Fluidism Art – From Traditional To Transcendental Action Painting

New Category Of Art

The word, “fluidism”, can be used to label a distinctive category of fine art painting where both the substrate and the subject are the same. “Substrate” means the actual material from which a painting is constructed (i.e., the paint). “Subject” means the intellectual motivation from which a painting grows(i.e., the meaning, representation, or purpose).

In fluidism art, the substrate (i.e., what the painting is made of) and the subject (i.e., what the painting is about) are inseparable. The substrate IS the subject, and the subject IS the substrate. The visual and verbal appeal of fluids extends directly from physical properties, chemical characteristics, and dynamical patterns of fluids in motion. In fluidism art, both the perceptual and the conceptual appeal of fluids interact to produce deep enlightenment.

Fluidism paintng, thus, is the activity of mixing and manipulating real fluids, in order to discover, to experience, and to present fluid dynamic patterns as ephemeral forms of art.

Primal Source Of Inspiration and Intelligence

Throughout history, various artists have engaged in creative activities that fit the label, “fluidism”. More than 2000 years ago, Shinto priests of ancient China, for example, created sacred art by dropping ink into ponds and transferring the resulting concentric patterns to rice paper. Ancient Japanese artists, during the twelfth century, refined this ink-dropping style into what later came to be classified formally as suminagashi, which means “floating ink “. Craftspeople in the Ottoman Empire, during the fifteenth century, developed a closely related painting style called “ebru”, which roughly means “cloud art.”

In modern times, a technique known as “marbling” came into fashion in the West, subsequently falling out and into fashion periodically. Closer to the present-day, as the physics of fluid dynamics progressed, various science students discovered the beauty of this physics, which resulted in some scientific-minded people turning their primary interests towards the art of fluid dynamics. One such scientist-turned-artist, for example, is Chris Parks, who originally studied engineering at the Imperial College, London.

Most of the world’s religions appear to have always had a close connection to fluids that ran parallel to artistic and scientific interests. The idea that life and reality arose from fluids, in fact, seems widespread in the world’s various beliefs, from Ancient Egyptian myths to modern Judeo-Christian stories of creation.

While select artists throughout history have found great inspiration in fluids, and while modern science has made extensive use of fluid dynamical ideas, almost all religions have revered fluid as the origin and foundation of reality, as we know it.

Modern astronauts have played with fluid water in the weightlessness of outer space. Contemporary painters have played with fluid paints in the minimal-gravity conditions of parabolic airplane flights. Don Petit is one such astronaut, and Frank Pietronigro is one such painter. Both metaphysics and physics now revere fluid in each field’s own special way.

Consequently, a special word, “fluidism”, seems justified to help unify this widespread, human creative interest.

Transcendental Action Painting

American painter, Jackson Pollock (1912-1956) might best be regarded as the premier fluidism artist. Art critics of his day referred to him as an “abstract expressionist” or, more specifically, as a “drip painter” or “action painter.” Pollock, however, probably understood fully that he was not intentionally expressing anything. Rather, he was the expression itself–both the substance and the action of the expression, without any formal intentions to be either. Pollock realized that spontaneous actions could result in pleasing patterns. His dried painted patterns were frozen echoes of his once liquid actions. Pollock, thus, was an extension of the active flow of his chosen substrate (i.e., paint). He could register residual patterns of his actions in the original paint medium, because these patterns were stable while still wet. Pollock’s fluid patterns dried in almost the exact same appearances as their wet counterparts.

The advent and advancement of photography has shown clearly that some fluid patterns cannot dry in their original substrates. These fluid patterns either are too transient, or they are destroyed by drying. In other words, some visually appealing moments of wet flow cannot be preserved in the original substrates where they emerge. A bubble, for example, pops. A splashing sheet of liquid quickly moves from the air back into the mass from which it splashed. A particular collision or striation of liquid layers dissipates, before the mechanics of drying can even take hold to contain those patterns. Clearly, the idea of “painting” extends beyond the substrate of the dry painted artifact.

Photography has shown that painting is, or can be, an action where certain patterns cannot be captured, unless an artist transcends the medium in which those patterns originate. A photographic artist, thus, can capture an impression of a bubble before the bubble pops. A photographic artist can virtually freeze a flying sheet of liquid before the sheet crashes back into its mother pool. A photographic artist can immobilize a particularly appealing color collision or a particular striation of colored liquid bands, before they dissipate into homogeneous solution. Patterns once invisible because of the speed of particular actions now can be made visible by the stop-action capability of the photographic artist’s camera. Photography makes possible a class of action paintings that defy the traditional static definition of the word, “painting”.

Fluidism, then, has evolved from various traditions that involve manipulating wet liquids and allowing these liquids to dry. Fluidism has evolved into the modern pursuit of photographing manipulated liquids while they are still wet. Traditionally, only dried remnants of stable wet patterns were possible artifacts. Now virtual dried remnants (i.e., photographs) of ephemeral, impossible-to-dry patterns are possible. These are “transcendental action paintings”–profound extensions of the basic idea of “painting.”

Copyright (c) 2011 Robert G. Kernodle

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Source by Robert Kernodle

4 Useful Tips For Artists Starting Out

1. Be persistent

Building up a successful career takes a lot of time. You’re not going to become a successful artist overnight. Persistence is key. If you aren’t prepared to invest a lot of time into becoming a successful artist, it isn’t going to happen for you. It will more than likely take you a long time to get where you want to be and you will encounter bumps in the road along the way. It’s important to remain persistent even when something doesn’t happen or something turns out different to what you thought it would be. You have to be prepared for every eventuality and you have to let yourself get past any stumbling blocks.

2. Build up connections

It’s essential that you build up a network of connections if you want to become a successful artist. Build up an email list and notify your contacts whenever you have something to advertise, such as an exhibition or the fact that your work’s being featured in a magazine. Get your friends and family involved as well. Whenever someone supports you in any way by attending an exhibition or by buying one of your pieces, for example, maintain your connection with them by thanking them for supporting you. An excellent way of building up connections is to get yourself on as many social media sites as you can.

3. Put yourself out there

There’s a lot that can be gained from putting yourself out there. Do everything you can to learn about art and what it takes to become a professional artist. Take advantage of any opportunities that you think will be of help to you and your career, even if they don’t seem like much at the time. It’s going to take a while for you to get a sell-out exhibition at a top gallery. Until you can do that, make do with simply getting your work shown at smaller exhibitions. Start small and work your way up. Another good idea is to become involved with your local art scene. Attend events and get to know other artists in your area. Doing this is a really useful way of finding and establishing important connections.

4. Have a clear vision and realistic goals

It’s important to have an idea about what you want to do in your art career. Of course, this may well change over time, but as long as your vision’s clear, you can go about achieving your career goals more effectively. You stand a better chance of being successful if you offer something different from others, so have a think about what your unique selling point is. Once you’ve got a clear idea of what sets you apart from others, always bear this in mind. Be true to yourself and your unique vision. When it comes to goal setting, it’s important that you set goals you can realistically achieve. By all means, be ambitious, but don’t set your goals too high, otherwise you’ll just end up feeling frustrated and disappointed when you don’t achieve them. It’s better to achieve lots of smaller goals than not to have achieved any bigger goals.

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Source by Joanne Perkins

Which Japan Pokemon Center Generation V Plush Toys Are The Best?

In September, 2010, the Pokemon Generation V collection was released. There are approximately 155 completely new characters. They vary from previous Pokemon character designs as a new artist drew them. Although there is not much known yet about these characters, which ones seem to be the most popular?

So far only a handful of these characters have become known. Tsutarja, Pokabu, Mijumaru, Emonga, Kibago, Meguroko, Mamepato, Munna and Musharna were all made in small plush toys already, so they seem to be quite popular. Tsutarja, Pokabu and Mijumaru are probably the most popular of the characters so far. These seem to be the three main characters of the new generation V set of characters. Tsutarja is a snake, Pokabu is a pig and Mijumaru is an otter.Emonga is also quite known among children. It is some type of flying squirrel. Kio seems to be a lizard type character, Meguroko is an alligator, Mamepato is a bird and Munna and Musharna seem to be based on Tapirs.

In addition to the above 9 characters, large versions of Reshiram and Zekrom have also been made. Being the main stars of the new Pokemon Black and White video game, these two characters are black and white futurized dragon type characters. These two characters seem to resemble Digimon characters rather than pokemon, but are still hugely popular.

In October, 2010, some new characters will be revealed. I have heard that this time it will be Hiyappu, Baokki, Yanappu which are monkeys, Minezumi which is a chipmunk, Yorterrie which is a Yorkshire Terrier and Churine which is some sort of onion I believe.

In addition, there is supposed to be a larger size plush toy made of Jyanobii which is the evolved form of Tsutarja, Chaobu which is the evolved form of Pokabu, and Futachimaru which is the evolved form of Mijumaru. These are the first three of the evolved characters and should be very popular with Pokemon fans.

With so many new characters, it is hard to wonder if these will be as popular as previous versions. The older artist was so popular that this new artist has some big shoes to fill.

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Source by Tony Tanaka

Fabric Painting – A Unique Form of Painting

Fabric painting is a unique form of painting that finds vibrant expression on the fabrics. Painting on fabrics has now become a popular homemade handcraft and is practiced by many whether as a hobby or as a part of livelihood. With simple techniques and procedures alluring paintings can be carved out in an affordable cost. It is due to these reasons fabric painting has a demanding market nowadays. Here we are from ethnicpaintings to furnish interesting information on fabric painting and display some lovely paintings of this genre.

Fabric painting is used in vogue in men shirts, ladies kurties, hand bangs, cushion covers, curtains, upholsteries, wall hangings and more. You need not have to be very adept in painting to become a fabric painter. What you require are some creative skills and sound knowledge on the various methods of fabric paintings. The rest happens automatically.

Fabric painting is all about mixing colors and applying heat in proportions. The work of a fabric painter is like that of a chemist mixing colors and perceiving the reactions. The fun lies in the fact that he or she should know what amount of color and heat to use in order to create a particular form of fabric painting. The most popular forms of fabric paintings are batik painting, dyeing, shibori, silk-screening, watercolor painting and layering.

Dyeing is one of the most common and simple forms of fabric painting. In dyeing some parts of a fabric are tied and merged into colored dye solutions while some other parts are abstained from dyeing. When folded in a particular shape, this helps to form a design integrating the colored and the uncolored segments. Batik Painting made by blending wax and dye is one of the most favored among the fabric paintings. Having its origin in the Indonesian island of Java, batik painting mesmerizes with its unusual tapestry, ensemble of colors and freedom of art. In Batik painting first the fabric is waxed, then dyed and finally de-waxed. Shibori is a typical Japanese tie-dye painting that lures with its creases, pleats, stitches, loops and colorful motifs. This type of painting is a bit complex and involves a series of processes like stitching, folding, creasing, dyeing, pleating and embroidering.

For comprehensive information on paintings and related topics, please visit Ethnic Paintings.

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Source by Rajneesh Dubey

Escape the Credit Card Death Spiral

You’re burdened with crushing debt and at the end of your rope. There’s got to be a way out. You go to the door every day, expecting bad news. Your minimum credit card payments are eating up most of your paycheck every two weeks. You can’t go to dinner, go on a trip, or save for your kid’s education, and it just keeps getting worse. You’re using your credit cards for living expenses now. This really sucks!

Many people are finding themselves in this situation; the “Credit Card Death Spiral”. As the nation’s credit card burden continues to climb, the number of people facing this credit nightmare is increasing at a frightening rate. It happens for many reasons and is depressing and debilitating. Credit card companies have relaxed the initial requirements to get a card in the last few years. The change is allowing people with marginal credit scores to get a number of credit cards. In addition, many of these cards have higher credit limits than in the past. This combination has encouraged many consumers to take on much higher levels of debt than in the past.

In addition to the relaxation of credit card requirements, lenders are changing the way they do business once a consumer has the card. In the past banks and other credit card issuers would not let you charge over your credit limit. This has changed. Now, many financial institutions will accept a charge even if it puts the account over the credit limit. When the account goes over the limit, they charge a hefty fee, raise the card holder’s rate, or both. Many credit card issuers are doing this and it can raise

rates on a credit card to over 40%!

Here’s one common scenario. You have a card with a 12% rate and a $5,000.00 credit limit. Your card’s current balance is $4,475.00 and you’re picking up some clothes and school supplies at a back to school sale. You visit a few stores and pick up some items. Like most people, you don’t have your exact account balance memorized. Your last purchase takes you a just few dollars over your limit. The charge is approved anyway.

Imagine your surprise when you get your next credit card statement. Your interest rate has been raised to 30% and your minimum payment, which had been $88.00, is now $168.00.

To really pour salt in your wounds, the bank has added a $39.95 charge for exceeding your credit limit. It gets much worse. Not only does the 29% interest rate apply to the purchases you just made, it applies to your credit card’s entire balance!

This type of scenario occurs hundreds of times every day. If left unchecked, you’ll enter the “Credit Card Death Spiral” that many times ends in bankruptcy or, at least, a horrible credit picture. There are ways to escape this chain of events. One choice for many is through a debt consolidation loan.

A consolidation loan consolidates the borrower’s debts by paying off the smaller loans with one larger loan. This type of loan typically uses equity in the borrower’s home as collateral for the loan. Having a secured loan enables the interest rate to be much, much lower than the unsecured credit card loan. The lower rate creates one payment that is substantially lower than the total of the previous credit card payments.

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Source by Steve Faber

A Comprehensive Guide To Buying Your First Contemporary Paintings

While we push the youth of today towards high paying corporate jobs, and degrees that have good prospects, we cannot deny the importance of art in our lives. Whether it is in the office, at home, or even on the streets, we always stop to admire good art and the aesthetics of a place. Art has been a source of never ending satisfaction and it genuinely helps us emotionally and mentally. Art also works as good decor. Art is important, and if you recognize that, and you’re looking for the right way to purchase your first modern art paintings, then this guide should help you!

How to buy art?

You would be surprised at how much intuition actually works when buying art. But you cannot rely on just your intuition when you are searching for oil paintings. There are many facts that you need to acquaint yourself with, and above all else, you must love what you buy. Below you will find a few helpful bits of information that will help you.

• The first thing you need to know about buying canvas paintings is the name of the artist. The artist need not be recognized by the world, but he must be good and dedicated to his work. You should be able to see his passion flow his work.

• You can go through an online art exhibition to be able to browse through a number of artists and their works online, and choose someone who appeals to you. There are many up and coming artists who are making a big name for themselves online. All you have to do is take the time out to browse through properly, and find art that you love.

• If you are thinking about starting a serious collection of paintings on canvas, then you must ensure that the art has a very high resale value. This is important, if you ever feel the need to sell off the art you have collected. Considering the fact that you will be investing a lot of money in it, you should be able to get back just as much or more when you sell it.

• You should ensure that the art you buy is properly inspected. Check for any signatures, writing, the frame, and stickers – basically everything that is visible to the eye. The better the catalogue and information you find on the artist and his or her work, the more you should consider investing in them.

Finding an online art gallery as a start is pretty easy. There are many of them online and some artists are willing to create customized and unique pieces that cater to your need. So, there isn’t a shortage of information or artists thanks to the wonderful world of the internet. You can always get in touch with them, meet them if you want and get the answers to all your art questions. The most you have to do is be dedicated to your endeavor to finding the right kind of art, whether it is for your house, the office, or simply a collection that you want to start.

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Source by Yelena Dyumin

Chaos Germinates Art: Cai Guo-Qiang

Cai Guo Qiang was born in Quanzhou, Fujian Province of China in the year 1957. Cai Guo-Qiang gained an exposure to Traditional Chinese art forms and Western literature as an effect of his father’s job, who was a traditional painter and a calligrapher, and worked in a bookstore. Cai grew up in the period, which was under social tensions of the Cultural Revolution, as a teenager, Cai himself participated in the parades and various demonstrations. His memories and experiences of the various forms of explosions, such as fireworks of celebration and cannon balls, made a deep impact on his creative streak and imagination. Creating the artworks by gunpowder explosions became his signature style. It can be said that he was, in a way trying to depict the good and the bad ways in which gunpowder can be used, through his art.

“The Spring and Fall of a Small Town” and “Real Kung Fu of Shaolin” were the two martial art movies that Cai acted in the late teens and early twenties. Cai, fascinated by the effect of Western art forms and the modernity of it, enrolled into the Shanghai Theatre Academy to study stage design from 1981 to 1985. The knowledge he acquired from this gave him an understanding of the various elements and practices of the stage as well as a sense of teamwork, spatial arrangements and the importance of interactivity.

Apart from the experimentation and use of gunpowder to create his artworks, Cai worked with stick-figure as well as abstract patterns with oil during the period of the New wave of 1985, after which Cai moved to Japan when the movement gained momentum during 1986.


The theme and the subject of Cai Guo Quiang’s works draw from an array of various traditions, mainly the eastern tradition; symbols, narratives and things such as science, Chinese medicines, plants and animals, fengshui, shanshui paintings, portraiture and most importantly, fireworks. Cai draws the content of his art from the contemporary social issues, eastern philosophy and from the Maoist sentiments, that are depicted with the help of gunpowder drawings that portrays the tenet of Mao Zedong “destroy nothing, create nothing.”

When Cai has to work on a specific site, he often alludes to the history and the culture of that specific region or place where the work is to be presented. Cai, in the context of the history of Chinese contemporary art has a “”critically” important role, since he was among the first few artists who contributed by initiating the discussion of the Chinese art.

“Projects for Extraterrestrials”

With the advent of the 90s, Cai started the “Projects for Extraterrestrials”. Cai worked on the project using humongous trails and rows of flaring gunpowder spanning over huge surfaces and landscapes. These projects have been usually site-specific and were performed in various countries and locations across the world. As the name, “Project to Extend the Great Wall of China by 10,000 Meters: Project for Extraterrestrials No. 10” (1993) indicates, the project involved the use of 6 miles long fuse of gunpowder, which was stretched afar the western end of the Great Wall whence the Gobi Desert started. After ignition of the fuse it burned for 15 minutes, which created a pattern akin to a dragon, which is the symbol of ancient mythological and imperial heritage of China. The inspiration behind the title of the series’ roots from Cai’s belief in the creation of beauty and joy with the help of a earthly conflict, such as the “material fuel” to gain a higher perspective through the celebration of pure energy.

Gunpowder works

Cai wanted to break the monotony of the social climate, as well as the traditional artistic practices in China, which were more controlled and suppressed expressions of art, this he achieved with the help of gunpowder to generate spontaneity. During his stay in Japan from 1986 to 1995, Cai extensively experimented the properties of gunpowder in his artworks, which eventually prepped him to explore massive explosives and the inception of the “explosion events”. As a result of an artistic exchange between the United States and the Asian countries, promoted by an international organization called the Asian Cultural Council based in New York, Cai moved to New York in 1995.

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Source by Siddiqua Fatimah

History of Kokeshi Wooden Dolls from Japan

Little is known of the early history of Kokeshi Japanese Wooden Dolls. One school of thought believes that Kokeshi dolls have their origins in the practice of spiritualist religion. Wooden dolls were thought to contain the spiritual essence of the dead and were often made for honorary remembrance.

The modern history of Japanese Kokeshi dolls began in the latter part of the Edo Era (1603-1867). Originating in the Tohiku region of northern Japan, famous for it’s hot springs and rejuvenating spa waters, Kokeshi Dolls acted as an important source of extra income for local artisans known as Kijiya (which means woodworker in Japanese), who specialised in wood work and the production of household utensils such as trays and wooden bowls. In severe winters these Kijiya craftsmen began making “Kokeshi Dolls” to sell as souvenirs to visitors who frequented the local hot springs. The dolls acted not only as souvenirs but also as massage tools used by the bathers to tap their shoulders whilst enjoying the warming benefits of the hot springs.

The Kokeshi dolls were very simple in design, originally made on hand-powered lathes. Traditional Kokeshi dolls had common characteristics that consisted of a basic cylindrical limbless body and a round head. Though the first dolls might have been unpainted, today most Kokeshi are painted in bright floral designs, kimonos, and other traditional patterns. Colors used were red, yellow and purple. As all the dolls are hand painted, no two faces are alike. This is perhaps the greatest charm of the Kokeshi. Some dolls are whimsical, happy and smiling, while others are serious.

Soon their popularity spread throughout Japan and they became favoured as wooden toys for those unable to afford porcelain dolls. In addition the simple rounded shapes of the dolls lent themselves as early teething rings for young babies.

Kokeshi dolls traditionally represented young girls and they quickly became popular for their depiction of feminine beauty. In addition their simple charm and association with childhood meant that they were often given as gifts when a child was born, as birthday presents or as symbols of remembrance when a child died. In addition Kokeshi Japanese Wooden Dolls were popular with the children of farmers as it was widely thought that they would promise a good harvest, as it was believed that it would create a positive impression on the gods if children played with the dolls.

The woods used for Kokeshi vary. Cherry is distinguished by its darkness. Mizuko or dogwood is softer and used extensively. Itaya-kaede, a Japanese maple is also used. The wood is left outdoors to season for one to five years before it can be used to make a doll. Today, Kokeshi is recognized as one of the traditional folk arts of Japan.

Despite their common features two schools of design exist, Traditional Kokeshi and Creative Kokeshi.

Traditional Kokeshi are for the main part still only produced in the six prefectures of the Tohoku region. The twelve schools of design here all exhibit distinctive features that allow experts to tell exactly where they have been produced and often by whom.

Creative Kokeshi do not follow the traditional designs originating from the Tohoku region and instead have an unstructured inspiration which is completely free in terms of shape and painting, the only traditional constraint being their manufacture by means of the lathe. Unlike traditional kokeshi, they do not display any of their distinctive local colour nor the techniques that had been passed down through the generations. They simply represent the creative thought and ability of the craftsman.

Traditional and Creative crafted dolls have become a cause for celebration in Tohoku and across Japan. Every year, in early September, people gather in Naruko Onsen where craftsmen from across the nation gather to honor Kokeshi in a competition where the number one prize is an award from the Prime Minister.

There are many different styles of Kokeshi, but there is one philosophy that all Kokeshi dolls share, and that is the pursuit of beauty and artistry through simplicity. This philosophy is extolled at the website: http://www.dollsofjapan.co.uk

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Source by Ivor Conway

Should Your Child Attend Art School?

Why send your child to Art School?

Should your child take an art class? Any educator will tell you yes! Finding the right art school can encourage many other skills in your child besides learning how to draw.

What a Art School can do for your child:

· Teach cognitive skills. Art classes use many different mediums, from painting and drawing to scissors, glue and sculpture giving little hands a chance to explore!

· Encourage self-expression. A shy or timid child may find art classes to be the one place they can truly express themselves. A Singapore art school should be staffed with helpful and caring teachers, who will understand your child and tailor the program for them.

· Build confidence. There is no right or wrong in creative art and a timid child can quickly learn that their creation has as much value in the class as any one else’s.

· Group classes teach leadership and teamwork skills. Having to work together on an art project stimulates these important life skills in a fun way.

· Completing projects in art classes. This encourages the child to follow through and gives them a feeling of accomplishment and success.

· Art is a global language. The right art school will expand your child’s horizon’s introducing them to art from cultures around the world

· Teach children to see the world around them. Learning the fundamentals of art can show a child how to see their everyday world in a new and beautiful way, from the different colors they learn to how shadow and light create shapes.

Art is one of the earliest forms of human expression. Enrolling your child in an Art School will encourage your child’s natural ability and can only help in other subjects, such as math and science, where creative thinking is also needed to succeed.

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Source by Jealina Chiang

Japanese Samurai Swords – A Brief History (I)

The first proofs of the existence of samurai swords in Japan date from 240 BC, during the Yayoi period, when the queen Himeko sent a tribute to the Chinese dynasty Wei, two swords. In the same time, in 280 BC, they imported numerous iron swords from China. It is supposed that the art of forging the steel came immediately after that from China, through Korea, but the details are still unknown.

In the 5th century the first samurai katana sword appeared on a major scale. They were straight and they were called chokuto. The method of hardening the steel, very specific in Japan, as far as the manufacturing of the swords is concerned, was used for the first time in the 6th century. The period of the straight swords lasted until the beginning of the Heian period (the 8th century), when the fighting style changed, and the fight on horseback became predominant. In order to cope the use of swords with horse riding, they became curve, longer, having a single blade, too, being called tachi. Between chokuto and tachi there are more intermediary styles, the most popular being kogarasumaru (short sword, having two sharp edges) and kenukigatatachi. The term Nipponto or Nihonto (which means “Japanese sword”) refers to curve swords.

Heian period, which is considered the starting point of the history of Japanese swords, is characterized by the fact that many ideologies were imported from China and they were modified so that they become Japanese. Most of the things which we consider nowadays specific to Japan, appeared during this period. During this period, too, appeared the idea of manufacturing swords by smithing, so that the outer surface was rough and the core was soft.

The folded steel samurai swords manufactured and used during this period belong to the class tachi. In the same time, during this period occurred the habit of signing on the sword blades, therefore probably, the oldest tachi sword bears the signature of its manufacturer: Sanjo Munechika, and the oldest Japanese sword which was signed, and which also bears the date of its manufacturing, was made by Namihira Yukimasa.

The defeat of the Taira clan by Minamoto no Yoritomo was the event which marks the beginning of the period Kamakura, but in the same time, it is the event which marks the taking over of the power by the samurai warrior class. It is said that this is the golden period of the Japanese swords, and they became better and better from all the points of view, including the aesthetic one. A characteristic of the swords belonging to that period is the width of the blade – bigger that in the previous period, a small difference between the width of the blade at its base and at its end, and the shape of its end, which most of the times belonged to the ikubi type(which means ,,bull nape”).

Towards the end of the Kamakura period, two Mongol invasions took place (1274 and 1281). The discovery of new samurai weapons, technologies and strategies, proved some weak points of the tachi swords, for example the fact that the end of the blade could be easily broken and it couldn’t be repaired. These experiences accumulated during the battles, affected the future design of the swords.

When the power of the Kamakura shogunate dropped down, the imperial court took the leadership over again, but for a short time – at the beginning of the Muromachi period.

This period is characterized by an almost continuous war. The historic conditions determined in this case the growing in importance of the foot soldier, and in the same time the occurrence of long swords, for both hands, used for powerful, devastating strikes.

Immobilienmakler Heidelberg

Makler Heidelberg

Source by Dave Lorrez

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