Financial Literacy – Political Agenda Priority One

The need for Financial Literacy among populations is not a new one. Former US Federal Reserve Chairman Alan Greenspan has identified it and currently Robert Kiyosaki and Donald Trump are arguing it is pivotal to the future success of nations. The message appears to be going unheeded in the places where decisions are made governments. Continued failure to ignore the message is going to have impact for two key reasons.

Reason One – The Impact of Reduced Spending Capacity

Within days of the World Trade Centre attacks of 9/11, President Bush called on the American people to go out and keep spending to stimulate the American economy. His message was twofold. Firstly keep spending to stimulate the American economy and by virtue of its size, create a knock on effect to the global economy. The gobal economy is like a shark – it has to keep moving to survive and to do that it needs feeding on money. However given the current level of financial literacy, disposable income is something of a finite resource and we are reaching the upper end of how elastic that can be.

Personal spending is either done via existing resources i.e. salary or through credit. Both however are not limitless. In fact for many, the salary option has dried up. Many people now are using credit cards and other sources of credit in order to maintain their spending pattern. Worse still the signs are showing, that people are now so extended that they require more credit just to meet the existing credit repayments. Some have even gone beyond this extreme stage and we are starting to see personal insolvency rise.

Eventually the ability of these people to spend will be severely limited and as such they will no longer be able to feed the never ending appetite of the economy. Without a constant flow of money at best there will be a slowdown. The possibility of a downturn in an economy is also a very real possibility along with it’s knock on effects.

Reason Two Welfare Spending and its upward spiral

Welfare spending is on an upward spiral. As Robert Kiyosaki and Donald Trump point out in their book Why We Want You To Be Rich it has been calculated that the American welfare system is beginning to run up debts to the American people that all the stock and bond markets in the world could not repay if cashed in. They also observe this could very well worsen as the Baby Boomer generation begins retiring making a major pull on an already overstretched resource.

The problem has always been known about but has been moved forward like a ticking bomb by governments all hopeful that it does not go off on their watch. Unfortunately the ticking appears to be getting faster indicating we are nearer than ever to this bomb going off.

Is There an Answer? If there is, its certainly not to repeat the same actions. Furthermore, financial literacy needs to take increased prominence in the nations minds. People need to know how to think more effectively about how they handle their money. One of the best ways to begin this process is to begin with the young. The way to do that is to expose them to financial literacy in the one institution they spend their formative years in – school. This however will need projects and plans to introduce financial literacy to be formulated right now. Not tomorrow, not sometime in the future. Today.

The kind of political will it will take to achieve this means the subject will have to be on the to do list of every man and woman who considers themselves to have some political clout. It’s going to have to be on the talking points of every major politician in order to create the kind of groundswell that makes things happen.

Whilst this may sound a major undertaking, politicians respond to two key things which could help get it on the agenda. The first is overwhelming demand for action from the people that vote for them. When these people make enough noise and they feel their position is under threat – politicians respond. The second is when they understand there is something in it for them – recognition as being pivotal to it’s achievement and can create a legacy of their time in office – they respond. Once they understand what’s in it for them this could become easier.

Well what is in it for the political figures of our time?

If financial literacy is placed in schools we potentially have the ability to produce the first financially literate generation. The resulting impact could be more benefit to individuals and whole social groups than whole reams of legislation and social programs have ever achieved. Combining literacy of both words and numbers provides the foundation on which socially disadvantaged groups and individuals can raise themselves from the various types of poverty they find themselves in.

With such knowledge, they reduce their dependency on others, on society and on their government. The outcomes from this can appeal to those on both sides of the political divide. Finally a bi-partisan initiative that can be a force for good whatever your politics.

If Political figures are still wondering what’s in it for them it this. Many talk about the need to do something worthwhile and to leave a legacy for their time in public service. Many get sidetracked and bogged down as the cause they see so worthwhile is opposed throughout their political careers This saps their willpower to get it done and they become a shadow of the person they set out to be in public service. By embracing this cause which can find support on both sides suddenly the opportunity exists to create a political legacy that can redefine the future not only of individuals and of social groups, but of whole nations.

A brighter future exists with action from our politicians and public servants. They just need to rewrite their to do list so that Financial Literacy is on the top.

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Source by Andrew Leatherland

Elements of Modern Dining Room Furniture – Design Ideas For a Unique Look

Bored of the classic mahogany and teak in your dining room and looking for modern furniture ideas? Here’s a good place to begin.

Functional Art Or Modern Furniture?

The 1900s spawned a group of designers who began to break away from bulky traditional wooden furniture, towards styles more suited for smaller urban living spaces.

These modern (and post-modern) designers made use of lighter structures to create bold, functional designs that incorporated eccentric elements from Art Deco to Pop.

Minimal and thoughtful are the bywords of the style. To put together your dining room, you will need to embrace simplicity.

What Is The Modern Look?

Gone are the rich embroidered textiles and intricate carved patterns that accompany traditional furniture. Modernism calls for smooth surfaces, clean cuts and geometric designs.

Natural textures and solid color themes must fuse together to create a vibrant, relaxing atmosphere.

The designs are flexible and multi-functional so you can easily fold away or enclose pieces within each other. A popular example is the dining table with folding leaves attached.

These small structures can open fold out to seat larger groups for special occasions. Another great example is the loaded drink trolley and food cart concealed within a portion of the sideboard.

What Materials Serve Best?

Dark polished wood is a formal material that lends a classic touch while unpolished lighter woods are cheerier and have a more contemporary feel.

Modern homes feature more of alternative materials like stainless steel, chrome, plastic, glass and molded plywood. As far as textiles for seat covers and upholstery goes, you can’t go wrong with leather, silk, organic hemp or pure cotton.

The modern look is also global. It borrows liberally from Asian and African motifs and themes.

Dual textured pieces often combine exotic materials for a fresh look. In keeping with eco trends, a fusion of sustainable materials like wicker, jute, stone, cane or bamboo with modern materials like glass and steel or even traditional wood, also create a unique style.

How Much Furniture Is Too Much?

A modern dining room should not have too many pieces of furniture. There must be no clutter. You can pick up a ready set or select individual pieces with a common theme running through but pick only the basics. Invest in a small selection of stylish and sensible pieces that blend well together.

A dining table set, sideboard, twin matching china cabinets and a single serving trolley with a hotplate, are more than enough furniture for a dining room of medium size.

The dining room is a special part of the house. This is where everyone meets for meals and to mingle. The entire family and occasionally friends, gather around to share, to laugh, eat and celebrate each others’ existence. The atmosphere you create in this room will lend to many happy memories.

So make it a special atmosphere that bears your insignia of warmth and comfort.

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Source by Amy White

Three Things to Ensure While Picking Art Classes for Kids

Art classes can be fun for kids of all ages but some art classes are defined to truly inspire and challenge the artist in your child. If your little one expresses interest in pursuing a career in art, it is important to find art courses which teach several techniques that will help your child pursue art with a passion.

Secret to finding the Best art Classes

A great studio

Before you enroll, take a tour of the space provided for the art classes, which will give you a clear picture of the space and location. Kids have a wide and variety of interest when it comes to art before they decide what they truly want to explore. Some art studios focus on a single medium, which might not inspire your child, instead, choose studios that offer a range of mediums and unique choices such as pottery painting, kite making, eco-art, printmaking, and animation. Look for a studio experience that offers a mesmerizing blend of traditional and modern art.

Inspiring instructors

Young artists must be introduced to a wide variety of instructors and personalities as each one has something different to teach your child. Most art studios have teachers who are professional artists who instruct and teach kids about different artistic techniques. Instructors need to be calm and patient when it comes to interacting with children, so make sure to set the bar high while choosing art instructors for your kid. Remember- creativity is born when your child loves and enjoys doing what he does. It is important to feel inspired, motivated, and encouraged to explore your artistic abilities.

Personal connection

Before you choose to enroll your child for art classes, make sure to look for a personal connection between the instructor and your child. Art teachers need to allow and encourage independent work and creativity, or rather respect the child as an individual. Kids must be able to learn life experiences from art instructors, which is an essential part of their growing process as an artist. A good art instructor must be able to take the time and effort to work with a child who struggles but is passionate about art.

Art is about exploring something new all the time, so you can always explore studios in different cities too. Finding an art studio with some serious art can be quite a challenging task but you can rest assure that your child is in good hands when you find a studio with instructors that mentor, motivate and inspire your budding artist to explore his creativity.

Sparketh offers online art classes for homeschoolers, drawing class, painting courses for kids and lessons including Japanese Dragon, Draw a Horse, Mug Painting Still Life, Tape Art, Foundations of Manga Eyes, etc. To know more, visit

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Source by Grisel Herrick

Bonsai Trees Vs Dwarfing or Dwarfism

Bonsai is the Japanese art of growing miniature trees by restricting the growth of the plant through various pruning and cultivating techniques. As part of the growing technique (aka the training process), future Bonsai trees are grown in containers/trays to limit root growth and provide easy access for pruning or shaping the plant as desired. The Bonsai method can take years before a final tree is completed and requires constant care for the tree to stay in the desire size and shape. Bonsai trees are often confused with dwarfism or dwarfing of trees. In actuality, the two processes are completely different in their approach to creating miniature trees.

In dwarfing, the miniature tree effect is obtained through genetics or selective breeding. In selective breeding, specimens which are smaller than the normal specimen size are mated to created a smaller than average specimen. This process is continued till you have a breed of the specimen at the desired size. The other method for dwarfism in plants is genetic engineering. In genetic engineering, genes that inhibit growth or provide miniature characteristics are spliced into the genome of the desired specimen. Genetic engineering modifies genes on a microscopic level while selective breeding modifies genes looking at the macroscopic effects. The end result is a miniature version of the desired specimen with all the desired aesthetics retained.

Depriving a plant of specific hormones during the growth process can also result in dwarfing of the specimen. However, the lack hormones can result in the dwarf specimen not displaying some the desired aesthetics or size. Practice or experience is the best the way to control the end result when using the hormone approach. For, creating display miniatures trees, the hormone method is not normally used.

Both the Bonsai art form and dwarfing are ways of growing many different miniature species of plants and trees. Whichever process is used, the end result is a miniature version of a larger tree or plant. At this point, the dwarfed tree/plant has some significant advantages to a Bonsai tree. Once the dwarfed tree is developed to the desired size, there is little maintenance (i.e. watering, removing dead branches, etc…) required to sustain the tree. However, the Bonsai tree will require continuing pruning and cultivation to maintain the desired size and shape. If not prepared, this can result in the death or ruination of the Bonsai tree. The Bonsai tree method is essentially a larger commitment of time and resources.

So, if the desired miniature tree is one the can be taken care of with watering and some general maintenance, a dwarf tree is the proper selection. However, if you want a miniature tree that reflects your personality and want a hobby for life, the Bonsai tree is the proper selection. In either case, miniature trees have been a source of beauty and awe in private gardens and public arboretums for decades and will add a definitive touch to any décor.

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Source by Patrick Downey

Reborn Baby Dolls – Will They Take Over For the Real Thing?

I know this sounds a bit extreme, but will reborn baby dolls take over for the real thing? If you have children yourself, then you know what I mean. Any parent who has stayed up all night with a sick kid, then puts on a happy face and goes off to work the next day, can relate to this. All joking aside, a doll (no matter how lovely) could never take the place of our kids. But creations like these could make your mind wander!

These dolls are so incredible real, they’re known as reborn dolls – reborn from a crafts person, or a manufacturer. They have become so popular lately that even Dr. Phil and 20/20 has done segments highlighting these works of art. Why is all the attention going to a doll? I think you may agree, if you’ve seen one of these lifelike creations, that they are nothing short of breathtaking. I remember the first time I saw one a few years ago. I tip-toed through the room, and even looked for signs of breathing until my friend told me it was a doll! Imagine my surprise (and shock) to find out what I thought was a precious life was, in reality, a carefully crafted, lovingly assembled reborn baby doll!

I wouldn’t call this new happening a trend, but it did start recently, sometime during the 1990’s. As the wave of electronic toys and games began to overwhelm us with their digital-perfect operation, some hearts and souls were left unsatisfied with their built-in coldness. It’s hard to hug a Wii or a PlayStation! That’s when craftspeople throughout the world began to produce and add detail to these beautiful dolls that we sometimes mistake for living babies.

Reborn baby dolls don’t have electronics, they don’t talk and they will never amuse you with some type of digital screen or video game. They are literally “reborn” from a lesser doll that has had many details added. Details such as spot-on coloring (they also have black and Hispanic babies), perfectly applied hair and facial detail that will amaze even the ardent non-believer. The dolls that get their name from the process that actually created them almost always bring out the mothering instinct in almost every girl (or woman) who is lucky enough to get one of these amazing dolls.

Since many of these creations are done on an individual basis, it is quite possible that no two dolls are exactly alike – just like your baby! Rarity of some of the more expensive models from well-known artists who sometimes take hundreds of hours creating a perfect baby out of plastic, cloth and paint, can cost as much as $5,000!

It doesn’t matter if you spent $50 or $5,000, your reborn baby doll can be a surrogate child to fill the void in your heart that was created the day your last child grew up and left your nest. Some reading this may think this a bit silly, but I say walk in my shoes once your children have grown and moved away. I think you may reconsider. Many professional women who never got the opportunity to raise a family often have these realistic dolls to help take the place of children that never were.

The modern day reborn baby doll is a work of art that can occupy your heart and home – and that’s saying a lot for something that was considered a mere toy just a few years ago!

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Source by Lauren Collins-Taylor

Alvarez Guitars – Excellently Crafted and Unique

Considered the most popular acoustic brand in the world, the successful Alvarez line has not always had it easy, as noted by their history. Today, however, these attractive and warm sounding guitars are a major part of the instrument industry and demand respect. That respect, however, cannot be measured by any one feature that the Alvarez line is responsible for. Each of the Alvarez instruments are excellently crafted and unique in features.

The Products Alvarez makes a wide variety of string instruments including mandolins, banjos, folk guitars, baritone guitars, classical and 12 string guitars as well as electric guitars under the Yairi name.

History The history of Alvarez Guitars began with Matsumoku Industrial which was established in the early 1900s. The company started out as a woodworking business which specialized in Japanese furniture and created a small success doing so. After WWII the Singer Corporation contracted Matsumoku Industrial to build its sewing machine cabinets. Shortly after, in 1951, a partnership began and Matsumoku became a subsidiary of Singer. Around that same time the company also built amplifier cabinets, entertainment cabinets and speaker boxes for several audio and television manufacturers. Around the mid 1950s Matsumoku decided to make additions to his companies endeavors. There were already skilled luthiers working on his staff so naturally the company veered toward stringed instruments. In order to establish an instrumental reputation for themselves, Matsumoku aimed for quality though he was only building them on contract to various companies with their own designs. He continued manufacturing for the following companies and their affiliates through the 60s.

  •         Guyatone
  •         FujiGen Gakki
  •         Greco
  •         Yamaha
  •         Aria
  •         Gibson
  •         Univox
  •         Westbury
  •         Vantage
  •         Westminster
  •         Cutler
  •         Lyle
  •         Fell
  •         Gibson knock-offs
  •         Washburn

In 1978 Matsumoku began making their own line of guitars called Electra-Westone since Electra Music Co. distributed for them. In 1979, however, the company was releasing guitars under Westone alone, and began an instrument making journey for itself. 1981 marked the launch of the first Westone instruments which included Thunder guitars and Rainbow I 6 String basses but the use of laminate exterior and brass hardware were not popular amongst consumers. Over the next few years Westone also released many others, creating a hit and miss reputation with both mild and moderate successes as well as several disappointments.

  •         Concorde
  •         Prestige
  •         Rainbow
  •         Spectrum 6 Strings
  •         Session II
  •         Raider
  •         Quantum
  •         Rail
  •         Dimension
  •         Dynasty
  •         Pantera

Because of the mottled reputation of Westone guitars along with other business related reasons, Matsumoku dropped out of instrument manufacturing completely in 1987. The self reliant company, however, moved on and began making Fender-influenced solid bodies with no success and the Westone image had already become so damaged that Westone ended in 1991. Born from the ashes, Westone became Alvarez.

Today The much more modern instrument maker has certainly made its way in the luthier industry. Quality, reliability and beauty grace their many products today.

  •      Acoustics
  •      Dreadnoughts
  •     12-String
  •     Classical
  •     Mandolins
  •     Banjos
  •     Folk
  •     Baritone


  •         Yairi Masterworks Steel Strings
  •         Yairi Standard Steel Strings
  •         Yairi Acoustic/Electric
  •         Yairi Signature Series
  •         Yairi Classical
  •         Alvarez Masterworks
  •         Alvarez Fusion Series
  •         Alvarez Professional Series
  •         Alvarez Artist Series
  •         Alvarez Regent Series
  •         Alvarez Traditional Series

The Artists Alvarez guitars are suitable for a wide range of music from jazz and rock to alternative, metal and everything in between. There is also a very long list of artists who use Alvarez instruments.

  •         Bob Weir
  •         Aaron Lewis
  •         Alejandro Escovedo
  •         Ani DeFranco
  •         Bret Michaels
  •         Christ Cagle
  •         Dai Nagao
  •         David Grissom
  •         Carlos Santana
  •        Duncan Sheik
  •        Dave King
  •         David Crosby
  •         Luka Bloom
  •         Felicia Collins
  •         Graham Nash
  •         Justin Furstenfeld
  •         Mike Herrera
  •         Mike Mushok
  •         Lo-Pro
  •         Seether
  •         Warren Hayes
  •         Ritchie Blackmore
  •         Pete Yorn
  •         Zak Wilde

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Source by George Nellas

Her Most Famous Painting (The Roots) – Frida Kahlo

Frida Kahlo, born on July 6, 1907, was an incredibly strong woman and an internationally recognized Mexican painter. She was married to a Mexican painter Diego Rivera, whose artistry she admired. Her work used to carry a competent blend of the Mexican and European cultures. Most of her paintings were self-portraits (55 out of 143), mostly remarkably portraying her pain and sexuality. Kahlo’s “The Roots” is one of her most magnificent works.

In her short span of life, Frida endured what most people cannot even imagine. When she was 19, she met with an accident, with a trolley car. She broke her spinal column, collarbone, ribs, pelvis, eleven fractures in her right leg, the right foot crushed & dislocated, and a shoulder also got dislocated. She had as many as 35 operations, owing to this accident. To give vent to all her trauma, she transformed her sufferings, on the canvas, as self-portraits, especially “The Roots.” To justify her obsession with self-portraits, she once said, “I paint self-portraits because I am the person I know best. I paint my own reality. The only thing I know is that I paint because I need to and I paint whatever passes through my head without any other considerations.”

“The Roots,” painted in 1943, as mentioned above, was one of her most beautiful and identifying self-portraits. She painted it to mark her reunion with her estranged husband, Diego Rivera, after an undesirable phase of pain and suffering. The painting, in the background of happiness, also displays her feelings about her ‘developed’ physical inabilities in life. Frida had lost her reproductive ability in the accident and carried that incompleteness and pain in her heart. This 12″ X 19.5″ oil on metal work canvassed Frida’s desire to be a part of feminine genesis and to be connected to life like others. It displays her desire of having her own children. Frida Kahlo adored Pedregal’s rough grey rocks in South Mexico and she set them in the backdrop of her painting. The detailed, leafless stems around Frida, in the painting, portray her ‘deliberate’ infertility, her severely injured body, her lost loves, and the other misses of her life.

Sotheby’s auctioned “The Roots” at a record price of $5,616,000, the highest price a Latin Mexican artist ever commanded. Her other popular paintings were, “The Two Fridas,” painted to mark her divorce with Diego, “Tree of Hope,” and “My Nurse and I.” Kahlo’s artistic ability was amazing. She imbibed inspirations from different people, cultures, and her surroundings, blending their essence in her customized, fresh, and distinct style. She competently canvassed not only her physical trauma, but also the life-long psychological one, translating into numerous unexplored ideas and emotions. Frida did not paint dream or fantasies, but her own reality. She truly said, ‘I am not sick. I am broken. But I am happy as long as I can paint.” The tower of strength, Frida died of her pain on July13, 1954.

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Source by Annette Labedzki

Choosing Technica Putters

Almost half of your shots are played with only one club: the putter. Yet strangely we practice putting less and spend less money on putters. Selecting the right club from the line of Technica putters can help you lower your scores.

Selecting a Grip Pick a Technica putter grip to your putting style and the club itself. There are the standard grip with a flat edge at a right angle to the blade, the textured and cord spiral grips and grips that are designed to compensate for elements of your swing.

Deciding Your Shaft Length Most golf shops rarely stock anything besides standard length 35-inch putters. Many golfers are don’t know the kind of difference in posture a longer or shorter Technica putters shaft can give. Golfers who have back problems may like a longer shaft that gives them a more upright position, but golfers who would rather bend down or have their arms hang vertically might be happier with a shorter Technica putter shaft in the 28-30 inch range.

What Type of Shaft? Shaft type is an important choice. Although flexibility in a Technica putter shaft probably doesn’t seem to matter as much as in an iron or metal-wood, given the lack of bend at impact. However, the shaft still conducts feel into your fingers and palms so you can assess pace and distance. Normally, shafts are made of steel but increasingly they’re made of lightweight graphite. The material will influence the speed of the club head. If you experiment with different combinations of shaft and club head you will find one eventually that transmits the desired feeling to your hands on the grip.

The Lie Angle of The Technica Putter Head Too many golfers play with the heel of the club on the ground and the toe in the air, this often results in a closing of the clubface upon putting. Find an angle that permits your feet to rest flat at address. If you would like to adjust the lie by bending the shaft, keep in mind that the rules of the game of golf don’t allow bends of more than five inches from the heel of the club.

What Is Loft? Loft s the angle between the clubface and perpendicular. Normally a putter will have between three and five degrees of loft. The purpose of loft is to make the golf ball roll along the correct line. Players who play slower on greens will usually to do better with more loft. Hand position also can matter. If a player has a forward press or keeps their hands ahead of the golf ball at impact when putting, they investigate more loft to counteract the de-lofting that tends to force a golf ball into the ground and cause it to bounce.

What about Matching Putters To Strokes? Golfers with a pendulum-type stroke, where the path of the putter is straight back and straight through, will probably benefit from a face-balanced type of Technica putter. Face-balanced means that when the Technica putter shaft is balanced on a finger, the putter face will point upwards. A right-handed player who often misses to the right and would like help closing the clubface at impact should seek out a face-balanced model. If he typically to miss to the left, a heel-shafted putter that resists closing may help.

Bald, Heel-Toe-Weighted, Mallet, Center-Shafted Putters A blade putter historically tends to have a head that is a rounded extension of the shaft. Heel-toe-weighted Technica putters have the shaft grafted on to the hosel, usually at an angle. A mallet putter is more solid looking, with the weight behind the clubface. Insert Faces Why do putters have insert faces? What are they for? Many manufacturers are putting insert faces on their putters in an attempt to improve feel. Many top players prefer them to help them judge both distance and pace. Additionally, they may help you match the feel to the type of golf ball you prefer.

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Source by Bernadine Swanson

Western Painting – Spatialism – A Non-Digital Multimedia Creative Phenomenon

Spatialism – The History

In 1946, famous Argentinean sculptor and painter Lucio Fontana (1899-1968), came up with a novel art style, called Spatialism or Movimento Spaziale. This art movement was a contemporary to the Abstract Expressionism of the United States. The philosophy behind Spatialism was dispelled through its manifesto titled ‘Manifesto Blanco,’ which discussed the need for a distinctive ‘spatial’ form of art to capture the spirit of the post-war era.

The Correleations

Three art movements – Dadaism, Tachism, and Concrete Art – had a defining influence over Spatialism. Dadaism consciously ignored the ‘aesthetics’ in Fine Arts to bring out revolutionary compositions. Tachisme was often regarded as the French style of Abstract Expressionism. Concrete Art of 1930s was predominated by the interplay of colors and lines, for representation. Although, the underlying ideas behind Spatialism and the Abstract Expressionism were similar, Spatialism did away with the preponderance of paint and easel media, as the tools for creating artworks. Instead, it focused on the ‘moment,’ represented as a function of time and action.

The Details

Spatialism synthesized the elements of sound, color, space, movement, and time, in its frames. In a way, Spatialism represented a union of the fundamentals of science with Fine Arts, using tools, like television and Neon lighting to name a couple. According to ‘Manifesto Blanco,’ Spatialism was conceptualized to, “transcend the area of the canvas, or the volume of the statue, to assume further dimensions and become an integral part of architecture, transmitted into the surrounding space and using new discoveries in science and technology.” Another distinguishing characteristic of Lucio Fontana’s works was the presence of holes or ‘slits’ of varying sizes and angles, across the canvas. Fine examples of this technique include ‘Concept Spatiale’ of 1959 and ‘Concetto Spaziale’ of 1964. The body of these works by Fontana was known as the slash series.

The Artists and the Artworks

Spatialism eventually began focusing on the negative aspects in the depiction of its subjects. Its subsequent manifestos dispelled the tenets of the expression, artificial emotions, and color scheme over geometrical space, rather than capturing the ‘real,’ as it exists. Fontana’s 1947 work, ‘Black Spatial Environment’ was a classic example of this theory. It consisted of a room painted in all black and another 1949 work, named ‘Spatial Environment’ lit by an array of Neon lights. Among the most celebrated artists associated with Spatialism were Roberto Crippa (1921-72), Cesare Peverelli (1922-2000), Gianni Dova (1925-91), and Enrico Donati (1909-2008). Fontana’s revolutionary style not only created a niche for him, it became a powerful influence on several artists and art forms.

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Source by Annette Labedzki

Relationship Between Zen and Tea – Tying Art and Ceremony

Zen Buddhism is an offshoot of Chinese Buddhism, which developed in the 7th century AD. Zen is a philosophic school, which teaches one how to transcend human suffering through meditation. Its primary principles are non-violence and non-attachment. It is believed that the development of the Japanese tea ceremony called the Way of Tea was extensively influenced and perhaps even introduced by Zen Buddhism. The Way of Tea uses powdered green tea called matcha in an elaborate presentation and preparation, which is a center of the Japanese culture. There are two types of ceremonies. Chakai is a simple and light presentation with thin tea, and Chaji is much more formal with more food and the offering of thick tea.

A Buddhist monk first introduced tea to Japan during the 9th century, using unground Japanese green tea. Also in the 9th century, a writer Lu Yu who was heavily influenced by Zen Buddhism wrote the first book on tea, summarizing its preparation and cultivation. Lu Yu’s writings would later profess a great influence of the Japanese tea ceremony. The actual founder of the Way of Tea did so in the 15th century. He was student of Zen philosophy.

During tea ceremonies, special scrolls or writings are hung on the tearoom walls. These scrolls are a focal point of the Japanese tea ceremony and often associated with Buddhism or written by Zen Buddhist monks. Buddhist priests may depict certain key features or foundations of the Buddhist belief system on their scrolls such as harmony, tranquility, respect and purity. These founding principles are also the four key elements of the Way of the Tea. Even the entire tearoom is an ultimate symbol of Buddhism, expressing the transitory nature of everything. Most items in a tearoom will be asymmetrical, which is also a key feature of Buddhism and symbolizes the “ever becoming” nature of all things.

Tea ceremonies focus on the art of presentation and the beauty that can be conveyed. During the ritual, all movements are choreographed, and each display is specifically arranged. As Zen purports the oneness of the universe and all that inhabit it, “the universe can be experienced in a bowl of tea”. The simple act of drinking tea brings one to the present moment and provides the ability to be fully present, experiencing the current moment. The corresponding Zen principle states that if one is fully here in the present moment, attachments can be relapsed and human suffering can be transcended.

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Source by Tad Kumagai

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