or just plain vandalism. This isn’t always an easy question to answer, simply because there are so many different types of graffiti. Some is simply a monochrome collection of letters, known as a tag, with little artistic merit. Because it’s quick to produce and small, it is one of the most widespread and prevalent forms of graffiti.

Although tagging is the most common type of graffiti, there are bigger, more accomplished examples that appear on larger spaces, such as walls. These are often multicolored and complex in design, and so start to push the boundary of whether they should really be defined as graffiti art.

If it wasn’t for the fact that most graffiti is placed on private property without the owner’s permission, then it might be more recognized as a legitimate form of art. Most graffiti art, however, is only an annoyance to the property owner, who is more likely to paint over it or remove it than applaud its artistic merit.

Many solutions have been put into practice around the world, with varying degrees of success. Paints have been developed that basically cause graffiti paint to dissolve when applied, or else make it quick and easy to remove. Community groups and government departments coordinate graffiti removal teams.

In some places you can’t buy spray paint unless you’re over 18. Cans of spray paint are locked away in display cases. In a nearby area the local council employs someone to go around and repaint any fences defaced by graffiti. A friend of mine has had his fence repainted 7 times at least, and it took him a while to find out why it was happening! Certainly the amount of graffiti in my local area has dropped substantially in the last year or two, so it appears these methods are working to a great extent.

But is removing the graffiti doing a disservice to the artistic community? Maybe if some of the people behind the graffiti art were taken in hand and trained, they could use their artistic skills in more productive ways. It hardly makes sense to encourage these artists to deface public property, and so commit a crime. But perhaps there are other ways to cooperate with the graffiti artists rather than just opposing them. Graffiti artists can create sanctioned murals for private property owners and get paid for it.

Maybe we need to start at a very basic level, and find a way to encourage the creation of graffiti art on paper or canvas, rather than walls. After all, who would remember Monet or Picasso if they’d created their masterpieces on walls, only to have them painted over the next day? Finding a solution to such a complex situation is never going to be easy, but as more graffiti art is being recognized in galleries around the world, we do need to try.

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Makler Heidelberg


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Source by Steve Dolan

Los Angeles, Ca – Arts & Crafts

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A cultural locus, Los Angeles, CA is known the world over for its vibrant arts & crafts scene. In the downtown area, the arts district was founded in 1976. Many artists gathered at the location, from nearby cities like Venice, Santa Monica and Long Beach. Professional and amateur artists sought and found large affordable spaces in previously abandoned downtown buildings.

In the past, artists were compelled to hide their living status. Frequently, the local fire department would conduct unscheduled fire inspections. Fortuitously, artists dwelling in the many lofts typically had a few hours warning, and would rush to conceal any signs of living there.

To provide assistance to the denizens, the Artists In Residence ordinance was enacted. This code allowed artists and craftsmen to legally live in buildings which conformed to established safety requirements. The popularity of the downtown lofts raised rents from about 30 cents a square foot to above one dollar per square foot. During the 1980’s arts & crafts localities were so plentiful that people made money by conducting bus tours of the district.

Currently, greater than twelve hundred artists and craftspeople live and work in the arts district, and hundreds more in the surrounding areas.

The City of Los Angeles also supports a public arts program, which compels area builders to contribute one percent of their construction-related costs for new structures to a public art fund.

Los Angeles is famous for its mural art, and the thousands spread throughout the city are thought to be greater than in any other city in the world. Native Mexican muralists like Diego Rivera and Jose Orozco have painted noted murals in the area.

Around the 1960’s and 1970’s, the Chicano arts & crafts movement began in the city. A lot of the material produced was in the tradition favored by Mexican muralists. Murals created in this era by artists and crafters still exist in East Los Angeles. The Chicano arts & crafts in Los Angeles also spawned the internationally known D?a de los Muertos annual festival.

In conclusion, many of the most widely-known art museums on the globe are located in Los Angeles. Among them are the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, the Getty Center, and the Hammer Museum. Less prominent arts & crafts museums in the city include the Craft and Folk Art Museum, the California African American Museum, and numerous sculpture gardens.

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Source by Matthew Paolini

The History of Culinary Arts

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Cooking was once seen as either a hobby or a chore. Up till now, it is regarded as a highly skilled line of work within a multi-billion industry. Students taking up culinary arts are equipped with different levels of skills and knowledge, but they all share the same thing and that is the passion for cooking. You will never go further and study culinary arts if, in the first place, you don’t have interest in cooking, now would you?

Food is the one thing that has always been and will continue to be a big part of our daily lives as a result of the family recipes that we carry with great care from many generations passed. For some, they learn new cuisines while others even go to culinary schools to perfect their skills and experience and obtain a degree in culinary arts. Knowing that everybody needs food is so much easy to understand, but aren’t you interested to know as to when and where do the different types of taste, presentations and features of the food started? If you are, then lets us discover the history of culinary arts.

The history of culinary can be traced back in the 1800s when the very first cooking school in Boston was teaching the art of American cooking along with preparing the students to pass on their knowledge to others. The first cookbook ever published was written by Fannie Merrit Farmer in 1896, who also attended the Boston cooking school and whose book is still widely used as a reference and it remains in print at present.

The next phase in the history of culinary arts was taken through the television where in 1946 James Beard, who is also recognized as father of the American cuisine, held regular cooking classes on the art of American cooking. On the other hand, the French cuisine was brought to life in the American society by Julia Child in 1960s when, through the power of the radios, she entered all the kitchens nationwide.

Later on the history of culinary, the Culinary Institute of America (CIA) was founded and was the first culinary school to hold career-based courses on the art of cooking. Its first location was in the campus of Yale University in Connecticut, which was later moved in 1972 to New York. But before the CIA was established, those who wanted a career in culinary arts normally had to go through apprenticeships under seasoned chefs to gain on-the-job training. This learning method was a traditional course in Europe, but rather a challenging arrangement as organized apprenticeships were a quite new concept in the history of culinary arts in the US. However today, apprenticeships continue to offer an excellent culinary experience to aspiring chefs.

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Source by Milos Pesic

The Pros and Cons of Canvas Prints

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Photos on canvas are exceptional works of art that have a multi-purpose use. There are countless uses of these incredible works of art that you can take advantage of. If you are into photography but do not know how to optimize your photographs, here are the pros and cons that you might want to learn.

Pros
Great works of art
This state of the art technology is unprecedented and unequaled yet. The dynamic photos produced on canvas are masterpieces in their own right. You can never find such intricate technology transferred from photographs to canvas. You can actually create a gallery and display your collections.

Superb gifts
These are precious gifts to your family, friends and acquaintances. You can personalize them by converting their own personal photos into canvas prints. You could give them during any occasion and they would still be of great value. You may also want to select pictures from other sources, which you can give as a gift.

Great wall decors
You can convert your favorite photos to great wall decors. These remarkable canvas wall photographs can enliven your room into a picturesque, lively scene. It could adorn any room and lend a classily elegant look to it.

Durable
Photographs are preserved for long years to come. They do not easily fade and colors remain as vibrant as ever. The canvas also is a strong material and could last for a long period. Even if you do not have you own collection of photos, you can purchase canvas wall photos of your favorite scenes from legitimate canvas photo providers. These are durable and can withstand the test of time.

Good business
You could also earn from your photos by converting your photos into canvas wall photos and then selling them. If your hobby is photography, then you can earn from your hobby. All those wonderful photos you have taken will surely find their way into the heart of each buyer who would buy one of your collections.

Cons
Price
Since it is an intricate work of art, some may prove expensive. But, if you are patient enough to search, there will always be some companies offering reliable services at affordable prices. Take note of hidden or add-on fees which may increase your charges. Most providers include shipping in their fees, but there is no harm in confirming.

Knowing the pros and cons will help you a lot in deciding whether to transfer those most cherished photos to canvas prints or to buy decors from canvas providers.

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Makler Heidelberg


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Source by Jason Sloan