The Heat Treatment of Bevel Gears

Bevel gear is one important type among all the different categories of gears. It is a gear where the axes of the two shafts intersect and the tooth-bearing faces of the gears themselves are conically shaped. This kind of gears are most often mounted on shafts that are 90 degrees apart, but can be designed to work at other angles as well.

The expression “bevel gears” is used as a general description for straight and spiral bevel gears as well as hypoid gear sets. If the axes of the pinion and gear do not intersect but have a distance in space, the gear set is called a hypoid gear set. The name is derived from the hyperbolic shape of the “pitch cones.” For simplification, the blanks are still manufactured with a conical shape.

The heat treatment has much effect on the bevel gears. But what is the heat treatment? It is a process where solid steel or components manufactured from steel are subject to treatment by heating to obtain required properties, e.g. softening, normalizing, stress relieving, hardening. Heating for the purpose of hot-working as in the case of rolling or forging is excluded from this definition. That is to say, the heat treatment is mainly a method used to alter the physical and sometimes chemical properties of a material.

Heat treatment follows the soft cutting operation. The generally used low carbon steel has to be carburized on the surface by case hardening. The heat treatment is finished with the quenching operation that provides a surface hardness in the range of 60 to 63 Rc (Rockwell C). The pinion may be 3 Rc harder than the ring gear to equalize the wear and reduce the risk of scoring. The core material stays softer and more ductile, with hardness in the range of 30 to 40 Rc.

Heat treatment facility (for example: salt bath, furnace or continuous furnace) and the differences between the charges of blank material, have a significant influence on the gear distortion. The distortions from heat treatment are critical to the final hard finishing operation. In addition to the blank body distortions, heat treating also causes a distortion of the individual teeth. The spiral angle changes, the flank length curvature is reduced and the pressure angle changes. To achieve the best results, you must pay attention to the processing and handling of the parts through the furnace. Quenching the ring gears with a quench press assures good flatness of the heat-treated ring gears. For instance, the hard finishing of bevel gears should provide a good surface finish and remove flank distortions.

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg



Source by Sunny Ling

Analysis of Bouguereau’s, "A Young Girl Defending Herself Against Eros"

William Bouguereau, a French-Academic Painte, was an extremely famous painter in the late 1800’s. He was born in La Rochelle, France, on November 30th 1825. As a young man, Bouguereau put himself through Ecole des Beaux-Arts by making labels for local grocers, and painting portraits of Local Parishioners. Much like many of the other artists of the 19th century, Bouguereau paid careful attention to his meticulous form and technique. The commoners loved Bouguereau, people would storm the Annual Salon every year, and pay unimaginable prices to see and buy his latest work. The public adored Bouguereau, however, according to the official website of The Getty Museum, critics did not feel the same way; “They derided the “bourgeois finickiness” and “contagious mediocrity” of Bouguereau’s mirror-smooth, romanticized paintings of cupids, nudes, and peasant girls.” Some people felt that Bouguereau’s painting represented everything that was wrong with 19th century academic art. The impressionist hated his work, and this type of art was exactly what they were trying to move away from.

One of Bouguereau’s most famous works, “A young Girl Defending Herself Against Eros” is an astounding painting that, the moment you set eyes on the painting, the aesthetics will catch you off guard. The incredible attention to detail in the faces of the two characters is what really attracted me to it. It is astonishing how perfectly Bouguereau demonstrates the perfect emotions. It is an academic representation of a woman playfully resisting cupid’s arrow, secretly wanting it, yet clearly shying away from it. This can be interpreted as symbolic of how hard love is to resist at times. Even though we don’t want to get hurt by the arrow, we still all secretly want it. I think that the value he uses really makes it light hearted and even kind of a funny painting. The texture and space he uses also really gives the painting its traditional academic feel, which is simple while still invoking emotions.

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg



Source by James Ruhle

Romanian Mouth-Blown Glassware Makes Its Way Into Mainstream Art

The art of glass making holds a special relevance in Eastern Europe and particularly in Romania. What is quite extraordinary about Romanian glass manufacturing is that it combines traditional themes from Rome and Constantinople, lending vivacious color and ethnic design to the glasswork. Eastern Europe has lots of fine sand, which allows glassmaking to flourish in the region and Romania in particular is well known for its exquisite art glass pieces.

Glass making in Eastern Europe and Romania emanates from the Murano style in Italy as most of the artisans studied glassmaking there. Up to the 13 century, European glassmaking was exclusive to Venice. But frequent fires prompted Venetian authorities to shift the furnaces to the island of Murano.

There has been a long history of making glass in Romania. Romanian glassmakers have successfully passed on this art for several generations and the craft continues to thrive in this part of Eastern Europe. In Romania, it is said that artisan’s only pass on the secrets of glass making to members of their family. More importantly, there is a rigid hierarchy in obtaining the coveted position as a glass blower. For example, a young man may take years before he can get to that stage within this strict hierarchy.

Romanian glass is comparable to any great piece of Eastern European mouth blown glass. And they are nothing like the ones that are made by machinery or inexpensive duplicates. Traditionally Romanian factories and glass studios manufacture clear glass utilizing pellets that are distinct and commonly found in Western Europe. And depending on the artisan, German pigments are popularly used for coloring or painting glass. The combination of this blend makes Romanian crafted glass truly a superior product anywhere in Europe. Though Romanian glasswork is normally not made from crystal, nonetheless, it carries a similar purity and shine. Glass products in Romania are not just great looking, they are also being produced to suit a host of lifestyles, from the traditional to modern and the line of products are guaranteed quality glassware that is both functional and decorative.

Romanian mouth-blown glassware is made by highly skilled artisans. They are very creative pieces with exceptional quality. They are also a prized collector’s item. Some of the work includes vases and bowls that are made as centerpieces as well as plates – the artisans who create these masterpieces learned their skills in Murano itself.

When it comes to Romanian glassware, each piece is distinctly unique. Each of the mouth-blown glassware may be described as an individual masterpiece in itself. They are exceptionally colorful, creative and elegant. Some of the works made by glass artisans in Romania are the most sought after pieces of contemporary art and have been on display in several galleries across the world. They are also prized as some of the top-notch pieces of glassware in the craft of modern blown glass art.

The contemporary glassware is not just placed in galleries to be on display, they also make great gifts, particularly wedding gifts, and decorations especially in restaurants, businesses and hotels. They can also be used as decorations while designing your home.

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg



Source by Cornel Plescan

His Most Famous Illustration (The Peacock Skirt) – Aubrey Beardsley

English illustrator, caricaturist, and author Aubrey Vincent Beardsley (1872- 1898) was born in Brighton, Menton, France on August 21, 1872. The frontrunner of ‘Aestheticism’ and ‘Art Nouveau,’ Aubrey’s accentuation for erotic components is displayed in many of his drawings. The most daring and audacious representation could be seen in his famous illustrations Lysistrata, and Salome, especially “The Peacock Skirt.”

Beardsley’s art styles were phased, differentiated by his unique signatures, dedicated to each phase. For example, beginning with leaving artworks unsigned, the subsequent six years carried his peculiar signatures, while in the year 1891 and 1892, he accustomed his work with his initials A.V.B. Aubrey Beardsley belonged to the group of artists called ‘Art Nouveau.’ ‘Art Nouveau’ was a manner of art and architecture that reached its popularity in the twentieth century. The word ‘Art Nouveau’ is a French word, which means ‘New Art.’ ‘Art Nouveau’ usually exhibited dark and villainous pictures. The main theme of Aubrey Beardsley’s later works however, were erotic illustrations inspired by the Japanese ‘shunga’ (love making techniques, positions, heterosexual or homosexual behavior, and possibilities), history, and mythology. Aubrey Beardsley effected numerous illustrations for the magazines, and books as well. His most famous illustration was “The Peacock Skirt” for Oscar Wilde’s play ‘Salome.’

Oscar Wilde was a close and a beloved friend of Beardsley. Aubrey procreated “The Peacock Skirt” in 1894. The play Salome was first published in 1893 in French and the next year in English, to be performed eventually in Paris in 1896. In this illustration, the beautiful Salome, the daughter of Herod and Herodias, tries to lure the Syrian Captain of the guard. She uses her beauty for this act, so that the Captain can release the prisoner John the Baptist. At the end of the play, Salome kisses John’s head. As per the renowned myth, John the Baptist does not accept Salome’s love. Therefore, Salome uses her beauty and power to get John the Baptist executed.

“The Peacock Skirt” was a black and white illustration, created using pen and ink. This illustration was inspired from one of the works of James McNeil Whistler ‘The Princess from the Land of Porcelain.’ The black and white lines resembled the style commonly used by the Japanese artists. In this illustration, Salome and the Syrian Captain of the guard are exhibited facing each other. The image on the right side is wearing a long and full sleeves wrapper. The image on the left side of the illustration has his hair adorned with the legions of peacock feathers. He is wearing heavily embroidered apparel on his back. The embroidery is confined literally to the lowermost section of the apparel. On the extreme left side, a peacock’s pattern is also manifested.

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg



Source by Annette Labedzki

Importance of Block Lettering and Its Construction Process

Block lettering is a general term used in describing all lettering styles that are drawn or constructed. They are constructed according to specifications using squares or blocks. A young designer or student can use a paper with the squares already drawn in them like a graph sheet. He/she can draw the squares on his/her own by drawing straight or parallel horizontal and vertical lines that cross each other at an angle. All letters with the exception of “M”, “W” and “I” take 5 squares down and 3 squares across. However, letters “W” and “M” take 5 down, 5 across. On the other hand, letter “I” take 5 squares down and 1 square across.

Block letters have several characteristics that make them different from other styles of lettering. Some of its distinctive features are outlined below.

1. They have an equal or uniform thickness of strokes. That is all the parts of each of its letters are the same measurement. For instance, if the vertical stroke measures 2cm, the horizontal and circular parts of the letter also measures 2cm.

2. They have no serifs or finishing strokes. There are no ornamental projections at the ends of their letters.

3. All the letters stand erect in a vertical position. They do not slant but stands straight.

4. They are not written but are drawn or constructed.

5. Squares of equal sizes serve as aids in their construction.

6. They are bold and easy to read.

The style has been used for various purposes due to its distinct features. Some of these are listed below.

1. They are used in writing on signboards, billboards, and signposts because of its keen sense of legibility.

2. Block letters are used in writing the titles of books and magazines due to its simple form that readily attracts viewers.

3. They are used in writing the text on greeting cards like birthday cards, success cards, funeral cards etc.

4. They are used in writing names of shops, institutions, and companies because it is easy to read.

5. They are the most widely used style of text for the designing of communication design products such as posters, banners etc.

The construction is not a very painstaking task. As already discussed, constructing block letters involve the use of accurately measured squares on paper. If this is available, the artist has to follow the rules and guidelines that govern the construction of block letters.

Also, the artist has to use a pointed sharp pencil in the ruling of the squares and in the construction of the letters. All the measurements should be done accurately. It is advisable to use straight measuring instruments such as rulers to ensure precision and accuracy.

The curvy parts of the letters can be created using any suitable circular object such as the edges of coins or protractors.

It should be noted that the squares which serve as guides for the construction of the letters should be created with a lighter grade pencil (HB or HH). The marks should be faintly created so that they could be easily erased after the construction of the letters.

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg



Source by Dickson Adom

The Evolution of Kickboxing

Kickboxing is a sporting martial art very similar to boxing, except for the fact that it uses both arms and legs for striking. It can be practiced either as a full-contact combat sport or for general fitness. While the term refers to various forms of combat sports, it is generally associated with Japanese and American kickboxing. The term was introduced by Osamu Noguchi, a Japanase boxing promoter.

The History of Kickboxing

Kickboxing is a derivative of karate, boxing, taekwondo and other combat styles and it was created to compete against them. All styles of kickboxing have been first developed in Japan. However, similar influences were taking place in the United States as well and martial artists from toured both Japan and US, developing a common kickboxing standard.

Initial Japanese Development

As a specific form of martial art, kickboxing was inspired from Muay Thai, a combat sport originated in Thailand. Osamu Noguchi, a Japanese boxing promoter, developed it as a competitive style to oppose Muay Thai. He wanted to present to the Japanese people the fighting style that he had discovered in Thailand and in 1966 he took three Muay Thai fighters to compete against Japanese karate fighters. The Japanese won by 2-1. Noguchi and Kenji Kurosaki studied the combat style thoroughly and developed a combined martial art called kickboxing. At first, throwing and butting were allowed in order to distinguish it from the Muay Thai style. However, they were later eliminated.

A few years later, the Kickboxing Association, the first kickboxing organization, was founded in Japan. Kickboxing was broadcast on TV and became very popular in Japan. Back then, Tadashi Sawamura was an extremely popular kickboxer. After he retired, kickboxing started to lose its popularity and stopped being broadcast on TV. He hadn’t been on TV until 1993, when K-1 was founded. In 1993, Kazuyoshi Ishii, who was the founder of Seidokan karate, produced K-1 under kickboxing rules (no elbow or neck wrestling). Since then, kickboxing started to regain its popularity and became famous again. Soon it’s popularity started spreading through North America and Europe as well.

Spreading to North America and Europe

Jan Plas, a Dutch kickboxer, and a few Muay Thai pioneers, initiated Mejiro jym in Netherlands in 1978. He had learned kick boxing in Japan from the famous Kenji Kurosaki. In addition, he was also the one that founded the Dutch Kickboxing Association (NKBB) in 1978, which was the first kickboxing organization in the Netherlands.

Kickboxing & Fitness

Kickboxing has gradually become a fitness craze as well. Kickboxing classes are very popular in European countries also. They are attended by both men and women. It has become very popular among women of all ages who are always looking for new methods to lose weight or stay in shape.

As you walk by a kickboxing class, you will see that most times it is packed. It seems that all you have to bring is yourself and plenty of energy. Kickboxing classes are generally coregraphed to house or techno music. The whole class consists of a full hour of punching to the beat. It involves a lot of arm movements, squats, power movements and a good amount of cardiovascular workout. This is what explains its high popularity as a fitness activity. With all the fun, you even forget about the fact that you are actually working out.

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg



Source by Sue Taylor

What You Need To Know About Painting Services

As a homeowner there is nothing more exciting than the idea of painting your home yourself. A fresh coat of paint makes everything look so much better right? You can choose colors for the inside or the outside and just get to work! Maybe you will even use a paint sprayer because they look like they get the job done fast!

Are you out of your mind? Have you thought about the work involved, especially if you are considering doing your own exterior painting? All of the scraping and cleaning that needs to be done, the preparation for laying on a new coat of paint and the small repairs that are going to be inevitable are going to be your job. If you have experience, and time then go ahead and jump right in there and get that job done. If you don’t have any experience it might be time to think about painting services.

• When calling around for painting services try not to get excited about an over the phone conversation about the price. The painting contractor is going to want to come out and look at the house. Never go for the first quote you receive. Call around and see what your best options are.

• Do not be afraid to ask for references from customers and pictures of past jobs. A reputable painting company should be able to provide these.

• Find out if they are experienced with house painting. Residential painting is very different from commercial. If you need interior painting, make sure to specify. Talk to people who have had similar jobs done for them. This is a great way to find a good painting service.

• Ask for what materials and paint they are using. Make sure everything is quality. Quality lasts longer and always makes for a much better finished product no matter what the painters skill.

• Ask about a warranty! These are worth the money as they often deal with touch ups and other paint issues inside and outside of your home. This can save you a lot of stress in the future.

• If you have any other concerns such as environmental friendliness then it is up to you to ask pertinent questions. You are the customer, and you are inquiring about purchasing their services which should be reputable and consistent. Ask for a list of the products they plan to use on your home. If you do not like their selections, you can always supply your own paint.

As a consumer it is up to you to make sure you are getting what you pay for. Finding good painting service is step one. Trusting them to do their job is the next. Once you have hired someone, let them do their jobs without micromanaging. Obviously you will want to keep tabs, but make sure that you hire a professional so that you do not have to spend all your time managing them. That is one of the reasons to hire a professional in the first place.

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg



Source by Fem Mascenon

Art Enrollment in Nigerian Tertiary Schools

The history of modern art in Nigeria started around 1920s. During this period, most parents abhor their children to study art courses in the higher institutions. The ones that dare to do otherwise as insisted by their parents may face certain sanctions that are not conducing for their age and future as well. This means that no matter how a child loves art, he or she was forced to go into disciplines like Law, Chemical Engineering, Banking and Finance, and other similar ones which they (parents) believe that are more profitable and well deserving for the future of their children and sometimes people in their community. This was for obvious reasons, and part of it was their conviction in the practice of such professions. For example, a lawyer would be useful if the family have a land dispute case with another person in the village. A chemical engineer will find him/herself working in the oil industry and will be able to share in the oil wealth of the nation. Hence, NNPC, AGIP, TEXACO, CHEVRON SHELL etc are target companies /areas that the family is pushing their sons and daughters in to go and work. In the bank, a typical Nigerian parent believes that, there is no way a banker will lack money since he or she manages people’s money. All these make the study of visual art to be the last option even though the child is practically doing badly in other areas of knowledge but is excelling in art.

It was until after the Independence Exhibition of the first set of indigenous trained Nigeria artists from Zaria that a few people (parents) begin to see good prospect in the field of art. Even so, the discrimination continues up to 1980s for art (as a subject) had a shallow backing educationally by the government since its inclusion in educational curriculum was selectively approached or implemented. In primary school, it was a general teaching of cultural modes including drama, craft and performing arts. In secondary school, the junior section was given the opportunity while the senior section was not. In some situations, the subject (art) was often substituted by other subjects which were recognized in the educational system as vital for the continuation of school. Failing such subjects, amount to either repeating a class of re-writing for further progress in the academic journey. This pose an obvious threat on the academic movement of the student making him or her abandon art against his or her will. Given this circumstance, it can be seen that art was not given such opportunities (priorities) in the curriculum planning.

In the 1990s, the reality of art profession as well as its lucrative opportunities began to down on most Nigerian families. This was the period when enrollment of art applicants began to increase. Today, most tertiary institutions in Nigeria are battling with over whelming number of art applicants. In Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, for instance, the Fine Arts Department, in recent years has not been able to absolve even half of the total of applicants who want to study art. Sometimes, people go to the Colleges of Educations and polytechnics, just to be on advantageous position in the universities’ admission.

The growth of private universities in Nigeria is thought to be a relieve in the demands of people (applicants) who want to study art but reverse is the case. This is because most, if not all, private universities focus essentially in the running of academic programmes or disciplines that the owners of the institutions considered lucrative enough, since private educational sector is more or less like a pure business.

Until the Nigerian education sector is completely over-hauled and restructured with an increase in art learning centres as well as new departments of arts are opened in other universities, polytechnics and colleges of educations, art applicants will continue to find it tough getting admissions to study art disciplines as their dream courses.

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg



Source by Kunde Terkura Matthew

Michael Andrews’ Famous Soho Colony Room Mural Sold

A complete mural from the famous Soho drinking den the Colony Room by Michael Andrews sold for £38,400 at Lyon & Turnbull’s Modern and Contemporary Art and Design sale in London on September 27th 2008.

The famous Soho Colony Room was frequented by artists such as Francis Bacon, Lucian Freud and Damien Hirst.

Michael Andrews’ 15-foot-long household paint-on-Hessian mural of picnickers decorated the walls of the drinking club since the 1950s.

The mural was bought James Hyman of the James Hyman Gallery, London, who represents the estate of the late Michael Andrews.

James Hyman said: “I think it was important to purchase the piece from an historical point of view. The Colony Room is a part of London’s cultural history and the mural was the centrepiece. At this stage I am not sure what will happen to it, I am just pleased to have secured it for future generations to enjoy. Really it should be in a museum, in my opinion the piece is that important. I’m surprised the Tate or Museum of London didn’t go for it, especially as the price wasn’t stratospheric; the mural is easily worth between £150,000 – £200,000. I represent the Michael Andrews estate so I’m glad I was able to save the work, and hopefully this will give British museums a second opportunity to purchase this iconic piece of artworld history.”

Andrews painted it over a weekend in lieu of an unpaid bar bill, from an image in a book on Bonnard which he re-interpreted. The Colony Room was founded in 1948 by Muriel Belcher, who ran the club until her death in 1979. After 60 years in the same Soho building, the lease on the site has expired and the bar is due to close at the end of December, 2008.

Since the Club was founded in 1948 the Colony Room has been an institution in London’s art scene. This tiny first floor club has played host to some of the greatest artists of the post war period most notably Francis Bacon and Lucien Freud. In more recent years Damien Hirst, Tracey Emin and Kate Moss have all been regular habitues.

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg



Source by Mike L Turner

The History of Bonsai in Buddhism

All over the world people have been growing and collecting bonsai trees as a hobby and a form of artwork. These tiny trees have long been cultivated in decorative containers, thus giving them their name; bonsai literally means tree in a pot. While many think of bonsai trees as Japanese, the art of bonsai originated in China as part of a spiritual practice linked first to Taoism, and later to Buddhism.

Bonsai was part of the ancient Chinese art of “penjing,” also know as “pun-sai,” which means the practice of creating a miniature landscape in a container. Chinese artists used plants, rocks, and other natural materials to craft tiny landscapes, often resembling sacred mountains, brooks, and other natural scenes, as well as dragons and serpents, all arranged on trays or in pots.

This practice of creating miniature landscapes and trees can be linked to China’s philosophical tradition of Taoism. Taoism proposed that thinking and living in a natural way and letting go of rigid, conventional beliefs would help one’s mind better tune in to the rhythm of nature. Being one with nature, going with the flow, and understanding how everything in life is interrelated are an integral part of Taoist teachings. The idea of yin and yang provide one example. Taoism also holds that even if something in nature is small, it will contain both power and strength if its age is advanced (and if it is confined to a small space). Bonsai trees become more valuable with age.

Monks from India brought a new influence to the Chinese Taoist tradition that became known as Chan Buddhism. Chan Buddhists began to include seedling trees in their miniature mountain landscapes. While working with natural materials, pruning and clipping the dwarf trees was part of the creative process, and Buddhist monks found themselves absorbed in a form of meditation.

Buddhism then advanced to Korea, and finally it made its way to Japan where it became known as Zen Buddhism. Diplomats traveling to China and Korea brought back Chinese art and culture to Japan, and the making of miniature landscapes, with its ties to Buddhist symbolism, was quickly adopted.

At first, it was only Japanese Buddhist monks and scholars that cultivated bonsai trees and tiny landscapes. The core of the Zen philosophy was refined to represent beauty in austerity, with all but the essentials removed to reveal the true nature of something. Ancient Japanese scrolls reveal that bonsai represented a fusion of traditional beliefs blended with other Eastern philosophies of the harmony between man, the soul, and the natural world.

By the fourteenth century bonsai was revered as an art form in Japan, and it is much represented in poetry and painting. At this point, bonsai trees were displayed indoors by the Japanese aristocracy, and the practice of creating bonsai became less associated with religion. A few centuries later, bonsai trees became commonplace amongst the general Japanese population as they are today.

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg



Source by Andrew Kozlowski

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